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Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019) | Viewed by 28865

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterial-related infection represents a significant public health issue and financial burden on governments and patients around the world. With the long-term overuse and misuse of antibiotics, the situation is likely to get worse in the future with the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and increasing adoption of biomedical implants and devices. Antibiotics are no longer the magic bullets they were once thought to be, and, therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of antimicrobial biomaterials to prevent infections before they take hold. Antimicrobial biomaterials have been shown to reduce or prevent bacteria colonization on the biomaterial surface, either through physical, chemical, or biological interactions with the bacterial cell.

Several classes of antimicrobial biomaterials are discussed:

  1. Biomaterials that release antimicrobials
  2. Biomaterials where the antimicrobials are covalently attached
  3. Antifouling Biomaterials
  4. Biomaterials with nano-structured surfaces

Prof. Naresh Kumar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial surfaces
  • Antimicrobial coatings
  • Antifouling
  • Bacterial colonization
  • Biofilm
  • Antimicrobial biomaterials
  • Infection control

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2887 KiB  
Article
Medical-Grade Silicone Coated with Rhamnolipid R89 Is Effective against Staphylococcus spp. Biofilms
by Chiara Ceresa, Francesco Tessarolo, Devid Maniglio, Erica Tambone, Irene Carmagnola, Emanuele Fedeli, Iole Caola, Giandomenico Nollo, Valeria Chiono, Gianna Allegrone, Maurizio Rinaldi and Letizia Fracchia
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3843; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213843 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3631
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered two of the most important pathogens, and their biofilms frequently cause device-associated infections. Microbial biosurfactants recently emerged as a new generation of anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm agents for coating implantable devices to preserve biocompatibility. In this study, [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered two of the most important pathogens, and their biofilms frequently cause device-associated infections. Microbial biosurfactants recently emerged as a new generation of anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm agents for coating implantable devices to preserve biocompatibility. In this study, R89 biosurfactant (R89BS) was evaluated as an anti-biofilm coating on medical-grade silicone. R89BS is composed of homologues of the mono- (75%) and di-rhamnolipid (25%) families, as evidenced by mass spectrometry analysis. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus spp. planktonic and sessile cells was evaluated by microdilution and metabolic activity assays. R89BS inhibited S. aureus and S. epidermidis growth with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC99) of 0.06 and 0.12 mg/mL, respectively and dispersed their pre-formed biofilms up to 93%. Silicone elastomeric discs (SEDs) coated by R89BS simple adsorption significantly counteracted Staphylococcus spp. biofilm formation, in terms of both built-up biomass (up to 60% inhibition at 72 h) and cell metabolic activity (up to 68% inhibition at 72 h). SEM analysis revealed significant inhibition of the amount of biofilm-covered surface. No cytotoxic effect on eukaryotic cells was detected at concentrations up to 0.2 mg/mL. R89BS-coated SEDs satisfy biocompatibility requirements for leaching products. Results indicate that rhamnolipid coatings are effective anti-biofilm treatments and represent a promising strategy for the prevention of infection associated with implantable devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 3414 KiB  
Article
The Role of Orientation of Surface Bound Dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHP) on Biological Activity
by Aditi Taunk, Renxun Chen, George Iskander, Kitty K. K. Ho, Basmah Almohaywi, David StClair Black, Mark D. P. Willcox and Naresh Kumar
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2676; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142676 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3451
Abstract
Quorum sensing (QS) signaling system is important for bacterial growth, adhesion, and biofilm formation resulting in numerous infectious diseases. Dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHPs) represent a novel class of antimicrobial agents that inhibit QS, and are less prone to develop bacterial resistance due to their non-growth [...] Read more.
Quorum sensing (QS) signaling system is important for bacterial growth, adhesion, and biofilm formation resulting in numerous infectious diseases. Dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHPs) represent a novel class of antimicrobial agents that inhibit QS, and are less prone to develop bacterial resistance due to their non-growth inhibition mechanism of action which does not cause survival pressure on bacteria. DHPs can prevent bacterial colonization and quorum sensing when covalently bound to substrates. In this study, the role of orientation of DHP compounds was investigated after covalent attachment by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling reaction to amine-functionalized glass surfaces via various positions of the DHP scaffold. The functionalized glass surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements and tested for their in vitro biological activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. DHPs attached via the N-1 position resulted in the highest antibacterial activities against S. aureus, while no difference was observed for DHPs attached either via the N-1 position or the C-4 phenyl ring against P. aeruginosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 2850 KiB  
Article
Improved Methods for Treatment of Phytopathogenic Biofilms: Metallic Compounds as Anti-Bacterial Coatings and Fungicide Tank-Mix Partners
by Michael Harding, Patricia Nadworny, Brenton Buziak, Amin Omar, Greg Daniels and Jie Feng
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122312 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4038
Abstract
Fungi and bacteria cause disease issues in cultivated plants world-wide. In most cases, the fungi and bacteria colonize plant tissues as biofilms, which can be very challenging to destroy or eradicate. In this experiment, we employed a novel (biofilm) approach to crop disease [...] Read more.
Fungi and bacteria cause disease issues in cultivated plants world-wide. In most cases, the fungi and bacteria colonize plant tissues as biofilms, which can be very challenging to destroy or eradicate. In this experiment, we employed a novel (biofilm) approach to crop disease management by evaluating the efficacies of six fungicides, and four silver-based compounds, versus biofilms formed by fungi and bacteria, respectively. The aim was to identify combinations of fungicides and metallic cations that showed potential to improve the control of white mold (WM), caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and to evaluate novel high valency silver compounds as seed coatings to prevent biofilm formation of four bacterial blight pathogens on dry bean seeds. Our results confirmed that mature fungal biofilms were recalcitrant to inactivation by fungicides. When metallic cations were added to the fungicides, their efficacies were improved. Some improvements were statistically significant, with one combination (fluazinam + Cu2+) showing a synergistic effect. Additionally, coatings with silver compounds could reduce bacterial blight biofilms on dry bean seeds and oxysilver nitrate was the most potent inhibitor of bacterial blight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 2983 KiB  
Article
Engineering of Antimicrobial Surfaces by Using Temporin Analogs to Tune the Biocidal/antiadhesive Effect
by Pierre-Carl Oger, Christophe Piesse, Ali Ladram and Vincent Humblot
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040814 - 24 Feb 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3604
Abstract
Proliferation of resistant bacteria on biomaterials is a major problem leading to nosocomial infections. Due to their broad-spectrum activity and their ability to disrupt bacterial membranes through a rapid membranolytic mechanism, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are less susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance [...] Read more.
Proliferation of resistant bacteria on biomaterials is a major problem leading to nosocomial infections. Due to their broad-spectrum activity and their ability to disrupt bacterial membranes through a rapid membranolytic mechanism, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are less susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance and therefore represent good candidates for surface coating strategies to prevent biofilm formation. In this study, we report on the covalent immobilization of temporin-SHa, a small hydrophobic and low cationic antimicrobial peptide exhibiting broad-spectrum activity, and (SHa) analogs on modified gold surfaces. Several analogs derived from SHa with either a carboxamidated ([K3]SHa, d-[K3]SHa) or a carboxylated C-terminus ([K3]SHa-COOH) were used to achieve peptide grafting on gold surfaces modified by a thiolated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Surface functionalization was characterized by polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The antibacterial properties of the temporin-functionalized surfaces were tested against the Gram-positive Listeria ivanovii. Direct visualization of the peptide effects on the bacterial membrane was investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a field emission gun (SEM-FEG). All active temporin analogs were successfully grafted and display significant antibacterial activity (from 80 to 90% killing efficiency) in addition to a 2-fold decrease of bacterial adhesion when all d-SHa analogs were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Flow Cytometry Analysis of Antibacterial Effects of Universal Dentin Bonding Agents on Streptococcus mutans
by Barbara Lapinska, Magdalena Konieczka, Beata Zarzycka, Krzysztof Sokolowski, Janina Grzegorczyk and Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030532 - 1 Feb 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4063
Abstract
There is no consensus on the antibacterial activity of dentin bonding systems (DBS). Many study models have been used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of dental materials. In this study, a novel detection method, flow cytometry, was introduced. It allows for evaluation of [...] Read more.
There is no consensus on the antibacterial activity of dentin bonding systems (DBS). Many study models have been used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of dental materials. In this study, a novel detection method, flow cytometry, was introduced. It allows for evaluation of the antibacterial activity of DBS, based on assessment of the disruption of the bacterial physical membrane induced by DBS. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of selected dentin bonding systems against Streptococcus mutans. The highest antibacterial activity against S. mutans was observed for Adhese Universal (99.68% dead cells) and was comparable to that of Prime&Bond Universal, OptiBond Universal, or Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (p > 0.05). The lowest activity of all tested systems was displayed by the multi-mode adhesive, Universal Bond (12.68% dead bacteria cells), followed by the self-etch adhesive, OptiBond FL (15.58% dead bacteria cells). The present study showed that in the case of two-component DBS, the primer exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the adhesive (or bond) itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 3362 KiB  
Article
Edible Chitosan Films and Their Nanosized Counterparts Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity and Enhanced Mechanical and Barrier Properties
by Laidson P. Gomes, Hiléia K. S. Souza, José M. Campiña, Cristina T. Andrade, António F. Silva, Maria P. Gonçalves and Vania M. Flosi Paschoalin
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010127 - 31 Dec 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4585
Abstract
Chitosan and chitosan-nanoparticles were combined to prepare biobased and unplasticized film blends displaying antimicrobial activity. Nanosized chitosans obtained by sonication for 5, 15, or 30 min were combined with chitosan at 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3 ratios, in order to adjust blend film mechanical [...] Read more.
Chitosan and chitosan-nanoparticles were combined to prepare biobased and unplasticized film blends displaying antimicrobial activity. Nanosized chitosans obtained by sonication for 5, 15, or 30 min were combined with chitosan at 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3 ratios, in order to adjust blend film mechanical properties and permeability. The incorporation of nanosized chitosans led to improvements in the interfacial interaction with chitosan microfibers, positively affecting film mechanical strength and stiffness, evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Nanosized or blend chitosan film sensitivity to moisture was significantly decreased with the drop in biocomposite molecular masses, evidenced by increased water solubility and decreased water vapor permeability. Nanosized and chitosan interactions gave rise to light biobased films presenting discrete opacity and color changes, since red-green and yellow-blue colorations were affected. All chitosan blend films exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The performance of green unplasticized chitosan blend films displaying diverse morphologies has, thus, been proven as a potential step towards the design of nontoxic food packaging biobased films, protecting against spoilage microorganisms, while also minimizing environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 2544 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen Peroxide Generation of Copper/Ascorbate Formulations on Cotton: Effect on Antibacterial and Fibroblast Activity for Wound Healing Application
by J. Vincent Edwards, Nicolette T. Prevost, Michael Santiago, Terri Von Hoven, Brian D. Condon, Huzaifah Qureshi and Dorne R. Yager
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092399 - 19 Sep 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4480
Abstract
Greige cotton (unbleached cotton) is an intact plant fiber that retains much of the outer cotton fiber layers. These layers contain pectin, peroxidases, and trace metals that are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. When [...] Read more.
Greige cotton (unbleached cotton) is an intact plant fiber that retains much of the outer cotton fiber layers. These layers contain pectin, peroxidases, and trace metals that are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. When greige cotton is subjected to a nonwoven hydroentanglement process, components of the outer cotton fiber layers are retained. When hydrated, this fabric can generate H2O2 (5–50 micromolar). This range has been characterized as inducing accelerated wound healing associated with enhanced cell signaling and the proliferation of cells vital to wound restoration. On the other hand, H2O2 levels above 50 micromolar have been associated with bacteriostatic activity. Here, we report the preparation and hydrogen peroxide activity of copper/ascorbate formulations, both as adsorbed and in situ synthesized analogs on cotton. The cooper/ascorbate-cotton formulations were designed with the goal of modulating hydrogen peroxide levels within functional ranges beneficial to wound healing. The cotton/copper formulation analogs were prepared on nonwoven unbleached cotton and characterized with cotton impregnation titers of 3–14 mg copper per gram of cotton. The copper/ascorbate cotton analog formulations were characterized spectroscopically, and the copper titer was quantified with ICP analysis and probed for peroxide production through assessment with Amplex Red. All analogs demonstrated antibacterial activity. Notably, the treatment of unbleached cotton with low levels of ascorbate (~2 mg/g cotton) resulted in a 99 percent reduction in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. In situ synthesized copper/ascorbate nanoparticles retained activity and did not leach out upon prolonged suspension in an aqueous environment. An assessment of H2O2 effects on fibroblast proliferation are discussed in light of the copper/cotton analogs and wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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