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Special Issue "New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Luca Roselli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Interests: applied electronics; high frequency electronics; RFID; printable circuits; green electronics; wireless power transfer (microwave transfer); IoT
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Federico Alimenti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento d'Ingegneria, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Interests: RFID; RFID sensors; radar and radiometric sensors; green electronics; RF integrated circuits in CMOS and BiCMOS; SoC for IoT applications
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Stefania Bonafoni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento d'Ingegneria, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Interests: remote sensing of environment; urban heat Island; downscaling techniques; microwave radiometry from satellite and ground-based sensors; GNSS for atmospheric applicatons
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm continuously expands to cover many daily life applications, allowing objects to be sensed, inspected and integrated remotely across wireless network infrastructures. The IoT encompasses several technologies able to interact with the physical environment, both at small and large scale, employing both contact and remote sensors (and therefore information about an object is obtained with or without embedded electronics on the object itself).

Sensor development for the IoT moves towards technical and economic challenges such as low cost, low energy consumption, privacy and security issues, easy deployment, maintenance-free, simple data processing and management.

The Special Issue aims to bring together high quality research and innovative development activities focused on sensor developments and new application scenarios in the IoT area, including, but not limited to:

  • Low-power sensors
  • Low-cost sensors
  • Green & printable electronics
  • Radio Freqiency IDentification (RFID) and RFID sensors
  • Non-contact sensor
  • Remote sensing
  • Radar and radiometric sensors
  • Micro-mechanical, micro-fluidic & MEM sensors
  • Energy harvesting devices & techniques for sensor nodes
  • Complementary MOS (CMOS) System-on-Chip (SoC) sensors
  • Data processing, integrity and security for the IoT
  • Sensor networks for the IoT
  • Distributed sensing and monitoring architectures

Both original research papers and review articles related to sensors and wireless sensor networks for the IoT are solicited.

Prof. Luca Roselli
Guest Editor

Prof. Federico Alimenti
Prof. Stefania Bonafoni
Co-Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • IoT
  • Smart Objects
  • Smart Sensors
  • Green Electronics
  • RFID
  • Remote Sensing
  • Autonomy
  • Distributed Sensing

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Passive Sensors for Long Duration Internet of Things Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102268 - 03 Oct 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this work, three different concepts are used to develop a fully passive sensor that is capable of measuring different types of data. The sensor was supplied by Wireless Power Transmission (WPT). Communication between the sensor and reader is established by a backscatter, [...] Read more.
In this work, three different concepts are used to develop a fully passive sensor that is capable of measuring different types of data. The sensor was supplied by Wireless Power Transmission (WPT). Communication between the sensor and reader is established by a backscatter, and to ensure minimum energy consumption, low power techniques are used. In a simplistic way, the process starts by the transmission of two different waves by the reader to the sensor, one of which is used in power transmission and the other of which is used to communicate. Once the sensor is powered, the monitoring process starts. From the monitoring state, results from after processing are used to modulate the incoming wave, which is the information that is sent back from the reader to the tag. This new combination of technologies enables the possibility of using sensors without any cables or batteries to operate 340 cm from the reader. The developed prototype measures acceleration and temperature. However, it is scalable. This system enables a new generation of passive Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
Enabling Large-Scale IoT-Based Services through Elastic Publish/Subscribe
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092148 - 19 Sep 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this paper, we report an algorithm that is designed to leverage the cloud as infrastructure to support Internet of Things (IoT) by elastically scaling in/out so that IoT-based service users never stop receiving sensors’ data. This algorithm is able to provide an [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report an algorithm that is designed to leverage the cloud as infrastructure to support Internet of Things (IoT) by elastically scaling in/out so that IoT-based service users never stop receiving sensors’ data. This algorithm is able to provide an uninterrupted service to end users even during the scaling operation since its internal state repartitioning is transparent for publishers or subscribers; its scaling operation is time-bounded and depends only on the dimension of the state partitions to be transmitted to the different nodes. We describe its implementation in E-SilboPS, an elastic content-based publish/subscribe (CBPS) system specifically designed to support context-aware sensing and communication in IoT-based services. E-SilboPS is a key internal asset of the FIWARE IoT services enablement platform, which offers an architecture of components specifically designed to capture data from, or act upon, IoT devices as easily as reading/changing the value of attributes linked to context entities. In addition, we discuss the quantitative measurements used to evaluate the scale-out process, as well as the results of this evaluation. This new feature rounds out the context-aware content-based features of E-SilboPS by providing, for example, the necessary middleware for constructing dashboards and monitoring panels that are capable of dynamically changing queries and continuously handling data in IoT-based services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
A 24-GHz Front-End Integrated on a Multilayer Cellulose-Based Substrate for Doppler Radar Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092090 - 12 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper presents a miniaturized Doppler radar that can be used as a motion sensor for low-cost Internet of things (IoT) applications. For the first time, a radar front-end and its antenna are integrated on a multilayer cellulose-based substrate, built-up by alternating paper, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a miniaturized Doppler radar that can be used as a motion sensor for low-cost Internet of things (IoT) applications. For the first time, a radar front-end and its antenna are integrated on a multilayer cellulose-based substrate, built-up by alternating paper, glue and metal layers. The circuit exploits a distributed microstrip structure that is realized using a copper adhesive laminate, so as to obtain a low-loss conductor. The radar operates at 24 GHz and transmits 5 mW of power. The antenna has a gain of 7.4 dBi and features a half power beam-width of 48 degrees. The sensor, that is just the size of a stamp, is able to detect the movement of a walking person up to 10 m in distance, while a minimum speed of 50 mm/s up to 3 m is clearly measured. Beyond this specific result, the present paper demonstrates that the attractive features of cellulose, including ultra-low cost and eco-friendliness (i.e., recyclability and biodegradability), can even be exploited for the realization of future high-frequency hardware. This opens opens the door to the implementation on cellulose of devices and systems which make up the “sensing layer” at the base of the IoT ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
A QRS Detection and R Point Recognition Method for Wearable Single-Lead ECG Devices
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17091969 - 26 Aug 2017
Cited by 21
Abstract
In the new-generation wearable Electrocardiogram (ECG) system, signal processing with low power consumption is required to transmit data when detecting dangerous rhythms and to record signals when detecting abnormal rhythms. The QRS complex is a combination of three of the graphic deflection seen [...] Read more.
In the new-generation wearable Electrocardiogram (ECG) system, signal processing with low power consumption is required to transmit data when detecting dangerous rhythms and to record signals when detecting abnormal rhythms. The QRS complex is a combination of three of the graphic deflection seen on a typical ECG. This study proposes a real-time QRS detection and R point recognition method with low computational complexity while maintaining a high accuracy. The enhancement of QRS segments and restraining of P and T waves are carried out by the proposed ECG signal transformation, which also leads to the elimination of baseline wandering. In this study, the QRS fiducial point is determined based on the detected crests and troughs of the transformed signal. Subsequently, the R point can be recognized based on four QRS waveform templates and preliminary heart rhythm classification can be also achieved at the same time. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using the benchmark of the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, where the QRS detected sensitivity (Se) and positive prediction (+P) are 99.82% and 99.81%, respectively. The result reveals the approach’s advantage of low computational complexity, as well as the feasibility of the real-time application on a mobile phone and an embedded system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
A Context-Driven Model for the Flat Roofs Construction Process through Sensing Systems, Internet-of-Things and Last Planner System
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071691 - 22 Jul 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
The main causes of building defects are errors in the design and the construction phases. These causes related to construction are mainly due to the general lack of control of construction work and represent approximately 75% of the anomalies. In particular, one of [...] Read more.
The main causes of building defects are errors in the design and the construction phases. These causes related to construction are mainly due to the general lack of control of construction work and represent approximately 75% of the anomalies. In particular, one of the main causes of such anomalies, which end in building defects, is the lack of control over the physical variables of the work environment during the execution of tasks. Therefore, the high percentage of defects detected in buildings that have the root cause in the construction phase could be avoidable with a more accurate and efficient control of the process. The present work proposes a novel integration model based on information and communications technologies for the automation of both construction work and its management at the execution phase, specifically focused on the flat roof construction process. Roofs represent the second area where more defects are claimed. The proposed model is based on a Web system, supported by a service oriented architecture, for the integral management of tasks through the Last Planner System methodology, but incorporating the management of task restrictions from the physical environment variables by designing specific sensing systems. Likewise, all workers are integrated into the management process by Internet-of-Things solutions that guide them throughout the execution process in a non-intrusive and transparent way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Sensor Based on a Single-Pixel Microwave Radiometer for Warm Object Counting: Concept Validation and IoT Perspectives
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17061388 - 14 Jun 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Controlled measurements by a low-cost single-pixel microwave radiometer operating at 12.65 GHz were carried out to assess the detection and counting capability for targets warmer than the surroundings. The adopted reference test targets were pre-warmed water and oil; and a hand, both naked [...] Read more.
Controlled measurements by a low-cost single-pixel microwave radiometer operating at 12.65 GHz were carried out to assess the detection and counting capability for targets warmer than the surroundings. The adopted reference test targets were pre-warmed water and oil; and a hand, both naked and wearing a glove. The results showed the reliability of microwave radiometry for counting operations under controlled conditions, and its effectiveness at detecting even warm targets masked by unheated dielectric layers. An electromagnetic model describing the scenario sensed by the radiometer antenna is proposed, and comparison with the experimental observations shows a good agreement. The measurements prove that reliable counting is enabled by an antenna temperature increment, for each target sample added, of around 1 K. Starting from this value, an analysis of the antenna filling factor was performed to provide an instrument useful for evaluating real applicability in many practical situations. This study also allows the direct people counting problem to be addressed, providing preliminary operational indications, reference numbers and experimental validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
Eyes of Things
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051173 - 21 May 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity [...] Read more.
Embedded systems control and monitor a great deal of our reality. While some “classic” features are intrinsically necessary, such as low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, fast response and low cost, these systems have evolved in the last few years to emphasize connectivity functions, thus contributing to the Internet of Things paradigm. A myriad of sensing/computing devices are being attached to everyday objects, each able to send and receive data and to act as a unique node in the Internet. Apart from the obvious necessity to process at least some data at the edge (to increase security and reduce power consumption and latency), a major breakthrough will arguably come when such devices are endowed with some level of autonomous “intelligence”. Intelligent computing aims to solve problems for which no efficient exact algorithm can exist or for which we cannot conceive an exact algorithm. Central to such intelligence is Computer Vision (CV), i.e., extracting meaning from images and video. While not everything needs CV, visual information is the richest source of information about the real world: people, places and things. The possibilities of embedded CV are endless if we consider new applications and technologies, such as deep learning, drones, home robotics, intelligent surveillance, intelligent toys, wearable cameras, etc. This paper describes the Eyes of Things (EoT) platform, a versatile computer vision platform tackling those challenges and opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Certificateless Signature Scheme for Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051001 - 01 May 2017
Cited by 19
Abstract
Rapid advances in wireless communications and pervasive computing technologies have resulted in increasing interest and popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT) architecture, ubiquitously providing intelligence and convenience to our daily life. In IoT-based network environments, smart objects are embedded everywhere as ubiquitous things connected in [...] Read more.
Rapid advances in wireless communications and pervasive computing technologies have resulted in increasing interest and popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT) architecture, ubiquitously providing intelligence and convenience to our daily life. In IoT-based network environments, smart objects are embedded everywhere as ubiquitous things connected in a pervasive manner. Ensuring security for interactions between these smart things is significantly more important, and a topic of ongoing interest. In this paper, we present a certificateless signature scheme for smart objects in IoT-based pervasive computing environments. We evaluate the utility of the proposed scheme in IoT-oriented testbeds, i.e., Arduino Uno and Raspberry PI 2. Experiment results present the practicability of the proposed scheme. Moreover, we revisit the scheme of Wang et al. (2015) and revealed that a malicious super type I adversary can easily forge a legitimate signature to cheat any receiver as he/she wishes in the scheme. The superiority of the proposed certificateless signature scheme over relevant studies is demonstrated in terms of the summarized security and performance comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040752 - 02 Apr 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), [...] Read more.
Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Open AccessArticle
Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010028 - 24 Dec 2016
Cited by 37
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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