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Molecules, Volume 23, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Instrumentation for Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Method Comparison and Newer Developments
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092404
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is a widely used standard method for determination of absolute stereochemistry, and somewhat less so for biomolecule characterization and following dynamic processes. Over the last few decades, different VCD instrument designs have developed for various purposes, and reliable commercial
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Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is a widely used standard method for determination of absolute stereochemistry, and somewhat less so for biomolecule characterization and following dynamic processes. Over the last few decades, different VCD instrument designs have developed for various purposes, and reliable commercial instrumentation is now available. This review will briefly survey historical and currently used instrument designs and describe some aspects of more recently reported developments. An important factor in applying VCD to conformational studies is theoretical modeling of spectra for various structures, techniques for which are briefly surveyed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Chiroptical Spectroscopy)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Transesterification Reactions with CLEA-Immobilized Feruloyl Esterases from Thermothelomyces thermophila and Talaromyces wortmannii
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092403
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 502 | PDF Full-text (4263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Feruloyl esterases (FAEs, E.C. 3.1.1.73) are biotechnologically important enzymes with several applications in ferulic acid production from biomass, but also in synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The use of such biocatalysts in commercial processes can become feasible by their immobilization, providing the advantages
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Feruloyl esterases (FAEs, E.C. 3.1.1.73) are biotechnologically important enzymes with several applications in ferulic acid production from biomass, but also in synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The use of such biocatalysts in commercial processes can become feasible by their immobilization, providing the advantages of isolation and recycling. In this work, eight feruloyl esterases, immobilized in cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) were tested in regard to their transesterification performance, towards the production of prenyl ferulate (PFA) and arabinose ferulate (AFA). After solvent screening, comparison with the activity of respective soluble enzymes, and operational stability tests, FAE125 was selected as the most promising biocatalyst. A central composite design revealed the optimum conditions for each transesterification product, in terms of water content, time, and substrate ratio for both products, and temperature and enzyme load additionally for prenyl ferulate. The optimum product yields obtained were 83.7% for PFA and 58.1% for AFA. FAE125 CLEAs are stable in the optimum conditions of transesterification reactions, maintaining 70% residual activity after five consecutive reactions. Overall, FAE125 CLEAs seem to be able to perform as a robust biocatalyst, offering satisfactory yields and stability, and thus showing significant potential for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Enzymes in Biosynthesis and Biocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau Leaves by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Molecular Docking Simulation
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092402
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659 | PDF Full-text (2885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible
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Background: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity. Methods: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding. Conclusion: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant’s therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects of Radix Scrophulariae on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury via MAPK Pathways
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092401
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Ischemic stroke is a clinically common cerebrovascular disease whose main risks include necrosis, apoptosis and cerebral infarction, all caused by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Ischemia and reperfusion-induced injury or apoptosis inhibition in human brain tissue may exert an irreplaceable protective effect on
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Ischemic stroke is a clinically common cerebrovascular disease whose main risks include necrosis, apoptosis and cerebral infarction, all caused by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Ischemia and reperfusion-induced injury or apoptosis inhibition in human brain tissue may exert an irreplaceable protective effect on ischemic nerves. This process has particular significance for the treatment of stroke patients. However, the development of neuroprotective drugs remains challenging. Radix Scrophulariae, traditionally considered a valuable medicine, has been discovered to have neuroprotective effects. To explore the neuroprotective effects of an aqueous extract of Radix Scrophulariae (RSAE) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and their underlying mechanisms, oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced PC12 cells were used, and a middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) mouse model was established. In vitro results showed that 12.5 μg/mL RSAE markedly improved cell viability; inhibited LDH leakage; increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT enzyme activity; stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential; and reduced OGD-induced cell injury and apoptosis. Additionally, in vivo results preliminarily suggested that in MCAO/R model mice, RSAE treatments attenuated infarct volume; reduced brain water content and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations; inhibited I/R-induced neurological deficits; reduced the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage release; improved antioxidant capacity by upregulating SOD, GSH-Px and CAT enzyme activity; and reduced neuronal apoptosis, necrosis and loss of neurons. Moreover, it was found that RSAE upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and downregulated the expression of Bax. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of MAPK signal pathways were elucidated via western blot analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation. In summary, this study investigated the neuroprotective effects and potential mechanisms of RSAE on focal cerebral I/R injury in mice. Radix Scrophulariae has been previously identified as a potential neuroprotective natural plant. Hence, our results may offer insight into discovering new active compounds or drugs for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Many new natural active chemicals in this extract may be discovered by chemical separation and identification and may provide new insights into therapeutic targets in stroke patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessCommunication Isolation and Identification of Benzochroman and Acylglycerols from Massa Medicata Fermentata and Their Inhibitory Effects on LPS-Stimulated Cytokine Production in Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092400
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Massa Medicata Fermentata (MMF), known as Shenqu, is an important traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat indigestion, vomiting, and diarrhea. In this study, a new benzochroman, 3(S)-3,4-dihydro-5,10-di-β-d-glucopyranoside-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphtho(2,3-b)pyran-3-ol (1), and five
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Massa Medicata Fermentata (MMF), known as Shenqu, is an important traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat indigestion, vomiting, and diarrhea. In this study, a new benzochroman, 3(S)-3,4-dihydro-5,10-di-β-d-glucopyranoside-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphtho(2,3-b)pyran-3-ol (1), and five known galactosyl acylglycerols (26) were isolated from a methanol extract from MMF. In addition, their chemical structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods, which were compared with the previously reported data. Furthermore, the effects of isolated compounds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were investigated. Compounds 13 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the LPS-induced production of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 10.2 μM. Compounds 2 and 3 also exhibited strong inhibitory effects on the LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α with IC50 values of 12.0 and 11.2 μM, respectively. The results might provide a scientific basis for the development of the active components in MMF, as well as for novel anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Peroxide Generation of Copper/Ascorbate Formulations on Cotton: Effect on Antibacterial and Fibroblast Activity for Wound Healing Application
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092399
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Greige cotton (unbleached cotton) is an intact plant fiber that retains much of the outer cotton fiber layers. These layers contain pectin, peroxidases, and trace metals that are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. When
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Greige cotton (unbleached cotton) is an intact plant fiber that retains much of the outer cotton fiber layers. These layers contain pectin, peroxidases, and trace metals that are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. When greige cotton is subjected to a nonwoven hydroentanglement process, components of the outer cotton fiber layers are retained. When hydrated, this fabric can generate H2O2 (5–50 micromolar). This range has been characterized as inducing accelerated wound healing associated with enhanced cell signaling and the proliferation of cells vital to wound restoration. On the other hand, H2O2 levels above 50 micromolar have been associated with bacteriostatic activity. Here, we report the preparation and hydrogen peroxide activity of copper/ascorbate formulations, both as adsorbed and in situ synthesized analogs on cotton. The cooper/ascorbate-cotton formulations were designed with the goal of modulating hydrogen peroxide levels within functional ranges beneficial to wound healing. The cotton/copper formulation analogs were prepared on nonwoven unbleached cotton and characterized with cotton impregnation titers of 3–14 mg copper per gram of cotton. The copper/ascorbate cotton analog formulations were characterized spectroscopically, and the copper titer was quantified with ICP analysis and probed for peroxide production through assessment with Amplex Red. All analogs demonstrated antibacterial activity. Notably, the treatment of unbleached cotton with low levels of ascorbate (~2 mg/g cotton) resulted in a 99 percent reduction in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. In situ synthesized copper/ascorbate nanoparticles retained activity and did not leach out upon prolonged suspension in an aqueous environment. An assessment of H2O2 effects on fibroblast proliferation are discussed in light of the copper/cotton analogs and wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Salidroside Improves Bone Histomorphology and Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Diabetic Rats by Upregulating the OPG/RANKL Ratio
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2398; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092398
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Postmenopausal diabetic women have a high risk of fractures. Salidroside has preventive effects on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and has hypoglycemic effects on diabetes in rats. However, whether salidroside inhibits bone loss in postmenopausal diabetic patients is still unknown. Here, we established a rat
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Postmenopausal diabetic women have a high risk of fractures. Salidroside has preventive effects on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and has hypoglycemic effects on diabetes in rats. However, whether salidroside inhibits bone loss in postmenopausal diabetic patients is still unknown. Here, we established a rat model of osteoporosis to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on bone loss induced by ovariectomy combined with diabetes, also investigating the underlying mechanisms. Two-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups (10 rats in each group): control group (with sham operation, treated with drug vehicle); OVX/T1DM group (ovariectomized diabetic rats); OVX/T1DM-SAL group, comprising ovariectomized diabetic rats treated with salidroside (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage. The results showed that after 60 consecutive days of treatment, the bone mineral density (BMD) of OVX/T1DM-SAL increased significantly compared with the OVX/T1DM group (p < 0.01). The level of serum bone turnover markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cross linked c-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1), osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b) were all increased in the OVX/T1DM group compared with the control (p < 0.01), and those were decreased by salidroside treatment. Meanwhile, the bone histopathological changes were also attenuated, and the bone marrow adipogenesis was inhibited in salidroside treated rats. Moreover, protein and mRNA ratio of bone osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) was upregulated in ovariectomized diabetic rats by salidroside treatment. The results above indicated that the protective effect of salidroside on bone loss induced by ovariectomy and diabetes was mainly due to its ability to suppress bone turnover, inhibit bone marrow adipogenesis, and up-regulate the OPG/RANKL ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle A New Strategy for Rapidly Screening Natural Inhibitors Targeting the PCSK9/LDLR Interaction In Vitro
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2397; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092397
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The interaction between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a promising target for the treatment of hyperc-holesterolemia. In this study, a new method based on competitive affinity and tag detection was developed, which aimed to evaluate
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The interaction between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a promising target for the treatment of hyperc-holesterolemia. In this study, a new method based on competitive affinity and tag detection was developed, which aimed to evaluate potent natural inhibitors preventing the interaction of PCSK9/LDLR directly. Herein, natural compounds with efficacy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia were chosen to investigate their inhibitory activities on the PCSK9/LDLR interaction. Two of them, polydatin (1) and tetrahydroxydiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside (2), were identified as potential inhibitors for the PCSK9/LDLR interaction and were proven to prevent PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation in HepG2 cells. The results suggested that this strategy could be applied for evaluating potential bioactive compounds inhibiting the interaction of PCSK9/LDLR and this strategy could accelerate the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of PCSK9-mediated hypercholesterolemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products in Prevention and Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome)
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Open AccessArticle Quality Analysis of American Ginseng Cultivated in Heilongjiang Using UPLC-ESI-MRM-MS with Chemometric Methods
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092396
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) has long been cultivated in China for the function food and medicine. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was coupled with electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS) for simultaneous detection of 22 ginsenosides in
[...] Read more.
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) has long been cultivated in China for the function food and medicine. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was coupled with electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS) for simultaneous detection of 22 ginsenosides in American ginseng cultivated in Mudanjiang district of Heilongjiang. The extraction conditions also were optimized by a Box Behnken design experiment. The optimized result was 31.8 mL/g as ratio of liquid to raw materials, 20.3 min of extraction time, and 235.0 W of extraction powers. The quantitative MS parameters for these 22 compounds were rapidly optimized by single factor experiments employing UPLC-ESI-multiple reaction monitoring or multiple ion monitoring (MRM/MIM) scans. Furthermore, the established UPLC-ESI-MRM-MS method showed good linear relationships (R2 > 0.99), repeatability (RSD < 3.86%), precision (RSD < 2.74%), and recovery (94–104%). This method determined 22 bioactive ginsenosides in different parts of the plant (main roots, hairy roots, rhizomes, leaves, and stems) and growth years (one year to four years) of P. quinquefolium. The highest total content of the 22 analytes was in the hairy roots (1.3 × 105 µg/g) followed by rhizomes (7.1 × 104 µg/g), main roots (6.5 × 104 µg/g), leaves (4.2 × 104 µg/g), and stems (2.4 × 104 µg/g). Finally, chemometric methods, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), were successfully used to classify and differentiate American ginseng attributed to different growth years. The proposed UPLC-ESI-MRM-MS coupled with HCA and PLS-DA methods was elucidated to be a simple and reliable method for quality evaluation of American ginseng. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Total Polysaccharides and Total Flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging and Multivariate Analysis
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092395
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 16 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The rapid and nondestructive determination of active compositions in Chrysanthemum morifolium (Hangbaiju) is of great value for producers and consumers. Hyperspectral imaging as a rapid and nondestructive technique was used to determine total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Hyperspectral
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The rapid and nondestructive determination of active compositions in Chrysanthemum morifolium (Hangbaiju) is of great value for producers and consumers. Hyperspectral imaging as a rapid and nondestructive technique was used to determine total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Hyperspectral images of different sizes of Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers were acquired. Pixel-wise spectra within all samples were preprocessed by wavelet transform (WT) followed by standard normal variate (SNV). Partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) were used to build prediction models using sample average spectra calculated by preprocessed pixel-wise spectra. The LS-SVM model performed better than the PLS models, with the determination of the coefficient of calibration (R2c) and prediction (R2p) being over 0.90 and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) being over 3 for total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content prediction. Prediction maps of total polysaccharides and total flavonoids content in Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers were successfully obtained by LS-SVM models, which exhibited the best performances. The overall results showed that hyperspectral imaging was a promising technique for the rapid and accurate determination of active ingredients in Chrysanthemum morifolium, indicating the great potential to develop an online system for the quality determination of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Ultrasound, Oxygen and Sunlight on the Stability of (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2394; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092394
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
(−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is the main catechin found in green tea, and has several beneficial effects. This study investigated the stability of EGCG aqueous solution under different stored and ultrasonic conditions to determine whether it can be used with an ultrasonic dental scaler
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(−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is the main catechin found in green tea, and has several beneficial effects. This study investigated the stability of EGCG aqueous solution under different stored and ultrasonic conditions to determine whether it can be used with an ultrasonic dental scaler to treat periodontal infection. Four concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 2 mg/mL) of EGCG aqueous solution were prepared and stored under four different conditions (A: Exposed to neither sunlight nor air, B: Exposed to sunlight, but not air, C: Not exposed to sunlight, but air, D: Exposed to sunlight and air) for two days. The degradation rate of EGCG was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). On the other hand, an ultrasonic dental scaler was used to atomize the EGCG solution under four different conditions (a: Exposed to neither air nor sunlight, b: Not exposed to air, but sunlight, c: Not exposed to sunlight, but air, d: Exposed to air and sunlight), the degradation of EGCG was measured by HPLC. We found that the stability of EGCG was concentration-dependent in water at room temperature. Both sunlight and oxygen influenced the stability of EGCG, and oxygen had a more pronounced effect on stability of EGCG than sunlight. The most important conclusion was that the ultrasound may accelerate the degradation of EGCG due to the presence of oxygen and sunlight, but not because of the ultrasonic vibration. Thus, EGCG aqueous solution has the potential to be used through an ultrasonic dental scaler to treat periodontal infection in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Actinofuranones D-I from a Lichen-Associated Actinomycetes, Streptomyces gramineus, and Their Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092393
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Six new metabolites, actinofuranones D-I (compounds 16), were isolated together with three known compounds—JBIR-108 (7), E-975 (8), and E-492 (9)—from a fermentation broth of Streptomyces gramineus derived from the lichen Leptogium trichophorum. The
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Six new metabolites, actinofuranones D-I (compounds 16), were isolated together with three known compounds—JBIR-108 (7), E-975 (8), and E-492 (9)—from a fermentation broth of Streptomyces gramineus derived from the lichen Leptogium trichophorum. The structures of the new compounds 16 were established using comprehensive NMR spectroscopic data analysis, as well as UV, IR, and MS data. The anti-inflammatory activity of these isolated compounds were evaluated by examining their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compounds 4, 5, 8, and 9 attenuated the production of NO due to the suppression of the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, 4, 5, 8, and 9 also inhibited LPS-induced release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Full article
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Open AccessReview Treatment Strategies for Infected Wounds
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2392; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092392
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The treatment of skin wounds is a key research domain owing to the important functional and aesthetic role of this tissue. When the skin is impaired, bacteria can soon infiltrate into underlying tissues which can lead to life-threatening infections. Consequently, effective treatments are
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The treatment of skin wounds is a key research domain owing to the important functional and aesthetic role of this tissue. When the skin is impaired, bacteria can soon infiltrate into underlying tissues which can lead to life-threatening infections. Consequently, effective treatments are necessary to deal with such pathological conditions. Recently, wound dressings loaded with antimicrobial agents have emerged as viable options to reduce wound bacterial colonization and infection, in order to improve the healing process. In this paper, we present an overview of the most prominent antibiotic-embedded wound dressings, as well as the limitations of their use. A promising, but still an underrated group of potential antibacterial agents that can be integrated into wound dressings are natural products, especially essential oils. Some of the most commonly used essential oils against multidrug-resistant microorganisms, such as tea tree, St. John’s Wort, lavender and oregano, together with their incorporation into wound dressings are presented. In addition, another natural product that exhibits encouraging antibacterial activity is honey. We highlight recent results of several studies carried out by researchers from different regions of the world on wound dressings impregnated with honey, with a special emphasis on Manuka honey. Finally, we highlight recent advances in using nanoparticles as platforms to increase the effect of pharmaceutical formulations aimed at wound healing. Silver, gold, and zinc nanoparticles alone or functionalized with diverse antimicrobial compounds have been integrated into wound dressings and demonstrated therapeutic effects on wounds. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2391; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092391
Received: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of N-pyrazinylbenzamides as Potential Antimycobacterial Agents
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2390; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092390
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Three series of N-(pyrazin-2-yl)benzamides were designed as retro-amide analogues of previously published N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides with in vitro antimycobacterial activity. The synthesized retro-amides were evaluated for in vitro growth inhibiting activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), three non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains (
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Three series of N-(pyrazin-2-yl)benzamides were designed as retro-amide analogues of previously published N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides with in vitro antimycobacterial activity. The synthesized retro-amides were evaluated for in vitro growth inhibiting activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), three non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains (M. avium, M. kansasii, M. smegmatis) and selected bacterial and fungal strains of clinical importance. Regarding activity against Mtb, most N-pyrazinylbenzamides (retro-amides) possessed lower or no activity compared to the corresponding N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides with the same substitution pattern. However, the active retro-amides tended to have lower HepG2 cytotoxicity and better selectivity. Derivatives with 5-chloro substitution on the pyrazine ring were generally more active compared to their 6-cloro positional isomers or non-chlorinated analogues. The best antimycobacterial activity against Mtb was found in N-(5-chloropyrazin-2-yl)benzamides with short alkyl (2h: R2 = Me; 2i: R2 = Et) in position 4 of the benzene ring (MIC = 6.25 and 3.13 µg/mL, respectively, with SI > 10). N-(5-Chloropyrazin-2-yl)benzamides with hydroxy substitution (2b: R2 = 2-OH; 2d: R2 = 4-OH) on the benzene ring or their acetylated synthetic precursors possessed the broadest spectrum of activity, being active in all three groups of mycobacterial, bacterial and fungal strains. The substantial differences in in silico calculated properties (hydrogen-bond pattern analysis, molecular electrostatic potential, HOMO and LUMO) can justify the differences in biological activities between N-pyrazinylbenzamides and N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Binding Performance of Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin and 20(S)-7-Ethylcamptothecin
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2389; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092389
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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A previous study showed that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) could preserve higher levels of biologically active lactone moieties of topotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin at physiological pH 7.40. As one of camptothecin analogues (CPTs), the interaction of 7-ethylcamptothecin and IVIG was studied in vitro
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A previous study showed that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) could preserve higher levels of biologically active lactone moieties of topotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin at physiological pH 7.40. As one of camptothecin analogues (CPTs), the interaction of 7-ethylcamptothecin and IVIG was studied in vitro in this study. It was shown that the main binding mode of IVIG to 7-ethylcamptothecin was hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding, which is a non-specific and spontaneous interaction. The hydrophobic antigen-binding cavity of IgG would enwrap the drug into a host-guest inclusion complex and prevent hydrolysis of the encapsulated drug, while the drug is adjacent to the chromophores of IgG and may exchange energy with chromophores and quench the fluorescence of the protein. Also, the typical β-sheet structure of IVIG unfolded partially after binding to 7-ethylcamptothecin. Additionally, the binding properties of IVIG and six CPTs with different substituents at A-ring and/or B-ring including camptothecin, topotecan, irinotecan, 10-hydroxycamptothecin, 7-ethylcamptothecin and SN-38 were collected together and compared each other. Synergizing with anti-cancer drugs, IVIG could be used as a transporter protein for 7-ethylcamptothecin and other CPTs, allowing clinicians to devise new treatment protocols for patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physico-Chemical and Antifungal Properties of a Trypsin Inhibitor from the Roots of Pseudostellaria heterophylla
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2388; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092388
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Plant peptidase inhibitors play essential roles in the defense systems of plants. A trypsin inhibitor (PHTI) with a molecular mass of 20.5 kDa was isolated from the fresh roots of the medicinal herb, Pseudostellaria heterophylla. The purification process involved ammonium sulfate precipitation,
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Plant peptidase inhibitors play essential roles in the defense systems of plants. A trypsin inhibitor (PHTI) with a molecular mass of 20.5 kDa was isolated from the fresh roots of the medicinal herb, Pseudostellaria heterophylla. The purification process involved ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50, and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE 650M. The PHTI contained 3.7% α-helix, 42.1% β-sheets, 21.2% β-turns, and 33% disordered structures, which showed similarity with several Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors. Inhibition kinetic studies indicated that PHTI was a competitive inhibitor, with a Ki value of 3.01 × 10−9 M, indicating a high affinity to trypsin. The PHTI exhibited considerable stability over a broad range of pH (2–10) and temperatures (20–70 °C); however, metal ions, including Fe3+, Ba2+, Mn2+, and Al3+, could inactivate PHTI to different degrees. Results of fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism showed that Fe3+ could bind to TI with an association constant of 2.75 × 105 M−1 to form a 1:1 complex, inducing conformation changes and inactivation of PHTI. In addition, PHTI could inhibit the growth of the phytopathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum, through disruption of the cell membrane integrity. The present study extended research on Pseudostellaria heterophylla proteins and makes PHTI an exploitable candidate as an antifungal protein for further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle d-Amino Acid Pseudopeptides as Potential Amyloid-Beta Aggregation Inhibitors
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092387
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
A causative factor for neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer’s disease is the aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into soluble oligomers. Two all d-amino acid pseudo-peptides, SGB1 and SGD1, were designed to stop the aggregation. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out
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A causative factor for neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer’s disease is the aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into soluble oligomers. Two all d-amino acid pseudo-peptides, SGB1 and SGD1, were designed to stop the aggregation. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to study the interaction of the pseudo-peptides with both Aβ13–23 (the core recognition site of Aβ) and full-length Aβ1–42. Umbrella sampling MD calculations have been used to estimate the free energy of binding, ∆G, of these peptides to Aβ13–23. The highest ∆Gbinding is found for SGB1. Each of the pseudo-peptides was also docked to Aβ1–42 and subjected up to seven microseconds of all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting structures lend insight into how the dynamics of Aβ1–42 are altered by complexation with the pseudo-peptides and confirmed that SGB1 may be a better candidate for developing into a drug to prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides in Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Compounds in Organic and Aqueous Extracts from Acacia farnesiana Pods Analyzed by ULPS-ESI-Q-oa/TOF-MS. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Inflammatory Response in CD-1 Mice
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092386
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Background: Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods have been traditionally used to treat dyspepsia, diarrhea and topically for dermal inflammation. Main objectives: (1) investigate the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of six extracts from AF pods and (2) their capacity to curb the
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Background: Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods have been traditionally used to treat dyspepsia, diarrhea and topically for dermal inflammation. Main objectives: (1) investigate the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of six extracts from AF pods and (2) their capacity to curb the inflammation process as well as to down-regulate the pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods: Five organic extracts (chloroformic, hexanic, ketonic, methanolic, methanolic:aqueous and one aqueous extract) were obtained and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-Q-oa/TOF-MS. Antioxidant activity (DPPH•, ORAC and FRAP assays) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay) were performed. Assessment of anti-inflammatory properties was made by the ear edema induced model in CD-1 mice and MPO activity assay. Likewise, histological analysis, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, COX measurements plus nitrite and immunohistochemistry analysis were carried out. Results: Methyl gallate, gallic acid, galloyl glucose isomer 1, galloyl glucose isomer 2, galloyl glucose isomer 3, digalloyl glucose isomer 1, digalloyl glucose isomer 2, digalloyl glucose isomer 3, digalloyl glucose isomer 4, hydroxytyrosol acetate, quinic acid, and caffeoylmalic acid were identified. Both organic and aqueous extracts displayed antioxidant activity. All extracts exhibited a positive effect on the interleukins, COX and immunohistochemistry assays. Conclusion: All AF pod extracts can be effective as antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive In Silico Method to Study the QSTR of the Aconitine Alkaloids for Designing Novel Drugs
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092385
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
A combined in silico method was developed to predict potential protein targets that are involved in cardiotoxicity induced by aconitine alkaloids and to study the quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) of these compounds. For the prediction research, a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network was built
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A combined in silico method was developed to predict potential protein targets that are involved in cardiotoxicity induced by aconitine alkaloids and to study the quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) of these compounds. For the prediction research, a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network was built from the extraction of useful information about protein interactions connected with aconitine cardiotoxicity, based on nearly a decade of literature and the STRING database. The software Cytoscape and the PharmMapper server were utilized to screen for essential proteins in the constructed network. The Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II alpha (CAMK2A) and gamma (CAMK2G) were identified as potential targets. To obtain a deeper insight on the relationship between the toxicity and the structure of aconitine alkaloids, the present study utilized QSAR models built in Sybyl software that possess internal robustness and external high predictions. The molecular dynamics simulation carried out here have demonstrated that aconitine alkaloids possess binding stability for the receptor CAMK2G. In conclusion, this comprehensive method will serve as a tool for following a structural modification of the aconitine alkaloids and lead to a better insight into the cardiotoxicity induced by the compounds that have similar structures to its derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Approaches for Drug Discovery)
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Open AccessReview Deep Learning in Drug Discovery and Medicine; Scratching the Surface
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092384
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The practice of medicine is ever evolving. Diagnosing disease, which is often the first step in a cure, has seen a sea change from the discerning hands of the neighborhood physician to the use of sophisticated machines to use of information gleaned from
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The practice of medicine is ever evolving. Diagnosing disease, which is often the first step in a cure, has seen a sea change from the discerning hands of the neighborhood physician to the use of sophisticated machines to use of information gleaned from biomarkers obtained by the most minimally invasive of means. The last 100 or so years have borne witness to the enormous success story of allopathy, a practice that found favor over earlier practices of medical purgatory and homeopathy. Nevertheless, failures of this approach coupled with the omics and bioinformatics revolution spurred precision medicine, a platform wherein the molecular profile of an individual patient drives the selection of therapy. Indeed, precision medicine-based therapies that first found their place in oncology are rapidly finding uses in autoimmune, renal and other diseases. More recently a new renaissance that is shaping everyday life is making its way into healthcare. Drug discovery and medicine that started with Ayurveda in India are now benefiting from an altogether different artificial intelligence (AI)—one which is automating the invention of new chemical entities and the mining of large databases in health-privacy-protected vaults. Indeed, disciplines as diverse as language, neurophysiology, chemistry, toxicology, biostatistics, medicine and computing have come together to harness algorithms based on transfer learning and recurrent neural networks to design novel drug candidates, a priori inform on their safety, metabolism and clearance, and engineer their delivery but only on demand, all the while cataloging and comparing omics signatures across traditionally classified diseases to enable basket treatment strategies. This review highlights inroads made and being made in directed-drug design and molecular therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Directed Drug Design and Molecular Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Hydrophobicity and Functional Properties of Citric Acid Cross-Linked Whey Protein Isolate: The Impact of pH and Concentration of Citric Acid
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092383
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The effects of citric acid-mediated cross-linking under non-acidic conditions on the surface hydrophobicity, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) were investigated. In this research, citric acid-mediated cross-linking could not only increase the surface hydrophobicity of whey proteins at pH
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The effects of citric acid-mediated cross-linking under non-acidic conditions on the surface hydrophobicity, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) were investigated. In this research, citric acid-mediated cross-linking could not only increase the surface hydrophobicity of whey proteins at pH 7.0 and 8.0, but it also improved its emulsifying and foaming properties. The emulsifying activity and foaming ability of WPI reached a maximum under the condition of 1% citric acid and pH 7.0. However, the solubility of WPI-CA gradually decreased with pH and the content of citric acid increased. Therefore, the cross-linking mediated by citric acid under non-acidic aqueous conditions, markedly altered the surface hydrophobicity and enhanced emulsifying and foaming properties of WPI. Full article
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Open AccessReview Direct Transamidation Reactions: Mechanism and Recent Advances
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092382
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Amides are undeniably some of the most important compounds in Nature and the chemical industry, being present in biomolecules, materials, pharmaceuticals and many other substances. Unfortunately, the traditional synthesis of amides suffers from some important drawbacks, principally the use of stoichiometric activators or
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Amides are undeniably some of the most important compounds in Nature and the chemical industry, being present in biomolecules, materials, pharmaceuticals and many other substances. Unfortunately, the traditional synthesis of amides suffers from some important drawbacks, principally the use of stoichiometric activators or the need to use highly reactive carboxylic acid derivatives. In recent years, the transamidation reaction has emerged as a valuable alternative to prepare amides. The reactivity of amides makes their direct reaction with nitrogen nucleophiles difficult; thus, the direct transamidation reaction needs a catalyst in order to activate the amide moiety and to promote the completion of the reaction because equilibrium is established. In this review, we present research on direct transamidation reactions ranging from studies of the mechanism to the recent developments of more applicable and versatile methodologies, emphasizing those reactions involving activation with metal catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amide Bond Activation)
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Open AccessArticle Antimycobacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis(H37Ra) Model
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092381
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity and the possible action mode of cinnamon bark essential oil and its main constituent—cinnamaldehyde—against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC 25177 strain. Cinnamaldehyde was proved to be the main bioactive compound responsible for mycobacterial
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity and the possible action mode of cinnamon bark essential oil and its main constituent—cinnamaldehyde—against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC 25177 strain. Cinnamaldehyde was proved to be the main bioactive compound responsible for mycobacterial growth inhibition and bactericidal effects. The antimycobacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde was found to be comparable with that of ethambutol, one of the first-line anti-TB antibiotics. The selectivity index determined using cell culture studies in vitro showed a high biological potential of cinnamaldehyde. In M. tuberculosis cells exposed to cinnamaldehyde the cell membrane stress sensing and envelope preserving system are activated. Overexpression of clgR gene indicates a threat to the stability of the cell membrane and suggests a possible mechanism of action. No synergism was detected with the basic set of antibiotics used in tuberculosis treatment: ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampicin, and ciprofloxacin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Active Agents Against Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Affinity Ionic Liquids for Chemoselective Gas Sensing
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092380
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Selective gas sensing is of great importance for applications in health, safety, military, industry and environment. Many man-made and naturally occurring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can harmfully affect human health or cause impairment to the environment. Gas analysis based on different principles has
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Selective gas sensing is of great importance for applications in health, safety, military, industry and environment. Many man-made and naturally occurring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can harmfully affect human health or cause impairment to the environment. Gas analysis based on different principles has been developed to convert gaseous analytes into readable output signals. However, gas sensors such as metal-oxide semiconductors suffer from high operating temperatures that are impractical and therefore have limited its applications. The cost-effective quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device represents an excellent platform if sensitive, selective and versatile sensing materials were available. Recent advances in affinity ionic liquids (AILs) have led them to incorporation with QCM to be highly sensitive for real-time detection of target gases at ambient temperature. The tailorable functional groups in AIL structures allow for chemoselective reaction with target analytes for single digit parts-per-billion detection on mass-sensitive QCM. This structural diversity makes AILs promising for the creation of a library of chemical sensor arrays that could be designed to efficiently detect gas mixtures simultaneously as a potential electronic in future. This review first provides brief introduction to some conventional gas sensing technologies and then delivers the latest results on our development of chemoselective AIL-on-QCM methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids for Chemical and Biochemical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Novel Indole Alkaloids and Steroids from Deep Sea-Derived Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus SCSIO 41012
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2379; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092379
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Two new alkaloids, fumigatosides E (1) and F (2), and a new natural product, 3, 7-diketo-cephalosporin P1 (6) along with five known compounds (35, 7, 8) were isolated from deep-sea
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Two new alkaloids, fumigatosides E (1) and F (2), and a new natural product, 3, 7-diketo-cephalosporin P1 (6) along with five known compounds (35, 7, 8) were isolated from deep-sea derived fungal Aspergillus fumigatus SCSIO 41012. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), and comparison between the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. In addition, all compounds were tested for antibacterial and antifungal inhibitory activities. Compound 1 showed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. momordicae with MIC at 1.56 µg/mL. Compound 4 exhibited significant higher activity against S. aureus (16,339 and 29,213) with MIC values of 1.56 and 0.78 µg/mL, respectively, and compound 2 exhibited significant activity against A. baumanii ATCC 19606 with a MIC value of 6.25 µg/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Compound Ammonium Glycyrrhizin Protects Hepatocytes from Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide/Florfenicol through a Mitochondrial Pathway
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092378
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Florfenicol (FFC), a widely used drug for chicken diseases, can aggravate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) damage to the liver. For this condition, natural or synthetic products displaying strong antioxidant capacity are expected to prevent LPS/FFC from inducing liver injury, so in our study, the compound
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Florfenicol (FFC), a widely used drug for chicken diseases, can aggravate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) damage to the liver. For this condition, natural or synthetic products displaying strong antioxidant capacity are expected to prevent LPS/FFC from inducing liver injury, so in our study, the compound ammonium glycyrrhizin (CAG) is used as the protective drug to decrease the injury to liver. The research aims to illustrate the underlying mechanism of combining LPS with FFC-induced liver injury and the protective role of CAG by using primary chicken hepatocytes as an in vitro model. The results show that LPS/FFC induced cell apoptosis and CAG protected hepatocytes from injury. The permeability of the cell membrane is elevated by LPS/FFC, leading to the efflux of enzymes (ALT, AST). Flow cytometry analysis indicates that LPS/FFC treatment increased the apoptosis rate significantly. Furthermore, with the up-regulation of apoptosis genes bax, cytochrome c and the down-regulation of bcl-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 are activated at the gene level. LPS/FFC-induced mitochondrial damage is accompanied by a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and severe mitochondrial damage. However, CAG improves the situation for the purpose of protecting the liver. In conclusion, it is speculated that LPS/FFC induces severe liver injury through apoptosis and the CAG protects hepatocytes from injury via the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Crinipellins A and I, Two Diterpenoids from the Basidiomycete Fungus Crinipellis rhizomaticola, as Potential Natural Fungicides
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2377; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092377
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
In the course of screening for microbes with antifungal activity, we found that the culture filtrate of the IUM00035 isolate exhibited strong antifungal activity against Magnaporthe oryzae and Colletotrichum coccodes in planta. Based on the phylogenetic analysis with the ITS region, the
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In the course of screening for microbes with antifungal activity, we found that the culture filtrate of the IUM00035 isolate exhibited strong antifungal activity against Magnaporthe oryzae and Colletotrichum coccodes in planta. Based on the phylogenetic analysis with the ITS region, the IUM00035 isolate was identified as Crinipellis rhizomaticola. To identify antifungal compounds from the C. rhizomaticola IUM00035 isolate, the culture filtrate of the isolate was partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butanol and, consequently, two active compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined as crinipellin A (1) and a new crinipellin derivative, crinipellin I (2), by NMR spectral analyses and a comparison of their NMR and MS data with those reported in the literature. Crinipellin A (1) exhibited a wide range of antifungal activity in vitro against C. coccodes, M. oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, and Phytophthora infestans (MICs = 1, 8, 31, and 31 µg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, when plants were treated with crinipellin A (1) (500 µg/mL) prior to inoculation with fungal pathogens, crinipellin A (1) exhibited disease control values of 88%, 65%, and 60% compared with non-treatment control against tomato late blight, pepper anthracnose, and wheat leaf rust, respectively. In contrast to crinipellin A (1), crinipellin I (2) showed weak or no activity (MICs > 250 µg/mL). Taken together, our results show that the C. rhizomaticola IUM00035 isolate suppresses the development of plant fungal diseases, in part through the production of crinipellin A (1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Cultivar Differences of Blueberry Wines Using GC-QTOF-MS and Metabolic Profiling Methods
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092376
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
A non-targeted volatile metabolomic approach based on the gas chromatography-quadrupole time of fight-mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS) coupled with two different sample extraction techniques (solid phase extraction and solid phase microextraction) was developed. Combined mass spectra of blueberry wine samples, which originated from two different
[...] Read more.
A non-targeted volatile metabolomic approach based on the gas chromatography-quadrupole time of fight-mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS) coupled with two different sample extraction techniques (solid phase extraction and solid phase microextraction) was developed. Combined mass spectra of blueberry wine samples, which originated from two different cultivars, were subjected to orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Principal component analysis (PCA) reveals an excellent separation and OPLS-DA highlight metabolic features responsible for the separation. Metabolic features responsible for the observed separation were tentatively assigned to phenylethyl alcohol, cinnamyl alcohol, benzenepropanol, 3-hydroxy-benzenethanol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, (E)-asarone, (Z)-asarone, and terpenes. Several of the selected markers enabled a distinction in secondary metabolism to be drawn between two blueberry cultivars. It highlights the metabolomic approaches to find out the influence of blueberry cultivar on a volatile composition in a complex blueberry wine matrix. The distinction in secondary metabolism indicated a possible O-methyltransferases activity difference among the two cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology for Natural Products Research)
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Open AccessArticle Targeted Neurotransmitters Profiling Identifies Metabolic Signatures in Rat Brain by LC-MS/MS: Application in Insomnia, Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092375
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Epidemiological, cross-sectional, and prospective studies have suggested that insomnia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and depression are mutually interacting conditions and frequently co-occur. The monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems in central nervous system were involved in the examination of neurobiological processes of this symptom
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological, cross-sectional, and prospective studies have suggested that insomnia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and depression are mutually interacting conditions and frequently co-occur. The monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems in central nervous system were involved in the examination of neurobiological processes of this symptom complex. However, few studies have reported systematic and contrastive discussion of different neurotransmitters (NTs) changing in these neurological diseases. Thus, it is necessary to establish a reliable analytical method to monitoring NTs and their metabolite levels in rat brain tissues for elucidating the differences in pathophysiology of these neurological diseases. A rapid, sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method was established for simultaneous determination of the NTs and their metabolites, including tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), norepinephrine (NE), glutamic acid (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat brain tissues. The mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% formic acid in water was performed on an Inertsil EP C18 column, and the developed method was validated well. Results demonstrated that there were significant differences for 5-HT, DA, NE, Trp, Tyr and ACh between model and control group in all three models, and a Bayes linear discriminant function was established to distinguish these three kinds of nervous system diseases by DA, Tyr and ACh for their significant differences among control and three model groups. It could be an excellent strategy to provide perceptions into the similarity and differentia of mechanisms from the point of NTs’ changing in brain directly and a new method to distinguish insomnia, depression and AD from view of essence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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