# Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Relay Network: Proposed Model and Application of Power Splitting Multiple Access

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Related Work

#### 1.2. Motivation and Contribution

- A dynamic multi-antenna satellite-terrestrial relay communication design was considered. The terrestrial relay is able to harvest energy from the RF signal from the satellite and use it to forward the message to users. As main kind of NOMA, i.e., power splitting multiple access, is studied. The wireless channel between relay and NOMA users experiences Nakagami-m fading which is more versatile than conventionally used Rayleigh fading.
- The closed-form expressions of outage probabilities of AF and DF relays are provided once Shadowed-Rician fading model is applied for satellite link. In addition to this, the analytical expressions of ergodic capacities are provided.
- Extensive simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy of derived expression. The obtained results are also compared with the conventional OMA approach to highlight the performance gains.

#### 1.3. Organization

## 2. System Model

#### 2.1. DF Protocol

#### 2.2. AF Protocol

## 3. Performance Analysis of NOMA-Enabled HSTRNs

#### 3.1. Channel Model

#### 3.2. Outage Probability

#### 3.2.1. DF Protocol

**Proposition**

**1.**

**Proof.**

#### 3.2.2. AF Protocol

**Proposition**

**2.**

**Proof.**

#### 3.3. Ergodic Capacity

#### 3.3.1. DF Protocol

#### 3.3.2. AF Protocol

## 4. Numerical and Simulation Results

## 5. Discussion

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A. Proof of Proposition 1

## Appendix B. Proof of Proposition 2

## References

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**Figure 7.**The ergodic capacity versus transmit SNR with different values of ${R}_{th}$, where $\zeta =0.01$, $\vartheta =0.1$, $\delta =0.1$, $\eta =0.9$ and $m=1$.

**Figure 8.**Ergodic capacity versus transmit SNR with different values of, where $\zeta =0.01$, $\vartheta =0.1$, $\delta =0.1$, $\eta =0.9$ and $m=1$.

Symbol | Description |
---|---|

${\mathsf{\Xi}}_{i}$ | The power allocation coefficient $i\in \{1,2\}$ |

${P}_{S}$ | The transmit power at S |

${P}_{R}$ | The transmit power at R |

${n}_{R}$ | The AWGN with variance ${N}_{0}$ |

${n}_{{D}_{i}}$ | The AWGN with variance ${N}_{0}$ |

$\eta $ | The energy conversion efficiency and $\eta \in \left(0,1\right]$ |

$\chi $ | The power splitting factor |

T | The time duration |

${R}_{i}$ | The target rate at ${D}_{i}$ |

Definition | Values |
---|---|

Monte Carlo simulations repeated | ${10}^{6}$ iterations |

Power allocation coefficients | ${\mathsf{\Xi}}_{1}=0.8$ and ${\mathsf{\Xi}}_{2}=0.2$ |

Target rate | ${R}_{1}=0.5$ and ${R}_{2}=1$(BPCU) in which BPCU is short for bit per channel use. |

The average shadowing (AS) | $({m}_{SR}=5,{b}_{SR}=0.251,{\Omega}_{SR}=0.279)$ |

The heavy shadowing (HS) | $({m}_{SR}=1,{b}_{SR}=0.063,{\Omega}_{SR}=0.0007)$ |

The energy conversion efficiency | $\eta =0.9$ |

The power splitting factor | $\chi =0.1$ |

The factor and mean of ${D}_{i}$ | ${\Omega}_{1}={\Omega}_{2}=1$ and ${m}_{1}={m}_{2}=1$ |

The antennas of satellite and ${D}_{i}$ | $M=1$ and ${N}_{i}=1$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Do, D.-T.; Le, A.-T.; Kharel, R.; Silva, A.; Shattal, M.A. Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Relay Network: Proposed Model and Application of Power Splitting Multiple Access. *Sensors* **2020**, *20*, 4296.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154296

**AMA Style**

Do D-T, Le A-T, Kharel R, Silva A, Shattal MA. Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Relay Network: Proposed Model and Application of Power Splitting Multiple Access. *Sensors*. 2020; 20(15):4296.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154296

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Do, Dinh-Thuan, Anh-Tu Le, Rupak Kharel, Adão Silva, and Mohammad Abu Shattal. 2020. "Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Relay Network: Proposed Model and Application of Power Splitting Multiple Access" *Sensors* 20, no. 15: 4296.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154296