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Sensors, Volume 17, Issue 5 (May 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Amputation of a hand or limb is a catastrophic event resulting in significant disability with major [...] Read more.
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Dual-Polarization Observations of Slowly Varying Solar Emissions from a Mobile X-Band Radar
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051185
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1372 | PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The radio noise that comes from the Sun has been reported in literature as a reference signal to check the quality of dual-polarization weather radar receivers for the S-band and C-band. In most cases, the focus was on relative calibration: horizontal and vertical [...] Read more.
The radio noise that comes from the Sun has been reported in literature as a reference signal to check the quality of dual-polarization weather radar receivers for the S-band and C-band. In most cases, the focus was on relative calibration: horizontal and vertical polarizations were evaluated versus the reference signal mainly in terms of standard deviation of the difference. This means that the investigated radar receivers were able to reproduce the slowly varying component of the microwave signal emitted by the Sun. A novel method, aimed at the absolute calibration of dual-polarization receivers, has recently been presented and applied for the C-band. This method requires the antenna beam axis to be pointed towards the center of the Sun for less than a minute. Standard deviations of the difference as low as 0.1 dB have been found for the Swiss radars. As far as the absolute calibration is concerned, the average differences were of the order of −0.6 dB (after noise subtraction). The method has been implemented on a mobile, X-band radar, and this paper presents the successful results that were obtained during the 2016 field campaign in Payerne (Switzerland). Despite a relatively poor Sun-to-Noise ratio, the “small” (~0.4 dB) amplitude of the slowly varying emission was captured and reproduced; the standard deviation of the difference between the radar and the reference was ~0.2 dB. The absolute calibration of the vertical and horizontal receivers was satisfactory. After the noise subtraction and atmospheric correction a, the mean difference was close to 0 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Techniques for the Detection of Organisms in Aquatic Environments, with Emphasis on Harmful Algal Bloom Species
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051184
Received: 2 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2090 | PDF Full-text (2989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular techniques to detect organisms in aquatic ecosystems are being gradually considered as an attractive alternative to standard laboratory methods. They offer faster and more accurate means of detecting and monitoring species, with respect to their traditional homologues based on culture and microscopic [...] Read more.
Molecular techniques to detect organisms in aquatic ecosystems are being gradually considered as an attractive alternative to standard laboratory methods. They offer faster and more accurate means of detecting and monitoring species, with respect to their traditional homologues based on culture and microscopic counting. Molecular techniques are particularly attractive when multiple species need to be detected and/or are in very low abundance. This paper reviews molecular techniques based on whole cells, such as microscope-based enumeration and Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and molecular cell-free formats, such as sandwich hybridization assay (SHA), biosensors, microarrays, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and real time PCR (RT-PCR). Those that combine one or several laboratory functions into a single integrated system (lab-on-a-chip) and techniques that generate a much higher throughput data, such as next-generation systems (NGS), were also reviewed. We also included some other approaches that enhance the performance of molecular techniques. For instance, nano-bioengineered probes and platforms, pre-concentration and magnetic separation systems, and solid-phase hybridization offer highly pre-concentration capabilities. Isothermal amplification and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) improve hybridization and amplification techniques. Finally, we presented a study case of field remote sensing of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the only example of real time monitoring, and close the discussion with future directions and concluding remarks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genosensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Pseudorange Measurement Method Based on AIS Signals
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051183
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1677 | PDF Full-text (4950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to use the existing automatic identification system (AIS) to provide additional navigation and positioning services, a complete pseudorange measurements solution is presented in this paper. Through the mathematical analysis of the AIS signal, the bit-0-phases in the digital sequences were determined [...] Read more.
In order to use the existing automatic identification system (AIS) to provide additional navigation and positioning services, a complete pseudorange measurements solution is presented in this paper. Through the mathematical analysis of the AIS signal, the bit-0-phases in the digital sequences were determined as the timestamps. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to compare the accuracy of the zero-crossing and differential peak, which are two timestamp detection methods in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Considering the low-speed and low-dynamic motion characteristics of ships, an optimal estimation method based on the minimum mean square error is proposed to improve detection accuracy. Furthermore, the α difference filter algorithm was used to achieve the fusion of the optimal estimation results of the two detection methods. The results show that the algorithm can greatly improve the accuracy of pseudorange estimation under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. In order to verify the effectiveness of the scheme, prototypes containing the measurement scheme were developed and field tests in Xinghai Bay of Dalian (China) were performed. The test results show that the pseudorange measurement accuracy was better than 28 m (σ) without any modification of the existing AIS system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid-Aware Model for Senior Wellness Service in Smart Home
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051182
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2253 | PDF Full-text (2930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart home technology with situation-awareness is important for seniors to improve safety and security. With the development of context-aware computing, wearable sensor technology, and ubiquitous computing, it is easier for seniors to manage their health problem in smart home environment. For monitoring senior [...] Read more.
Smart home technology with situation-awareness is important for seniors to improve safety and security. With the development of context-aware computing, wearable sensor technology, and ubiquitous computing, it is easier for seniors to manage their health problem in smart home environment. For monitoring senior activity in smart home, wearable, and motion sensors—such as respiration rate (RR), electrocardiography (ECG), body temperature, and blood pressure (BP)—were used for monitoring movements of seniors. For context-awareness, environmental sensors—such as gas, fire, smoke, dust, temperature, and light sensors—were used for senior location data collection. Based on senior activity, senior health status can be classified into positive and negative. Based on senior location and time, senior safety is classified into safe and emergency. In this paper, we propose a hybrid inspection service middleware for monitoring elderly health risk based on senior activity and location. This hybrid-aware model for the detection of abnormal status of seniors has four steps as follows: (1) data collection from biosensors and environmental sensors; (2) monitoring senior location and time of stay in each location using environmental sensors; (3) monitoring senior activity using biometric data; finally, (4) expectation-maximization based decision-making step recommending proper treatment based on a senior health risk ratio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Analysis of Flow Shaping in Ethernet-AVB/TSN and AFDX from Network Calculus and Simulation Perspective
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051181
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1925 | PDF Full-text (3003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethernet-AVB/TSN (Audio Video Bridging/Time-Sensitive Networking) and AFDX (Avionics Full DupleX switched Ethernet) are switched Ethernet technologies, which are both candidates for real-time communication in the context of transportation systems. AFDX implements a fixed priority scheduling strategy with two priority levels. Ethernet-AVB/TSN supports a [...] Read more.
Ethernet-AVB/TSN (Audio Video Bridging/Time-Sensitive Networking) and AFDX (Avionics Full DupleX switched Ethernet) are switched Ethernet technologies, which are both candidates for real-time communication in the context of transportation systems. AFDX implements a fixed priority scheduling strategy with two priority levels. Ethernet-AVB/TSN supports a similar fixed priority scheduling with an additional Credit-Based Shaper (CBS) mechanism. Besides, TSN can support time-triggered scheduling strategy. One direct effect of CBS mechanism is to increase the delay of its flows while decreasing the delay of other priority ones. The former effect can be seen as the shaping restriction and the latter effect can be seen as the shaping benefit from CBS. The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of CBS on different priority flows, especially on the intermediate priority ones, as well as the effect of CBS bandwidth allocation. It is based on a performance comparison of AVB/TSN and AFDX by simulation in an automotive case study. Furthermore, the shaping benefit is modeled based on integral operation from network calculus perspective. Combing with the analysis of shaping restriction and shaping benefit, some configuration suggestions on the setting of CBS bandwidth are given. Results show that the effect of CBS depends on flow loads and CBS configurations. A larger load of high priority flows in AVB tends to a better performance for the intermediate priority flows when compared with AFDX. Shaping benefit can be explained and calculated according to the changing from the permitted maximum burst. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current and Potential Developments of Cortisol Aptasensing towards Point-of-Care Diagnostics (POTC)
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051180
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1661 | PDF Full-text (2128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anxiety is a psychological problem that often emerges during the normal course of human life. The detection of anxiety often involves a physical exam and a self-reporting questionnaire. However, these approaches have limitations, as the data might lack reliability and consistency upon application [...] Read more.
Anxiety is a psychological problem that often emerges during the normal course of human life. The detection of anxiety often involves a physical exam and a self-reporting questionnaire. However, these approaches have limitations, as the data might lack reliability and consistency upon application to the same population over time. Furthermore, there might be varying understanding and interpretations of the particular question by the participant, which necessitating the approach of using biomarker-based measurement for stress diagnosis. The most prominent biomarker related to stress, hormone cortisol, plays a key role in the fight-or-flight situation, alters the immune response, and suppresses the digestive and the reproductive systems. We have taken the endeavour to review the available aptamer-based biosensor (aptasensor) for cortisol detection. The potential point-of-care diagnostic strategies that could be harnessed for the aptasensing of cortisol were also envisaged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptasensors 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051179
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433 | PDF Full-text (2530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines [...] Read more.
In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Damage Localisation with Piezoelectric Sensors under Operational and Environmental Conditions
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051178
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2114 | PDF Full-text (12722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Guided-wave structural health monitoring (SHM) systems with piezoelectric sensors are investigated for localisation of barely visible impact damage in CFRP plates under vibration and different thermal conditions. A single baseline set is used in a delay-and-sum algorithm with temperature correction for damage localisation [...] Read more.
Guided-wave structural health monitoring (SHM) systems with piezoelectric sensors are investigated for localisation of barely visible impact damage in CFRP plates under vibration and different thermal conditions. A single baseline set is used in a delay-and-sum algorithm with temperature correction for damage localisation in a large temperature range. Damage localisation is also demonstrated under transient thermal conditions, with signals recorded while the temperature is rapidly decreased. Damage severity due to successive impact events is studied under constant temperature. Damage is also localised when the plate is subjected to random vibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Technologies for Health Monitoring of Composite Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Video Segmentation by Fusing Depth Cues and the Visual Background Extractor (ViBe) Algorithm
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051177
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2171 | PDF Full-text (6198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Depth-sensing technology has led to broad applications of inexpensive depth cameras that can capture human motion and scenes in three-dimensional space. Background subtraction algorithms can be improved by fusing color and depth cues, thereby allowing many issues encountered in classical color segmentation to [...] Read more.
Depth-sensing technology has led to broad applications of inexpensive depth cameras that can capture human motion and scenes in three-dimensional space. Background subtraction algorithms can be improved by fusing color and depth cues, thereby allowing many issues encountered in classical color segmentation to be solved. In this paper, we propose a new fusion method that combines depth and color information for foreground segmentation based on an advanced color-based algorithm. First, a background model and a depth model are developed. Then, based on these models, we propose a new updating strategy that can eliminate ghosting and black shadows almost completely. Extensive experiments have been performed to compare the proposed algorithm with other, conventional RGB-D (Red-Green-Blue and Depth) algorithms. The experimental results suggest that our method extracts foregrounds with higher effectiveness and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Video Analysis and Tracking Using State-of-the-Art Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cuffless Blood Pressure Measurement Based on the Impedance Plethysmography Technique
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051176
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2453 | PDF Full-text (8267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade, cuffless blood pressure measurement technology has been widely studied because it could be applied to a wearable apparatus. Electrocardiography (ECG), photo-plethysmography (PPG), and phonocardiography are always used to detect the pulse transit time (PTT) because the changed tendencies of [...] Read more.
In the last decade, cuffless blood pressure measurement technology has been widely studied because it could be applied to a wearable apparatus. Electrocardiography (ECG), photo-plethysmography (PPG), and phonocardiography are always used to detect the pulse transit time (PTT) because the changed tendencies of the PTT and blood pressure have a negative relationship. In this study, the PPG signal was replaced by the impedance plethysmography (IPG) signal and was used to detect the PTT. The placement and direction of the electrode array for the IPG measurement were discussed. Then, we designed an IPG ring that could measure an accurate IPG signal. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The changes in blood pressure after exercise were evaluated through the changes of the PTT. The results showed that the change of the systolic pressure had a better relationship with the change of the PTTIPG than that of the PTTPPG (r = 0.700 vs. r = 0.450). Moreover, the IPG ring with spot electrodes would be more suitable to develop with the wearable cuffless blood pressure monitor than the PPG sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable and Ambient Sensors for Healthcare and Wellness Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Stretchable Electromagnetic Absorber Fabricated Using Screen Printing Technology
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051175
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1677 | PDF Full-text (5032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A stretchable electromagnetic absorber fabricated using screen printing technology is proposed in this paper. We used a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate to fabricate the stretchable absorber since PDMS exhibits good dielectric properties, flexibility, and restoring capabilities. DuPont PE872 (DuPont, Wilmington, CT, USA), a stretchable [...] Read more.
A stretchable electromagnetic absorber fabricated using screen printing technology is proposed in this paper. We used a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate to fabricate the stretchable absorber since PDMS exhibits good dielectric properties, flexibility, and restoring capabilities. DuPont PE872 (DuPont, Wilmington, CT, USA), a stretchable silver conductive ink, was used for the screen printing technique. The reflection coefficient of the absorber was measured using a vector network analyzer and a waveguide. The proposed absorber was designed as a rectangular patch unit cell, wherein the top of the unit cell acted as the patch and the bottom formed the ground. The size of the patch was 8 mm × 7 mm. The prototype of the absorber consisted of two unit cells such that it fits into the WR-90 waveguide (dimensions: 22.86 mm × 10.16 mm) for experimental measurement. Before stretching the absorber, the resonant frequency was 11 GHz. When stretched along the x-direction, the resonant frequency shifted by 0.1 GHz, from 11 to 10.9 GHz, demonstrating 99% absorption. Furthermore, when stretched along the y-direction, the resonant frequency shifted by 0.6 GHz, from 11 to 10.4 GHz, demonstrating 99% absorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
AEKF-SLAM: A New Algorithm for Robotic Underwater Navigation
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051174
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3076 | PDF Full-text (5969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we focus on key topics related to underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) applications. Moreover, a detailed review of major studies in the literature and our proposed solutions for addressing the problem are presented. The main goal of this paper [...] Read more.
In this work, we focus on key topics related to underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) applications. Moreover, a detailed review of major studies in the literature and our proposed solutions for addressing the problem are presented. The main goal of this paper is the enhancement of the accuracy and robustness of the SLAM-based navigation problem for underwater robotics with low computational costs. Therefore, we present a new method called AEKF-SLAM that employs an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-based SLAM approach stores the robot poses and map landmarks in a single state vector, while estimating the state parameters via a recursive and iterative estimation-update process. Hereby, the prediction and update state (which exist as well in the conventional EKF) are complemented by a newly proposed augmentation stage. Applied to underwater robot navigation, the AEKF-SLAM has been compared with the classic and popular FastSLAM 2.0 algorithm. Concerning the dense loop mapping and line mapping experiments, it shows much better performances in map management with respect to landmark addition and removal, which avoid the long-term accumulation of errors and clutters in the created map. Additionally, the underwater robot achieves more precise and efficient self-localization and a mapping of the surrounding landmarks with much lower processing times. Altogether, the presented AEKF-SLAM method achieves reliably map revisiting, and consistent map upgrading on loop closure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Eyes of Things
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051173
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6325 | PDF Full-text (11623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity [...] Read more.
Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous “intelligence”. Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV), i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT) platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterizing Dynamic Walking Patterns and Detecting Falls with Wearable Sensors Using Gaussian Process Methods
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051172
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1835 | PDF Full-text (1967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By incorporating a growing number of sensors and adopting machine learning technologies, wearable devices have recently become a prominent health care application domain. Among the related research topics in this field, one of the most important issues is detecting falls while walking. Since [...] Read more.
By incorporating a growing number of sensors and adopting machine learning technologies, wearable devices have recently become a prominent health care application domain. Among the related research topics in this field, one of the most important issues is detecting falls while walking. Since such falls may lead to serious injuries, automatically and promptly detecting them during daily use of smartphones and/or smart watches is a particular need. In this paper, we investigate the use of Gaussian process (GP) methods for characterizing dynamic walking patterns and detecting falls while walking with built-in wearable sensors in smartphones and/or smartwatches. For the task of characterizing dynamic walking patterns in a low-dimensional latent feature space, we propose a novel approach called auto-encoded Gaussian process dynamical model, in which we combine a GP-based state space modeling method with a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method in a unique manner. The Gaussian process methods are fit for this task because one of the most import strengths of the Gaussian process methods is its capability of handling uncertainty in the model parameters. Also for detecting falls while walking, we propose to recycle the latent samples generated in training the auto-encoded Gaussian process dynamical model for GP-based novelty detection, which can lead to an efficient and seamless solution to the detection task. Experimental results show that the combined use of these GP-based methods can yield promising results for characterizing dynamic walking patterns and detecting falls while walking with the wearable sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable and Ambient Sensors for Healthcare and Wellness Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Bodily Expression Support for Creative Dance Education by Grasping-Type Musical Interface with Embedded Motion and Grasp Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051171
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1619 | PDF Full-text (4794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dance has been made mandatory as one of the physical education courses in Japan because it can cultivate capacities for expression and communication. Among several types of dance education, creative dance especially contributes to the cultivation of these capacities. However, creative dance requires [...] Read more.
Dance has been made mandatory as one of the physical education courses in Japan because it can cultivate capacities for expression and communication. Among several types of dance education, creative dance especially contributes to the cultivation of these capacities. However, creative dance requires some level of particular skills, as well as creativity, and it is difficult to presuppose these pre-requisites in beginner-level dancers without experience. We propose a novel supporting device for dance beginners to encourage creative dance performance by continuously generating musical sounds in real-time in accordance with their bodily movements. It has embedded sensors developed for this purpose. Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the device were conducted with ten beginner-level dancers. Using the proposed device, the subjects demonstrated enhanced creative dance movements with greater variety, evaluated in terms of Laban dance movement description. Also, using the device, they performed with better accuracy and repeatability in a task where they produced an imagined circular trajectory by hand. The proposed interface is effective in terms of creative dance activity and accuracy of motion generation for beginner-level dancers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Low-Complexity DOA and Polarization Method of Polarization-Sensitive Array
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051170
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1205 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a low-complexity method to estimate the direction of arrival and polarization based on the polarization sensitive array (PSA) which is composed of cross-dipoles. We built a half-quaternions model through the Cayley–Dickson form to remove the redundant information. Then, the directions [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a low-complexity method to estimate the direction of arrival and polarization based on the polarization sensitive array (PSA) which is composed of cross-dipoles. We built a half-quaternions model through the Cayley–Dickson form to remove the redundant information. Then, the directions of arrival (DOAs) were estimated via the root-MUSIC algorithm. Finally, the polarizations were estimated by generalized eigenvalue method. Unlike some existing searching algorithms, such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC), this method can avoid the peak searching and maintains high estimation accuracy. Moreover, we use the oblique projection operators to filter out the interference signals which are decoys of the target signal. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and favorable performance of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fully-Polymeric pH Sensor Realized by Means of a Single-Step Soft Embossing Technique
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1169; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051169
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1618 | PDF Full-text (2167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We present here an electrochemical sensor microsystem for the monitoring of pH. The all-polymeric device is comprised of a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate, a 200 nm-thin patterned layer of conductive polymer (PEDOT), and a 70 nm electropolymerized layer of a pH sensitive conductive [...] Read more.
We present here an electrochemical sensor microsystem for the monitoring of pH. The all-polymeric device is comprised of a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate, a 200 nm-thin patterned layer of conductive polymer (PEDOT), and a 70 nm electropolymerized layer of a pH sensitive conductive polymer (polyaniline). The patterning of the fluidic (microfluidic channels) and conductive (wiring and electrodes) functional elements was achieved with a single soft PDMS mold via a single embossing step process. A post-processing treatment with ethylene glycol assured the functional enhancement of the electrodes, as demonstrated via an electrical and electrochemical characterization. A surface modification of the electrodes was carried out, based on voltammetric electropolymerization, to obtain a thin layer of polyaniline. The mechanism for pH sensing is based on the redox reactions of the polyaniline layer caused by protonation. The sensing performance of the microsystem was finally validated by monitoring its potentiometric response upon exposure to a relevant range of pH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Virtual-Lattice Based Intrusion Detection Algorithm over Actuator-Assisted Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051168
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 14 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1771 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the lack of a physical line of defense, intrusion detection becomes one of the key issues in applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), especially when the confidentiality has prime importance. However, the resource-constrained property of UWSNs such as sparse deployment [...] Read more.
Due to the lack of a physical line of defense, intrusion detection becomes one of the key issues in applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), especially when the confidentiality has prime importance. However, the resource-constrained property of UWSNs such as sparse deployment and energy constraint makes intrusion detection a challenging issue. This paper considers a virtual-lattice-based approach to the intrusion detection problem in UWSNs. Different from most existing works, the UWSNs consist of two kinds of nodes, i.e., sensor nodes (SNs), which cannot move autonomously, and actuator nodes (ANs), which can move autonomously according to the performance requirement. With the cooperation of SNs and ANs, the intruder detection probability is defined. Then, a virtual lattice-based monitor (VLM) algorithm is proposed to detect the intruder. In order to reduce the redundancy of communication links and improve detection probability, an optimal and coordinative lattice-based monitor patrolling (OCLMP) algorithm is further provided for UWSNs, wherein an equal price search strategy is given for ANs to find the shortest patrolling path. Under VLM and OCLMP algorithms, the detection probabilities are calculated, while the topology connectivity can be guaranteed. Finally, simulation results are presented to show that the proposed method in this paper can improve the detection accuracy and save the energy consumption compared with the conventional methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PHROG: A Multimodal Feature for Place Recognition
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051167
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1620 | PDF Full-text (5231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long-term place recognition in outdoor environments remains a challenge due to high appearance changes in the environment. The problem becomes even more difficult when the matching between two scenes has to be made with information coming from different visual sources, particularly with different [...] Read more.
Long-term place recognition in outdoor environments remains a challenge due to high appearance changes in the environment. The problem becomes even more difficult when the matching between two scenes has to be made with information coming from different visual sources, particularly with different spectral ranges. For instance, an infrared camera is helpful for night vision in combination with a visible camera. In this paper, we emphasize our work on testing usual feature point extractors under both constraints: repeatability across spectral ranges and long-term appearance. We develop a new feature extraction method dedicated to improve the repeatability across spectral ranges. We conduct an evaluation of feature robustness on long-term datasets coming from different imaging sources (optics, sensors size and spectral ranges) with a Bag-of-Words approach. The tests we perform demonstrate that our method brings a significant improvement on the image retrieval issue in a visual place recognition context, particularly when there is a need to associate images from various spectral ranges such as infrared and visible: we have evaluated our approach using visible, Near InfraRed (NIR), Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) and Long Wavelength InfraRed (LWIR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
The Boom in 3D-Printed Sensor Technology
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051166
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4994 | PDF Full-text (9072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Future sensing applications will include high-performance features, such as toxin detection, real-time monitoring of physiological events, advanced diagnostics, and connected feedback. However, such multi-functional sensors require advancements in sensitivity, specificity, and throughput with the simultaneous delivery of multiple detection in a short time. [...] Read more.
Future sensing applications will include high-performance features, such as toxin detection, real-time monitoring of physiological events, advanced diagnostics, and connected feedback. However, such multi-functional sensors require advancements in sensitivity, specificity, and throughput with the simultaneous delivery of multiple detection in a short time. Recent advances in 3D printing and electronics have brought us closer to sensors with multiplex advantages, and additive manufacturing approaches offer a new scope for sensor fabrication. To this end, we review the recent advances in 3D-printed cutting-edge sensors. These achievements demonstrate the successful application of 3D-printing technology in sensor fabrication, and the selected studies deeply explore the potential for creating sensors with higher performance. Further development of multi-process 3D printing is expected to expand future sensor utility and availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanofabrication Technologies for Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview
Multispectral, Fluorescent and Photoplethysmographic Imaging for Remote Skin Assessment
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051165
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2312 | PDF Full-text (11177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical tissue imaging has several advantages over the routine clinical imaging methods, including non-invasiveness (it does not change the structure of tissues), remote operation (it avoids infections) and the ability to quantify the tissue condition by means of specific image parameters. Dermatologists and [...] Read more.
Optical tissue imaging has several advantages over the routine clinical imaging methods, including non-invasiveness (it does not change the structure of tissues), remote operation (it avoids infections) and the ability to quantify the tissue condition by means of specific image parameters. Dermatologists and other skin experts need compact (preferably pocket-size), self-sustaining and easy-to-use imaging devices. The operational principles and designs of ten portable in-vivo skin imaging prototypes developed at the Biophotonics Laboratory of Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia during the recent five years are presented in this paper. Four groups of imaging devices are considered. Multi-spectral imagers offer possibilities for distant mapping of specific skin parameters, thus facilitating better diagnostics of skin malformations. Autofluorescence intensity and photobleaching rate imagers show a promising potential for skin tumor identification and margin delineation. Photoplethysmography video-imagers ensure remote detection of cutaneous blood pulsations and can provide real-time information on cardiovascular parameters and anesthesia efficiency. Multimodal skin imagers perform several of the abovementioned functions by taking a number of spectral and video images with the same image sensor. Design details of the developed prototypes and results of clinical tests illustrating their functionality are presented and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Design of Next-Generation Head-Mounted Ambulatory Microdose Positron-Emission Tomography (AM-PET) System
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051164
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2386 | PDF Full-text (4008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient’s head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different [...] Read more.
Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient’s head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different environments and during behavioral tasks. Such a wearable system that allows the subjects to move their heads and walk—the Ambulatory Microdose PET (AM-PET)—is currently under development. This imager will be helpful for testing subjects performing selected activities such as gestures, virtual reality activities and walking. The need for this type of lightweight mobile device has led to the construction of a proof of concept portable head-worn unit that uses twelve silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) PET module sensors built into a small ring which fits around the head. This paper is focused on the engineering design of mechanical support aspects of the AM-PET project, both of the current device as well as of the coming next-generation devices. The goal of this work is to optimize design of the scanner and its mechanics to improve comfort for the subject by reducing the effect of weight, and to enable diversification of its applications amongst different research activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System-Integrated Intelligence and Intelligent Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051162
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1209 | PDF Full-text (2133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD) of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR) [...] Read more.
The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD) of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR) are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Orientation Estimation Method for Magnetic and Inertial Sensors in the Presence of Magnetic Disturbances
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051161
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1846 | PDF Full-text (4206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic and inertial sensors have been widely used to estimate the orientation of human segments due to their low cost, compact size and light weight. However, the accuracy of the estimated orientation is easily affected by external factors, especially when the sensor is [...] Read more.
Magnetic and inertial sensors have been widely used to estimate the orientation of human segments due to their low cost, compact size and light weight. However, the accuracy of the estimated orientation is easily affected by external factors, especially when the sensor is used in an environment with magnetic disturbances. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method to improve the accuracy of orientation estimations in the presence of magnetic disturbances. The method is based on existing gradient descent algorithms, and it is performed prior to sensor fusion algorithms. The proposed method includes stationary state detection and magnetic disturbance severity determination. The stationary state detection makes this method immune to magnetic disturbances in stationary state, while the magnetic disturbance severity determination helps to determine the credibility of magnetometer data under dynamic conditions, so as to mitigate the negative effect of the magnetic disturbances. The proposed method was validated through experiments performed on a customized three-axis instrumented gimbal with known orientations. The error of the proposed method and the original gradient descent algorithms were calculated and compared. Experimental results demonstrate that in stationary state, the proposed method is completely immune to magnetic disturbances, and in dynamic conditions, the error caused by magnetic disturbance is reduced by 51.2% compared with original MIMU gradient descent algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable and Ambient Sensors for Healthcare and Wellness Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
ROI-Based On-Board Compression for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Images on GPU
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051160
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1499 | PDF Full-text (2318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, hyperspectral sensors for Earth remote sensing have become very popular. Such systems are able to provide the user with images having both spectral and spatial information. The current hyperspectral spaceborne sensors are able to capture large areas with increased spatial [...] Read more.
In recent years, hyperspectral sensors for Earth remote sensing have become very popular. Such systems are able to provide the user with images having both spectral and spatial information. The current hyperspectral spaceborne sensors are able to capture large areas with increased spatial and spectral resolution. For this reason, the volume of acquired data needs to be reduced on board in order to avoid a low orbital duty cycle due to limited storage space. Recently, literature has focused the attention on efficient ways for on-board data compression. This topic is a challenging task due to the difficult environment (outer space) and due to the limited time, power and computing resources. Often, the hardware properties of Graphic Processing Units (GPU) have been adopted to reduce the processing time using parallel computing. The current work proposes a framework for on-board operation on a GPU, using NVIDIA’s CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) architecture. The algorithm aims at performing on-board compression using the target’s related strategy. In detail, the main operations are: the automatic recognition of land cover types or detection of events in near real time in regions of interest (this is a user related choice) with an unsupervised classifier; the compression of specific regions with space-variant different bit rates including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), wavelet and arithmetic coding; and data volume management to the Ground Station. Experiments are provided using a real dataset taken from an AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) airborne sensor in a harbor area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization-Based Sensor Fusion of GNSS and IMU Using a Moving Horizon Approach
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051159
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1890 | PDF Full-text (1695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rise of autonomous systems operating close to humans imposes new challenges in terms of robustness and precision on the estimation and control algorithms. Approaches based on nonlinear optimization, such as moving horizon estimation, have been shown to improve the accuracy of the [...] Read more.
The rise of autonomous systems operating close to humans imposes new challenges in terms of robustness and precision on the estimation and control algorithms. Approaches based on nonlinear optimization, such as moving horizon estimation, have been shown to improve the accuracy of the estimated solution compared to traditional filter techniques. This paper introduces an optimization-based framework for multi-sensor fusion following a moving horizon scheme. The framework is applied to the often occurring estimation problem of motion tracking by fusing measurements of a global navigation satellite system receiver and an inertial measurement unit. The resulting algorithm is used to estimate position, velocity, and orientation of a maneuvering airplane and is evaluated against an accurate reference trajectory. A detailed study of the influence of the horizon length on the quality of the solution is presented and evaluated against filter-like and batch solutions of the problem. The versatile configuration possibilities of the framework are finally used to analyze the estimated solutions at different evaluation times exposing a nearly linear behavior of the sensor fusion problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Sensor Integration and Fusion)
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Open AccessArticle
Development towards Compact Nitrocellulose-Based Interferometric Biochips for Dry Eye MMP9 Label-Free In-Situ Diagnosis
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051158
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1759 | PDF Full-text (1783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel compact optical biochip based on a thin layer-sensing surface of nitrocellulose is used for in-situ label-free detection of metalloproteinase (MMP9) related to dry eye disease. In this article, a new integrated chip with different interferometric transducers layout with an optimal sensing [...] Read more.
A novel compact optical biochip based on a thin layer-sensing surface of nitrocellulose is used for in-situ label-free detection of metalloproteinase (MMP9) related to dry eye disease. In this article, a new integrated chip with different interferometric transducers layout with an optimal sensing surface is reported for the first time. We demonstrate that specific antibodies can be immobilized onto these transducers with a very low volume of sample and with good orientation. Many sensing transducers constitute the presented biochip in order to yield statistical data and stability in the acquired measurements. As a result, we report the recognition curve for pure recombinant MMP9, tests of model tears with MMP9, and real tear performance from patients, with a promising limit of detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Invasive Fetal Monitoring: A Maternal Surface ECG Electrode Placement-Based Novel Approach for Optimization of Adaptive Filter Control Parameters Using the LMS and RLS Algorithms
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051154
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 2938 | PDF Full-text (3467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is focused on the design, implementation and verification of a novel method for the optimization of the control parameters (such as step size μ and filter order N) of LMS and RLS adaptive filters used for noninvasive fetal monitoring. The [...] Read more.
This paper is focused on the design, implementation and verification of a novel method for the optimization of the control parameters (such as step size μ and filter order N) of LMS and RLS adaptive filters used for noninvasive fetal monitoring. The optimization algorithm is driven by considering the ECG electrode positions on the maternal body surface in improving the performance of these adaptive filters. The main criterion for optimal parameter selection was the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). We conducted experiments using signals supplied by the latest version of our LabVIEW-Based Multi-Channel Non-Invasive Abdominal Maternal-Fetal Electrocardiogram Signal Generator, which provides the flexibility and capability of modeling the principal distribution of maternal/fetal ECGs in the human body. Our novel algorithm enabled us to find the optimal settings of the adaptive filters based on maternal surface ECG electrode placements. The experimental results further confirmed the theoretical assumption that the optimal settings of these adaptive filters are dependent on the ECG electrode positions on the maternal body, and therefore, we were able to achieve far better results than without the use of optimization. These improvements in turn could lead to a more accurate detection of fetal hypoxia. Consequently, our approach could offer the potential to be used in clinical practice to establish recommendations for standard electrode placement and find the optimal adaptive filter settings for extracting high quality fetal ECG signals for further processing. Ultimately, diagnostic-grade fetal ECG signals would ensure the reliable detection of fetal hypoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Power Multi-Hop Networking Analysis in Intelligent Environments
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051153
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469 | PDF Full-text (2784 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in many different areas such as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues in embedded systems. More [...] Read more.
Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in many different areas such as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues in embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license-free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System-Integrated Intelligence and Intelligent Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved RD Algorithm for Maneuvering Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Imaging with a Fixed Transmitter
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051152
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299 | PDF Full-text (2145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to improve the azimuth resolution beyond what monostatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can achieve in the forward-looking area, an asymmetric configuration bistatic SAR system and its imaging algorithm are proposed in this paper. The transmitter is mounted on a fixed platform [...] Read more.
In order to improve the azimuth resolution beyond what monostatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can achieve in the forward-looking area, an asymmetric configuration bistatic SAR system and its imaging algorithm are proposed in this paper. The transmitter is mounted on a fixed platform in side-looking mode while the receiver moves along a nonlinear trajectory in forward-looking mode. Due to the high velocity and acceleration of the maneuvering platform in both along-track and height direction, the traditional algorithms are no longer applicable. In this paper, a new algorithm based on the high precise 2-D frequency spectrum is proposed, which takes high-order Taylor series expansion terms of the slant range into consideration. The proposed algorithm compensates high-order range-azimuth coupling terms to guarantee the focus accuracy in SAR imaging. The simulation results and error analysis validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and the correctness of our analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
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