Topic Editors

Dr. Alban Kuriqi
Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Prof. Dr. Luis Garrote
Department of Civil Engineering: Hydraulics, Energy and Environment, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change

Abstract submission deadline
31 October 2022
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2022
Viewed by
43722

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is a crucial element on Earth for all living and non-living components. Presently, climate change is an alarming issue for managing and sustaining life on Earth. Given climate change, the water resources all over the world have been drastically placed under a stressed condition, which is evident from the uneven weather patterns, droughts, floods, and cloud bursts, among others. Only three percent of the water resources on Earth are fresh and two-thirds of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. Of the remaining one percent, a fifth is in remote, inaccessible areas. Much seasonal rainfall in monsoonal deluges and floods cannot be easily used. At present, only about 0.08 percent of all the world's freshwater is exploited by humankind in an ever-increasing demand for sanitation, drinking, manufacturing, leisure, and agriculture. Ever-increasing water exploitation has intensively degraded freshwater ecosystems, notably rivers.

Furthermore, the climate extremes and water scarcity enhanced by climate change induce additional stress in the freshwater ecosystems and may stimulate conflicts among water users. In addition, we are aware that water is needed for several vital human activities, of which agricultural and industrial activities seem to be the primary water consumer. In the context in which we observe more frequent droughts and incidences of water scarcity in the world, water systems management requires the most advanced approaches and tools for rigorously addressing all of the dimensions involved in the sustainability of its development.

Therefore, this Topic Collection's main objective is to contribute to understanding water systems management and to provide science-based knowledge, new ideas/approaches, and solutions for water resources management. Water demand for irrigation has been steadily increasing during the last decades. However, simultaneously, other water users have been competing with agricultural sectors for water resources. Conservation of freshwater ecosystems also needs special attention through sufficient allocation of the environmental flows. In addition, in terms of projected climate change through warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns, it is expected to decrease water availability and to increase water demand in many areas of the world.

Consequently, soil productivity and thus crop production could be drastically reduced. These trends raise concerns, highlighting the role of water and natural resources management, as well as their conservation for the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. How well irrigated agriculture adapts to water scarcity scenarios, particularly by increasing water use efficiency and better estimating evapotranspiration, will directly affect the future and sustainability of the sector. Therefore, we invite authors to contribute original research articles and review articles focused on different practices and experiences of water management issues.

This collection includes but is not limited to the following topics:

  • Water management under climate extremes/change;
  • River restoration;
  • River rehabilitation;
  • Freshwater ecosystem conservation;
  • Environmental flows;
  • Hydrologic alteration;
  • Evapotranspiration;
  • Irrigation scheduling;
  • Water supply;
  • Drip irrigation;
  • Soil moisture sensors;
  • Water quality;
  • Heuristic methods in water management;
  • Precision agriculture;
  • Climate-smart irrigation tools;
  • Role of GIS and RS in water management;
  • Rainwater harvesting;
  • Green infrastructure;
  • Bioswales and rain gardens;
  • Hydroponics.

Dr. Alban Kuriqi
Prof. Dr. Luis Garrote
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • remote sensing
  • soil moisture
  • water management optimization and modeling
  • ecohydrology
  • ecohydraulic
  • water quality
  • water harvesting
  • climate change
  • irrigation
  • evapotranspiration
  • water governance
  • urban floods

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.408 3.1 2011 19.8 Days 1800 CHF Submit
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
4.614 4.5 2004 22.5 Days 2500 CHF Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.349 7.4 2009 19.9 Days 2500 CHF Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Water
water
3.530 4.8 2009 17.8 Days 2200 CHF Submit

Published Papers (71 papers)

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Article
Understanding the Human Dimensions of Recycling and Source Separation Practices at the Household Level: An Evidence in Perak, Malaysia
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8023; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138023 - 30 Jun 2022
Abstract
Recycling and source separation (R&SS) are believed to have been the first attempt to minimise waste. This research adopted mixed methods that followed sequential quantitative then qualitative data collection, combining questionnaire surveys from 100 households, semi-structured interviews, and participatory observations to study the [...] Read more.
Recycling and source separation (R&SS) are believed to have been the first attempt to minimise waste. This research adopted mixed methods that followed sequential quantitative then qualitative data collection, combining questionnaire surveys from 100 households, semi-structured interviews, and participatory observations to study the human dimension of waste generation and management. Scoring Assessment (with modified Bloom’s Cut Off point) indicated that households had moderate knowledge and positive attitudes yet poor behaviour, and these three components indicated no linear associations, tested using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. However, age group, marital status, educational level and living duration showed statistical significance with households’ participation in source separation through Chi-Square Test. Meanwhile, observation data showed that waste management mechanisms and environment had inefficiently supported households’ participation in R&SS practices (external factors: poor accessibility to services, lack of tangible incentives, and absence of restriction in consumption). Elicited data indicated that a satisfactory level of intentions, knowledge, and willingness, together with good habit and quality persuasion (internal factors), were required to drive good behaviour. Subsequently, a series of recommendations were formulated to promote gradual yet solid transformation of the waste management system, tapping on existing initiatives by considering additional parameters upon the gap in households’ knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Review
Diversifying Water Sources with Atmospheric Water Harvesting to Enhance Water Supply Resilience
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7783; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137783 - 26 Jun 2022
Abstract
The unequivocal global warming has an explicit impact on the natural water cycle and resultantly leads to an increasing occurrence of extreme weather events which in turn bring challenges and unavoidable destruction to the urban water supply system. As such, diversifying water sources [...] Read more.
The unequivocal global warming has an explicit impact on the natural water cycle and resultantly leads to an increasing occurrence of extreme weather events which in turn bring challenges and unavoidable destruction to the urban water supply system. As such, diversifying water sources is a key solution to building the resilience of the water supply system. An atmospheric water harvesting can capture water out of the air and provide a point-of-use water source directly. Currently, a series of atmospheric water harvesting have been proposed and developed to provide water sources under various moisture content ranging from 30–80% with a maximum water collection rate of 200,000 L/day. In comparison to conventional water source alternatives, atmospheric water harvesting avoids the construction of storage and distribution grey infrastructure. However, the high price and low water generation rate make this technology unfavorable as a viable alternative to general potable water sources whereas it has advantages compared with bottled water in both cost and environmental impacts. Moreover, atmospheric water harvesting can also provide a particular solution in the agricultural sector in countries with poor irrigation infrastructure but moderate humidity. Overall, atmospheric water harvesting could provide communities and/or cities with an indiscriminate solution to enhance water supply resilience. Further research and efforts are needed to increase the water generation rate and reduce the cost, particularly via leveraging solar energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
The Effects of Climate Change on the Tagus–Segura Transfer: Diagnosis of the Water Balance in the Vega Baja del Segura (Alicante, Spain)
Water 2022, 14(13), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132023 - 24 Jun 2022
Abstract
Climate change is one of the most important problems facing society in the 21st century. Despite the uncertainty about the behaviour of rainfall due to climate change, what is clear is that average rainfall has been reduced in the inland areas and headwaters [...] Read more.
Climate change is one of the most important problems facing society in the 21st century. Despite the uncertainty about the behaviour of rainfall due to climate change, what is clear is that average rainfall has been reduced in the inland areas and headwaters of Spain’s river basins. The Tagus basin is one of the most affected, with implications for the Jucar and Segura basins. The working hypothesis is to corroborate with the data collected on the effects of climate change on the TTS. To this end, the following methodology has been applied: (a) analysis in the headwaters of the Tagus, using data on precipitation, surface runoff and reservoir water; (b) analysis of the resources of the Segura basin (supply and demand), based on the basin organisation’s own data; (c) construction of a water balance adjusted to the Bajo Segura district (Alicante), a user of the water transferred for agricultural use. Likewise, the data provided by the basin organisation have made it possible to corroborate the data on consumption and allocation of the corresponding volumes of water. The results obtained make it possible to put forward a novel proposal in the scientific field related to hydrological planning based on the principles of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Virtual Water Flow Pattern in the Yellow River Basin, China: An Analysis Based on a Multiregional Input–Output Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127345 - 15 Jun 2022
Abstract
Research on the Yellow River Basin’s virtual water is not only beneficial for rational water resource regulation and allocation, but it is also a crucial means of relieving the pressures of a shortage of water resources. The water stress index and pull coefficient [...] Read more.
Research on the Yellow River Basin’s virtual water is not only beneficial for rational water resource regulation and allocation, but it is also a crucial means of relieving the pressures of a shortage of water resources. The water stress index and pull coefficient have been introduced to calculate the implied virtual water from intraregional and interregional trade in the Yellow River Basin on the basis of a multi-regional input–output model; a systematic study of virtual water flow has been conducted. The analysis illustrated that: (1) Agriculture is the leading sector in terms of virtual water input and output among all provinces in the Yellow River Basin, which explains the high usage. Therefore, it is important to note that the agricultural sector needs to improve its water efficiency. In addition to agriculture, virtual water is mainly exported through supply companies in the upper reaches; the middle reaches mainly output services and the transportation industry, and the lower reaches mainly output to the manufacturing industry. Significant differences exist in the pull coefficients of the same sectors in different provinces (regions). The average pull coefficients of the manufacturing, mining, and construction industries are large, so it is necessary to formulate stricter water use policies. (2) The whole basin is in a state of virtual net water input, that is, throughout the region. The Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Qinghai Provinces, which are relatively short of water, import virtual water to relieve local water pressures. However, in the Gansu Province and the Ningxia Autonomous Region, where water resources are not abundant, continuous virtual water output will exacerbate the local resource shortage. (3) The Yellow River Basin’s virtual water resources have obvious geographical distribution characteristics. The cross-provincial trade volume in the downstream area is high; the virtual water trade volume in the upstream area is low, as it is in the midstream and downstream areas; the trade relationship is insufficient. The Henan and Shandong Provinces are located in the dominant flow direction of Yellow River Basin’s virtual water, while Gansu and Inner Mongolia are at the major water sources. Trade exchanges between the midstream and downstream and the upstream should be strengthened. Therefore, the utilization of water resources should be planned nationwide to reduce water pressures, and policymakers should improve the performance of agricultural water use within the Yellow River Basin and change the main trade industries according to the resource advantages and water resources situation of each of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Spatial–Temporal Variations of Water Ecosystem Services Value and Its Influencing Factors: A Case in Typical Regions of the Central Loess Plateau
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7169; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127169 - 11 Jun 2022
Abstract
Water resources provide indispensable ecosystem services, which are related to human well-being and sustainable social development. Accurately measuring the water ecosystem services value (WESV), and then grasping its changing characteristics, is particularly important for solving water problems. In this study, the typical area [...] Read more.
Water resources provide indispensable ecosystem services, which are related to human well-being and sustainable social development. Accurately measuring the water ecosystem services value (WESV), and then grasping its changing characteristics, is particularly important for solving water problems. In this study, the typical area of the central Loess Plateau location is taken as the research area. Based on remote sensing images and statistical data, the direct market method combined with the equivalent factor method was used to calculate the WESV including groundwater and surface water, which is of greatest originality. The temporal and spatial variation characteristics in 2010, 2015 and 2020 were analyzed. Then, four WESV driving factors including per capita GDP, population density, proportion of water areas, and water consumption were selected, and the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern and temporal variation of WESV’s response to the influencing factors. The results showed that WESV experienced a process of first decreasing and then increasing, which was mainly caused by Yulin. For the composition of WESV, the proportion of provisioning services value has increased, which caused the proportion of regulating services value to decrease. The correlations between four factors and WESV were different. The distribution pattern of the influences was spatially heterogeneous, which showed regular variations over time. These results indicate the necessity of WESV’s independent research and provide a realistic basis for ecological compensation in the Yellow River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
New Insights into Microbial Degradation of Cyanobacterial Organic Matter Using a Fractionation Procedure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 6981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126981 - 07 Jun 2022
Abstract
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by phytoplankton Microcystis have occurred successively since 1980 in Lake Taihu, China, which has led to difficulty collecting clean drinking water. The effects of cyanobacterial scum-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) on microbial population variations and of algal-derived filtrate and algal [...] Read more.
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by phytoplankton Microcystis have occurred successively since 1980 in Lake Taihu, China, which has led to difficulty collecting clean drinking water. The effects of cyanobacterial scum-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) on microbial population variations and of algal-derived filtrate and algal residual exudative organic matter caused by the fraction procedure on nutrient mineralization are unclear. This study revealed the microbial-regulated transformation of DOM from a high-molecular-weight labile to a low-molecular-weight recalcitrant, which was characterized by three obvious stages. The bioavailability of DOM derived from cyanobacterial scum by lake microbes was investigated during 80-d dark degradation. Carbon substrates provided distinct growth strategy links to the free-living bacteria abundance variation, and this process was coupled with the regeneration of different forms of inorganic nutrients. The carryover effects of Microcystis cyanobacteria blooms can exist for a long time. We also found the transformation of different biological availability of DOM derived from two different cyanobacterial DOM fractions, which all coupled with the regeneration of different forms of inorganic nutrients. Our study provides new insights into the microbial degradation of cyanobacterial organic matter using a fractionation procedure, which suggests that the exudate and lysate from degradation products of cyanobacteria biomass have heterogeneous impacts on DOM cycling in aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Use of the Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Satellites for Water Quality Monitoring: An Early Warning Tool in the Mar Menor Coastal Lagoon
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122744 - 07 Jun 2022
Abstract
During recent years, several eutrophication processes and subsequent environmental crises have occurred in Mar Menor, the largest hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Western Mediterranean Sea. In this study, the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellites are jointly used to examine the evolution of the main [...] Read more.
During recent years, several eutrophication processes and subsequent environmental crises have occurred in Mar Menor, the largest hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Western Mediterranean Sea. In this study, the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellites are jointly used to examine the evolution of the main water quality descriptors during the latest ecological crisis in 2021, resulting in an important loss of benthic vegetation and unusual mortality events affecting different aquatic species. Several field campaigns were carried out in March, July, August, and November 2021 to measure water quality variables over 10 control points. The validation of satellite biogeochemical variables against on-site measurements indicates precise results of the water quality algorithms with median errors of 0.41 mg/m3 and 2.04 FNU for chlorophyll-a and turbidity, respectively. The satellite preprocessing scheme shows consistent performance for both satellites; therefore, using them in tandem can improve mapping strategies. The findings demonstrate the suitability of the methodology to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration at 10–30 m spatial resolution on a systematic basis and in a cost-effective way. The multitemporal products allow the identification of the main critical areas close to the mouth of the Albujon watercourse and the beginning of the eutrophication process with chlorophyll-a concentration above 3 mg/m3. These innovative tools can support decision makers in improving current monitoring strategies as early warning systems for timely assistance during these ecological disasters, thus preventing detrimental conditions in the lagoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Mixed-Unit-Model-Based and Quantitative Studies on Groundwater Recharging and Discharging between Aquifers of Aksu River
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6936; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116936 - 06 Jun 2022
Abstract
The confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin is the main aquifer for drinking water within the area. In this study, the unconfined aquifer and the confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin were divided into different water circulation units through analysis of [...] Read more.
The confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin is the main aquifer for drinking water within the area. In this study, the unconfined aquifer and the confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin were divided into different water circulation units through analysis of their flow field. After the hydrochemistry and isotope characteristics of each unit were analyzed, these data were used as water volume quantitative information of the aquifer according to the mixed-unit model. With this quantitative information, the transformation relationship between the unconfined aquifer and the confined aquifer, the recharging source, recharging amount, recharging proportion, and discharging amount of the confined aquifer were revealed. The results showed that the confined aquifer receives a recharge of 21.48 × 106 m3/a from the unconfined aquifer. The recharging sources of the confined aquifer in the middle and upper stream of the Aksu River mainly included side recharging and leakage recharging from the unconfined aquifer, while the confined aquifer received little recharging from unconfined aquifer downstream of the Aksu River and did not receive recharging from the unconfined aquifer in the southeast of the basin. Additionally, drainage methods of the confined aquifer were mainly lateral flowing and artificial well-group pumping. The side discharging volume through the whole area was 15.67 × 106 m3/a, and the artificial pumping volume was 21.20 × 106 m3/a. The confined aquifer was in a negative balance state from the middle-upper stream to the downstream. The downstream confined aquifer and its unconfined aquifer had a plane laminar flow movement, and the unconfined aquifer provided very little recharging to the confined one, which was further enhanced by the artificial well pumping and caused an accumulating negative balance state of the downstream aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Estimating Canopy-Scale Evapotranspiration from Localized Sap Flow Measurements
Water 2022, 14(11), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111812 - 04 Jun 2022
Abstract
The results reported in this work are based in part on measurements of sap flow in a few select trees on a representative riparian forest plot coupled with a forest-wide randomized sampling of tree sapwood area in a watershed located along the Pacific [...] Read more.
The results reported in this work are based in part on measurements of sap flow in a few select trees on a representative riparian forest plot coupled with a forest-wide randomized sampling of tree sapwood area in a watershed located along the Pacific coast in Santa Cruz County, California. These measurements were upscaled to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) across the forest and to quantify groundwater usage by dominant phreatophyte vegetation. Canopy cover in the study area is dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra) and arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis), deciduous phreatophyte trees from which a small sample was selected for instrumentation with sap flow sensors on a single forest plot. These localized sap flow measurements were then upscaled to the entire riparian forest to estimate forest ET using data from a survey of sapwood area on six plots scattered randomly across the entire forest. The estimated canopy-scale ET was compared to reference ET and NDVI based estimates. The results show positive correlation between sap flow based estimates and those of the other two methods, though over the winter months, sap flow-based ET values were found to significantly underestimate ET as predicted by the other two methods. The results illustrate the importance of ground-based measurements of sap flow for calibrating satellite based methods and for providing site-specific estimates and to better characterize the ET forcing in groundwater flow models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Assessment of Daily of Reference Evapotranspiration Using CLDAS Product in Different Climate Regions of China
Water 2022, 14(11), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111744 - 29 May 2022
Abstract
Reference Crop evapotranspiration (ET0) datasets based on reanalysis products can make up for the time discontinuity and the spatial insufficiency of surface meteorological platform data, which is of great significance for water resources planning and irrigation system formulation. However, a [...] Read more.
Reference Crop evapotranspiration (ET0) datasets based on reanalysis products can make up for the time discontinuity and the spatial insufficiency of surface meteorological platform data, which is of great significance for water resources planning and irrigation system formulation. However, a rigorous evaluation must be conducted to verify if reanalysis products have application values. This study first evaluated the ability of the second-generation China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) dataset for officially estimating ET0 (the local meteorological station data is used as the reference dataset). The results suggest that the temperature data of CLDAS have high accuracy in all regions except the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (QTP) region. In contrast, the global solar radiation data accuracy is fair, and the relative humidity and wind speed data quality are poor. The overall accuracy of ET0 is acceptable other than QTP, but there are also less than 15% (103) of stations with significant errors. In terms of seasons, the error is largest in summer and smallest in winter. Additionally, there are inter-annual differences in the ET0 of this data set. Overall, the CLDAS dataset is expected to have good applicability in the Inner Mongolia Grassland area for estimating ET0, Northeast Taiwan, the Semi Northern Temperate zone, the Humid and Semi Humid warm Temperate zone, and the subtropical region. However, there are certain risks in other regions. In addition, of all seasons, summer and spring have the slightest bias, followed by autumn and winter. From 2017 to 2020, bias in 2019 and 2020 are the smallest, and the areas with large deviation are south of climate zone 3, the coastal area of climate zone 6, and the boundary area of climate zone 7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Study Protocol
A Systematic Study Site Selection Protocol to Determine Environmental Flows in the Headwater Catchments of the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106259 - 21 May 2022
Abstract
Developing nations will be worst hit by the impacts of climate change because limited resources hinder the spatial reach of climate studies, effort, and subsequent implementation to help with the improvement of livelihoods. Therefore, finding the best-case study is an essential undertaking in [...] Read more.
Developing nations will be worst hit by the impacts of climate change because limited resources hinder the spatial reach of climate studies, effort, and subsequent implementation to help with the improvement of livelihoods. Therefore, finding the best-case study is an essential undertaking in environmental assessments. This study explains one systematic approach to selecting a study site for an environmental assessment project. A desktop review of relevant literature, a simple factor scoring assessment process, reliance on expert opinion, and a field survey for ground-truthing were conducted. The desktop review showed the most critical factors to site selection. The scoring of these factors selected those that were crucial for the study. Experts validated the results and suggested the best study site among the ones identified. While the design is simplified, the proposed approach selects the most appropriate study site for environmental assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
An Extended Watershed-Based AHP Model for Flood Hazard Estimation: Constraining Runoff Converging Indicators via MFD-Derived Sub-Watershed by Maximum Zonal Statistical Method
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102465 - 20 May 2022
Abstract
Floods threaten the sustainable development of areas with a high probability of hazard. A typical analytic hierarchy process (pixel-based AHP) based flood hazard estimation method may ignore the similar threat caused by neighborhood cells at the sub-watershed scale. This study proposed an extended [...] Read more.
Floods threaten the sustainable development of areas with a high probability of hazard. A typical analytic hierarchy process (pixel-based AHP) based flood hazard estimation method may ignore the similar threat caused by neighborhood cells at the sub-watershed scale. This study proposed an extended watershed-based Zonal Statistical AHP for flood hazard estimation: Constraining converging related indicators by the sub-watersheds (WZSAHP-RC) model to improve this gap. Before calculating the flood hazard index, the proposed model uses the sub-watershed derived by the multiple flow direction method as a based unit to calculate the maximum zonal statistical value of runoff converging indicators. Moreover, taking the Chaohu basin of Anhui in China as the case study, the validation flooding ground-truthing was constructed from GF-3, and Landsat OLI images of the flood event from 20 July to 24 July 2020, which is the biggest flood recorded by the Zhongmiao station, which recorded a new water level, 0.82 m higher than the historical record. Compared with the validation, the results indicated the proposed method could improve the correct ratio by 38% (from 22% to 60%) and the fit ratio by 17% (from 18% to 35%) when considering the predicted flood hazard levels of “High” and “Very High” as flooded areas. Moreover, the flood hazard map derived by WZSAHP-RC demonstrated greater consistency in the flooded districts filtered by Baidu News than the pixel-based AHP. It revealed that considering two- or even multi-dimensional homogeneity may help to improve the accuracy of flood hazard maps on a catchment scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Stormwater Utilities: A Sustainable Answer to Many Questions
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6179; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106179 - 19 May 2022
Abstract
One of the most complex and difficult questions to answer concerns how to organize and economically support public services of all kinds. In terms of services that involve a multiplicity of actors and objectives, as is the case with urban stormwater management, the [...] Read more.
One of the most complex and difficult questions to answer concerns how to organize and economically support public services of all kinds. In terms of services that involve a multiplicity of actors and objectives, as is the case with urban stormwater management, the difficulty is magnified and resources never seem to be sufficient. This paper reviews the successful approaches to stormwater management in a number of countries and concludes that it is both feasible and possible to successfully structure stormwater management in cities using a variety of models and incentives. With examples from cases practiced in the USA and Canada, based theoretically on the user-pays principle and on the fair distribution of impacts, the text innovates showing not only a technically and legally viable option, but an opportunity for users to become aware of the importance of reducing environmental impacts. By raising the possibility of delivering services out of the general public budget, reducing the taxation of all in exchange for charging only users and improving the performance, the discussion is directed, in an innovative way, to a very rarely questioned aspect and links the change in mentality from and economic way of thinking towards the new stormwater paradigm shift and SDGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Selenium in Drinking Water during the 1990–2021 Period: Treatment Options for Selenium Removal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 5834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105834 - 11 May 2022
Abstract
A bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database was carried out to summarize the global research related to selenium in drinking water from 1990 to 2021 and identify the quantitative characteristics of the research in this period. The results from the analysis revealed [...] Read more.
A bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database was carried out to summarize the global research related to selenium in drinking water from 1990 to 2021 and identify the quantitative characteristics of the research in this period. The results from the analysis revealed that the number of accumulated publications followed a quadratic growth, which confirmed the relevance this research topic is gaining during the last years. High research efforts have been invested to define safe selenium content in drinking water, since the insufficient or excessive intake of selenium and the corresponding effects on human health are only separated by a narrow margin. Some important research features of the four main technologies most frequently used to remove selenium from drinking water (coagulation, flocculation and precipitation followed by filtration; adsorption and ion exchange; membrane-based processes and biological treatments) were compiled in this work. Although the search of technological options to remove selenium from drinking water is less intensive than the search of solutions to reduce and eliminate the presence of other pollutants, adsorption was the alternative that has received the most attention according to the research trends during the studied period, followed by membrane technologies, while biological methods require further research efforts to promote their implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Review
A Review of On-Site Carwash Wastewater Treatment
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105764 - 10 May 2022
Abstract
In recent years, people’s environmental awareness has increased. The high density of the urban population has caused a considerable increase in the demand for car washing services, which has created large quantities of car wash wastewater. The main pollutants in car wash wastewater [...] Read more.
In recent years, people’s environmental awareness has increased. The high density of the urban population has caused a considerable increase in the demand for car washing services, which has created large quantities of car wash wastewater. The main pollutants in car wash wastewater are detergents, dirt, oil, and grease. Untreated wastewater released into rainwater sewer systems or other water bodies may pollute the water and generate excessive bubble foams, which negatively affects urban appearance. Car washes are divided into mechanical car washes and manual or self-service car washes. In general, car washes have a small operation and scale, occupy limited land, and cannot afford wastewater treatment costs. Therefore, most car washes are not equipped with wastewater treatment facilities. Consequently, the discharge of wastewater from car washes negatively affects the water quality in the surrounding environment and results in wasteful use of water resources. This study reviewed 68 research papers on the quality, treatment techniques, treatment costs, and treatment effectiveness of car wash wastewater to provide a reference for car wash operators to contribute to the preservation of water resources. We found that there is a higher chance of recycling car wash wastewater when combing two different techniques for car wash wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Wheat and Maize Yields in the North China Plain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095707 - 07 May 2022
Abstract
Climate change has significantly affected agricultural production. As one of China’s most important agricultural production regions, the North China Plain (NCP) is subject to climate change. This paper examines the influence of climate change on the wheat and maize yields at household and [...] Read more.
Climate change has significantly affected agricultural production. As one of China’s most important agricultural production regions, the North China Plain (NCP) is subject to climate change. This paper examines the influence of climate change on the wheat and maize yields at household and village levels, using the multilevel model based on a large panel survey dataset in the NCP. The results show that: (i) Extreme weather events (drought and flood) would significantly reduce the wheat and maize yields. So, the governments should establish and improve the emergency service system of disaster warning and encourage farmers to mitigate the adverse effects of disasters. (ii) Over the past three decades, the NCP has experienced climate change that affects its grain production. Therefore, it is imperative to build the farmers’ adaptive capacity to climate change. (iii) Spatial variations in crop yield are significantly influenced by the household characteristics and the heterogeneity of village economic conditions. Therefore, in addition to promoting household production, it is necessary to strengthen and promote China’s development of the rural collective economy, especially the construction of rural irrigation and drainage infrastructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Local-Scale Groundwater Sustainability Assessment Based on the Response to Groundwater Mining (MGSI): A Case Study of Da’an City, Jilin Province, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5618; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095618 - 06 May 2022
Abstract
Sustainable groundwater utilization is important for social and economic development. There is a need for groundwater sustainability assessment in small-scale areas lacking detailed mining data. Here, exploiting water level data series, we propose an indicator of groundwater sustainability based on the response to [...] Read more.
Sustainable groundwater utilization is important for social and economic development. There is a need for groundwater sustainability assessment in small-scale areas lacking detailed mining data. Here, exploiting water level data series, we propose an indicator of groundwater sustainability based on the response to mining (MGSI) for better evaluation; it integrates groundwater data and spatio-temporal variability at a local scale. A decomposition coefficient was applied to decompose the pressure exerted by groundwater mining on the groundwater system for each monitoring well. It correlated with the groundwater response state. In Da’an City, Jilin Province, China, the appraised results revealed that the aquifer type exhibiting the greatest risk to groundwater sustainability changed from phreatic to confined during 2008–2017. The spatio-temporal distribution of different sustainability levels between and within the aquifers indicated that adjustment of the groundwater mining layout should be the focus of groundwater management in Da’an City. Additionally, the Mann–Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope trend analysis effectively explained the sustainable evolution of groundwater in Da’an City and confirmed the reliability of the MGSI method. The proposed method highlights the effects of groundwater mining on sustainability and helps us better understand the interaction between anthropogenic activities and groundwater resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
A Flood Risk Management Model to Identify Optimal Defence Policies in Coastal Areas Considering Uncertainties in Climate Projections
Water 2022, 14(9), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091481 - 05 May 2022
Abstract
Coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to flooding from heavy rainfall, sea storm surge, or a combination of the two. Recent studies project higher intensity and frequency of heavy rains, and progressive sea level rise continuing over the next decades. Pre-emptive and optimal flood [...] Read more.
Coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to flooding from heavy rainfall, sea storm surge, or a combination of the two. Recent studies project higher intensity and frequency of heavy rains, and progressive sea level rise continuing over the next decades. Pre-emptive and optimal flood defense policies that adaptively address climate change are needed. However, future climate projections have significant uncertainty due to multiple factors: (a) future CO2 emission scenarios; (b) uncertainties in climate modelling; (c) discount factor changes due to market fluctuations; (d) uncertain migration and population growth dynamics. Here, a methodology is proposed to identify the optimal design and timing of flood defense structures in which uncertainties in 21st century climate projections are explicitly considered probabilistically. A multi-objective optimization model is developed to minimize both the cost of the flood defence infrastructure system and the flooding hydraulic risk expressed by Expected Annual Damage (EAD). The decision variables of the multi-objective optimization problem are the size of defence system and the timing of implementation. The model accounts for the joint probability density functions of extreme rainfall, storm surge and sea level rise, as well as the damages, which are determined dynamically by the defence system state considering the probability and consequences of system failure, using a water depth–damage curve related to the land use (Corine Land Cover); water depth due to flooding are calculated by hydraulic model. A new dominant sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII) is used to solve the multi-objective problem optimization. A case study is presented for the Pontina Plain (Lazio Italy), a coastal region, originally a swamp reclaimed about a hundred years ago, that is rich in urban centers and farms. A set of optimal adaptation policies, quantifying size and timing of flood defence constructions for different climate scenarios and belonging to the Pareto curve obtained by the NSGAII are identified for such a case study to mitigate the risk of flooding and to aid decision makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Benefit Analysis of Economic and Social Water Supply in Xi’an Based on the Emergy Method
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5001; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095001 - 21 Apr 2022
Abstract
In order to manage regional water resources efficiently and sustainably and promote the rational utilization of water resources, it is necessary to evaluate the water-supply benefit reasonably. On the basis of emergy theory, this paper constructs the water-supply-benefit model of economic (industry, agriculture, [...] Read more.
In order to manage regional water resources efficiently and sustainably and promote the rational utilization of water resources, it is necessary to evaluate the water-supply benefit reasonably. On the basis of emergy theory, this paper constructs the water-supply-benefit model of economic (industry, agriculture, and the tertiary industry) and social (domestic, employment security, entertainment, scientific research) systems. Taking Xi’an from 2014 to 2020 as an example, by analyzing the energy flow of each system and the multisource water transformities, the water contribution rate, the water-supply benefit, and the unit-water-resource value in each system are calculated. For the water-supply benefits: Industry > Agriculture > Domestic > Tertiary industry > Employment Security > Entertainment > Scientific research. For the unit-water-resource values: Industry > Tertiary industry > Agriculture > Domestic > Entertainment > Employment security > Scientific research. In the economic system, the water-supply benefit and the unit-water value of industry were always the largest, followed by agriculture and the tertiary industry. However, the Pearson correlation coefficient between the water contribution rate and the output of the industrial system was only 0.52, which was less than that of other production industries, which indicates that there might be a waste of water and that industrial water conservation needs to be further strengthened. In the social system, the domestic-water-supply benefits and the water-resource value were the largest. This is because water resources, as a basic resource, always affect people’s health and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Runoff Reduction Effects at Installation of LID Facilities under Different Climate Change Scenarios
Water 2022, 14(8), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081301 - 16 Apr 2022
Abstract
In order to prepare for floods and droughts that occur as a result of climate change, various studies in water-related fields are being carried out in various countries around the world. Among them, special attention is being paid to the low-impact development (LID) [...] Read more.
In order to prepare for floods and droughts that occur as a result of climate change, various studies in water-related fields are being carried out in various countries around the world. Among them, special attention is being paid to the low-impact development (LID) technique. This study measured the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 2019 to 2100 by climate change scenario, which is the annual maximum daily rainfall series observed for rainfall stations, and tested the hydrological data using statistical analysis. After determining whether the data could be analyzed, the probability distribution was selected, and the parameters of the selected probability distribution were calculated using the L-moment method for each rainfall station. The probabilities of rainfall data were derived using GEV distribution, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), a runoff simulation program, was used to compare and analyze the runoff reduction rate before and after the installation of a permeable pavement as an LID facility. The results of the analysis showed that representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 had the effect of reducing the runoff for more than 100 years at a 30% reduction rate compared with before installation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Analysis of Multispectral Drought Indices in Central Tunisia
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(8), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14081813 - 09 Apr 2022
Abstract
Surface water stress remote sensing indices can be very helpful to monitor the impact of drought on agro-ecosystems, and serve as early warning indicators to avoid further damages to the crop productivity. In this study, we compare indices from three different spectral domains: [...] Read more.
Surface water stress remote sensing indices can be very helpful to monitor the impact of drought on agro-ecosystems, and serve as early warning indicators to avoid further damages to the crop productivity. In this study, we compare indices from three different spectral domains: the plant water use derived from evapotranspiration retrieved using data from the thermal infrared domain, the root zone soil moisture at low resolution derived from the microwave domain using the Soil Water Index (SWI), and the active vegetation fraction cover deduced from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series. The thermal stress index is computed from a dual-source model Soil Plant Atmosphere and Remote Evapotranspiration (SPARSE) that relies on meteorological variables and remote sensing data. In order to extend in time the available meteorological series, we compare the use of a statistical downscaling method applied to reanalysis data with the use of the unprocessed reanalysis data. Our study shows that thermal indices show comparable performance overall compared to the SWI at better resolution. However, thermal indices are more sensitive for a drought period and tend to react quickly to water stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Graphical abstract

Hypothesis
Water Footprint Assessment of Rainfed Crops with Critical Irrigation under Different Climate Change Scenarios in SAT Regions
Water 2022, 14(8), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081206 - 08 Apr 2022
Abstract
Semi-Arid Tropical (SAT) regions are influenced by climate change impacts affecting the rainfed crops in their productivity and production. Water Footprint (WF) assessment for rainfed crops on watershed scale is critical for water resource planning, development, efficient crop planning, and, better water use [...] Read more.
Semi-Arid Tropical (SAT) regions are influenced by climate change impacts affecting the rainfed crops in their productivity and production. Water Footprint (WF) assessment for rainfed crops on watershed scale is critical for water resource planning, development, efficient crop planning, and, better water use efficiency. A semi-arid tropical watershed was selected in lower Krishna river basin having a 4700 ha area in Telangana, India. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate the water balance components of watershed like runoff, potential evapotranspiration, percolation, and effective rainfall for base period (1994 to 2013) and different climate change scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 for the time periods of 2020, 2050 and 2080. Green and blue WF of rainfed crops viz., maize, sorghum, groundnut, redgram and cotton were performed by considering rainfed, and two critical irrigations (CI) of 30mm and 50mm. It indicated that the effective rainfall (ER) is less than crop evapo-transpiration (ET) during crop growing period under different RCPs, time periods, and base period. The green WF under rainfed condition over different RCPs and time periods had decreasing trend for all crops. The study suggested that in the rainfed agro-ecosystems, the blue WF can significantly reduce the total WF by enhancing the productivity through critical irrigation management using on farm water resources developed through rainwater harvesting structures. The maximum significant reduction in WF over the base period was observed 13–16% under rainfed, 30–32% with 30 mm CI and 40–42% with 50 mm CI by 2080. Development of crop varieties particularly in oilseeds and pulses which have less WF and higher yields for unit of water consumed could be a solution for improving overall WF in the watersheds of SAT regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variation of Groundwater Extraction Intensity Based on Geostatistics—Set Pair Analysis in Daxing District of Beijing, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074341 - 06 Apr 2022
Abstract
In this paper, the authors studied the impact of human activities on the groundwater environment to reduce the impacts such activities for sustainable groundwater use. The authors took the monthly water table depth data of 32 long-term observation wells in the Daxing District [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors studied the impact of human activities on the groundwater environment to reduce the impacts such activities for sustainable groundwater use. The authors took the monthly water table depth data of 32 long-term observation wells in the Daxing District of Beijing from 1986 to 2016 as samples. The authors used seven interpolation methods in the statistics module of ArcGIS by comparing the average error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the measured and predicted values so that the authors can select the best interpolation method. Using the geostatistical variogram model variation, the authors analyzed the nugget effect through time in the study area. On the basis of the set pair analysis, the main factors causing the increase in groundwater exploitation intensity were quantitatively evaluated and identified. The results were as follows. (1) After comparing the simulation accuracy of the seven interpolation methods for water table depth, ordinary Kriging interpolation was selected as the best interpolation model for the study area. (2) The spatial correlation of the water table depth gradually weakened, and the nugget effect from 2006 to 2016 was 25.92% (>25%). The data indicated that human groundwater exploitation activities from 2006 to 2016 greatly influenced the spatial correlation of the water table depth. (3) The average mining intensity of groundwater from 2006 to 2016 was medium (Level II), and a bleak gradual deterioration trend was observed. The evaluation results of the subtraction set pair potentials in 2010 and 2013, the years of key regulation of groundwater exploitation intensity, are partial negative potential and negative potential, respectively. In 2010, three indicators had partial negative potential: industrial product, tertiary industry product, and irrigated field area. In 2013, five indicators were in negative potential: irrigated area, vegetable area, facility agricultural area, fruit tree area, and the number of wells. Herein, the spatial and temporal variations in the water table depth of the study area are analyzed using a geostatistical method. Moreover, the influence of each water part on the groundwater exploitation intensity is further diagnosed and evaluated based on set pair analysis. The obtained results can provide a theoretical and methodological reference for the sustainable utilization of groundwater in regions where groundwater is the main water supply source, providing a basis for industrial regulation policies in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Assessment of BMPs by Estimating Hydrologic and Water Quality Outputs Using SWAT in Yazoo River Watershed
Agriculture 2022, 12(4), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12040477 - 29 Mar 2022
Abstract
Water quality is a global concern; it is due to point and non-point source pollution. Non-point sources for pollution are mainly runoff from Agricultural and forest. To decrease nutrient inputs, management practices are implemented. Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool, water quality parameters [...] Read more.
Water quality is a global concern; it is due to point and non-point source pollution. Non-point sources for pollution are mainly runoff from Agricultural and forest. To decrease nutrient inputs, management practices are implemented. Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool, water quality parameters can be quantified. Yazoo River Watershed is the largest watershed in Mississippi, which have impact on surface water quality due to large scale agriculture and forest lands. Model has been calibrated and validated for streamflow, sediment, Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP) for the USGS gauge stations in the watershed. Model efficiency was assessed with Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index (NSE). Best Management Practices (BMPs) were implemented throughout the watershed to simulate the impact of BMPs on streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yields. Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS), Riparian Buffer, combination of VFS and Riparian buffer and Cover Crops (CC) were tested for assessing the effective BMP in improving water quality. VFS, Riparian buffer and both (VFS + riparian) have no effect on streamflow, but they were able to decrease sediment, TN, and TP yields. Scenario with both VFS and Riparian buffer had the highest reduction capability as per varying width (5, 10, 15, and 20 m). For CC, Rye grass, Winter Barley and Winter Wheat (WW) were used, of which Rye grass had highest, 5.3% reduction in streamflow. WW has the highest Total Nitrogen reduction that is of 25.4%. CC also has significant reduction ranged between 10% to 11% for TP. This research would assist the Agricultural community to apply appropriate Management practices to improve water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Technical Note
QDA-System: A Cloud-Based System for Monitoring Water Quality in Brazilian Hydroelectric Reservoirs from Space
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071541 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article presents the QDA-System (Sistema Qualidade da Água, from Portuguese), a system developed to monitor the quality of surface waters in Brazilian hydroelectric reservoirs using satellite images and cloud computing services. The development requirements of the QDA-System considered its use [...] Read more.
This article presents the QDA-System (Sistema Qualidade da Água, from Portuguese), a system developed to monitor the quality of surface waters in Brazilian hydroelectric reservoirs using satellite images and cloud computing services. The development requirements of the QDA-System considered its use for operational monitoring purposes, with all processing steps automated, and a user-friendly interface to access and query the data generated automatically by the system. A pilot application of the QDA-System was customized and implemented for monitoring the Foz do Chapecó hydroelectric reservoir located in southern Brazil. For the pilot application, the QDA-System was customized to estimate nine water quality parameters,: five were estimated directly from Sentinel-2 multispectral images and four were estimated indirectly. We expect that in the near future the QDA-System can be replicated to monitor other Brazilian reservoirs, bringing benefits and cost reduction related to water quality monitoring, not only for the sector of hydroelectric generation but for other sectors that also need similar monitoring, such as sanitation and aquaculture production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Spatial and Temporal Changes in Wetland in Dongting Lake Basin of China under Long Time Series from 1990 to 2020
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3620; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063620 - 19 Mar 2022
Abstract
Wetland plays a pivotal role in sustaining ecosystems and adapting to climate change. This paper used remote sensing images from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 to investigate the changes in wetland in the Dongting Lake Basin (DLB) and their possible causes. The land-use [...] Read more.
Wetland plays a pivotal role in sustaining ecosystems and adapting to climate change. This paper used remote sensing images from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 to investigate the changes in wetland in the Dongting Lake Basin (DLB) and their possible causes. The land-use conversion matrix and contribution rate were calculated in 1990–2000, 2000–2010, and 2010–2020, and results showed that the total wetland area displayed an increasing trend, especially the reservoir ponds and channels across DLB from 1990 to 2020. Forest and agricultural land conversion into wetland accounted for the main proportion, with the greatest contribution rate (234.13%) of forest land and the smallest rate (−117.46%) of agricultural land between 1990 and 2000. On the contrary, agricultural land had the highest contribution rate (47.96%) for wetlands compared to other land-cover types from 2000 to 2010, followed by forest land (39.03%). The contribution rates of forest and agricultural lands to wetlands were 60.17% and 39.02% from 2010 to 2020, respectively. Wetlands showed a more significant net gain (a total of 259 km2) in Central and Southern Hunan Province. More specifically, the wetlands area in North Hunan Province decreased by 45 km2 from 1990 to 2000. It increased over the next two decades (155 km2 and 22 km2, respectively). Southern Hunan Province continued increasing from 1990 to 2010 (a total of 149 km2) while decreasing from 2010 to 2020 (a total of −297 km2). Forestation was the principal driving force promoting the continuous increase in wetlands. In addition, agricultural land was mainly related to wetland change in this region, characterized by reclaiming land from lakes in the earlier period and returning agricultural land to wetland in the later period. Built-up land occupied a small area of wetlands over the study period. The study is beneficial to understanding the wetlands’ dynamic changes in the past and present, as well as being useful for wetland management, consistent with sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Modelling the Hydrology of an Upland Catchment of Bystra River in 2050 Climate Using RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 Emission Scenario Forecasts
Agriculture 2022, 12(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12030403 - 14 Mar 2022
Abstract
This article presents selected flow modeling indices of the Bystra River catchment area (east Poland) obtained using the SWAT model simulations for three regional climate models driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model for 2021–2050 and both RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The [...] Read more.
This article presents selected flow modeling indices of the Bystra River catchment area (east Poland) obtained using the SWAT model simulations for three regional climate models driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model for 2021–2050 and both RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The research area was selected due to the large relief of the terrain, the predominance of soils made of loess and the agricultural nature of the Bystra River catchment area, which is very sensitive to climate change, has very valuable soils, and can be used as a test area for modeling land use-based adaptation measures to climate change. The calibration and validation using the SUFI-2 algorithm in the SWAT CUP program was carried out in order to determine the water balance. After obtaining satisfactory results, the SWAT-CUP program simulated the best parameter values for climate change projections. In analyzed climate projections, the monthly mean sums of actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration will be higher compared to the simulation period of the 2010–2017 model. The exception is the month of June, where actual evapotranspiration in most climate projections is lower compared to the years 2010–2017. The average monthly total runoff for the Bystra River basin will be lower in most of the 2021–2030 climate change projections for most months compared to the reference period. Also, in the 2031–2040 and 2041–2050 periods, the average monthly total runoff will be lower for the RCP 4.5 scenarios (except for one RCP 4.5 scenario in 2031–2040). Additionally, in the case of the RCP 8.5 for the two scenarios in 2041–2050, the average monthly total runoff will be higher compared to the reference years. We determine that the analysis impact of climate change will result in 31 recognized and different small sub-catchments of the Bystra River, which result from higher precipitation and less evapotranspiration for RCP 8.5 in 2041–2050. All of the above changes in the individual components of the water balance may have a negative impact on the vegetation in the coming decades. The temperature increase and the variable amount of precipitation in individual months may lead to an increased number of extreme phenomena. Increased mean monthly sum of actual and potential evapotranspiration, as well as changes in monthly sums of total runoff, may disturb the vegetation in the studied area at every stage of growth. The above components may also influence changes in the amount of water in the soil (especially during the growing season). Counteracting the effects of future climate change requires various adaptation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Simulation of Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flows under Land-Use Change: A Case Study of Lianshui River Basin, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3270; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063270 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The service function of freshwater ecosystem is of great significance for ensuring the water security and the sustainable development of the social economy. However, it is vague how land-use change can influence freshwater ecosystem service flows. In this paper, we analyzed the land-use [...] Read more.
The service function of freshwater ecosystem is of great significance for ensuring the water security and the sustainable development of the social economy. However, it is vague how land-use change can influence freshwater ecosystem service flows. In this paper, we analyzed the land-use changes in the Lianshui River Basin from 2000 to 2018, built an ecosystem service flow model, and quantified the supply, demand, and flow of freshwater ecosystems under land-use change. The most intensified shifts of land-use change were the transfer of woodland to arable land and the transfer of arable land to built-up land. Urbanization and deforestation have increased water output by 0.06 billion m3, but water demand has increased by 2.42 billion m3, resulting in a 6% reduction in the flow of freshwater ecosystem services. Our study provides detailed information on freshwater ecosystem services flow from providers to beneficiaries within a watershed, showing how land-use change and ecosystem service flows can be integrated at the watershed scale to provide information for land-use management and the availability of freshwater ecosystems. Sustained development provides a scientific basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Simulation and Prediction of the Impact of Climate Change Scenarios on Runoff of Typical Watersheds in Changbai Mountains, China
Water 2022, 14(5), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050792 - 03 Mar 2022
Abstract
Simulating the hydrological process of a river basin helps to understand the evolution of water resources in the region and provides scientific guidance for water resources allocation policies between different river basins and water resources management within the river basin. This paper provides [...] Read more.
Simulating the hydrological process of a river basin helps to understand the evolution of water resources in the region and provides scientific guidance for water resources allocation policies between different river basins and water resources management within the river basin. This paper provides a scientific basis for the sustainable development of regional water resources and an accurate grasp of the future change trend of runoff by analyzing the hydrological process response of runoff in typical watersheds in Changbai Mountains, China, to climate change. The applicability of the HEC-HMS (The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s-Hydrologic Modeling System) hydrological model in the watershed is verified by calibrating and verifying the daily rainfall-runoff process in the watershed during the wet season from 2006 to 2017. The daily rainfall data of the two scenarios SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 under the BCC-CSM2-MR model in the 2021–2050 CMIP6 plan were downscaled and interpolated to in-basin stations to generate future daily precipitation series to predict runoff response to future climate change. The daily rainfall data of the two scenarios were downscaled and interpolated to the stations in the basin to generate future daily rainfall series to predict the runoff response under future climate changes. The average certainty coefficient of the HEC-HMS model for daily runoff simulation reached 0.705; the rainfall in the basin under the two climate scenarios of SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 in the next 30 years (2021–2050) will generally increase, and rainfall will be more evenly distributed in the future; the outlet flow of the basin will increase during the wet season (June–September) in the next 30 years, but it is lower than the historically measured value; the peak flow of the future will appear at most in August and September. The peak flow current time mostly appears in July and August. The time of peak occurrence has been delayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Synergistic Effects of PDO and IOD on Water Vapor Transport in the Preflood Season over South China
Water 2022, 14(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050722 - 24 Feb 2022
Abstract
It is urgent to improve the prediction accuracy of precipitation in the preflood season (PFS) over South China (SC) under the background of global warming, and thus the research of water vapor conditions is the key. For the period of 1960–2012, using the [...] Read more.
It is urgent to improve the prediction accuracy of precipitation in the preflood season (PFS) over South China (SC) under the background of global warming, and thus the research of water vapor conditions is the key. For the period of 1960–2012, using the daily precipitation data from 60 meteorology stations in SC and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, the synergistic effect of PDO (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) &IOD (the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode) on water vapor transport process to frontal/monsoon precipitation is revealed, based on the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT_4.9). For the frontal precipitation, the positive PDO phase (PDO+) compared with the negative PDO phase (PDO−), there is more water vapor over the West Pacific (WP), the northern South China Sea (SCS), and the Bay of Bengal (BOB). Water vapor for frontal precipitation mainly comes from WP and SCS. When PDO and IOD are in phase resonance, the water vapor transport tracks from the SCS, WP are shorter and westward, so more water vapor is transported to SC, the precipitation efficiency of water vapor to PFS precipitation is higher too. For the summer monsoon precipitation, the tropical Indian Ocean (IO)-BOB is rich in water vapor, especially for PDO−& IOD+. The main water vapor transport tracks are the cross-equatorial flows in the IO, BOB and SCS. The precipitation efficiency of water vapor from the IO-BOB is higher for the positive IOD phase (IOD+) than that for the negative IOD phase (IOD−); however, the precipitation efficiency of water vapor from SCS is higher for the IOD− than that for IOD+. Compared with frontal precipitation, the strong westerly anomaly in the northern IO increases the water vapor transport from the north IO, BOB to SC during monsoon precipitation. For the PDO+&IOD+, the stronger Indian Low and cyclonic anomaly in the WP increases the water vapor transported from the IO-BOB to SC, improving the precipitation efficiency of water vapor. Understanding the synergistic effect of the PDO and IOD on water vapor transport will help to improve the accuracy of precipitation prediction, and reduce the negative impact of drought and flood disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Optimal Process Network for Integrated Solid Waste Management in Davao City, Philippines
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042419 - 20 Feb 2022
Abstract
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems in developing countries adopt practices from developed countries to reduce their environmental burdens. However, several complex issues specific to developing countries hinder the full implementation of these practices. The future of MSWM in Davao City, Philippines, is [...] Read more.
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems in developing countries adopt practices from developed countries to reduce their environmental burdens. However, several complex issues specific to developing countries hinder the full implementation of these practices. The future of MSWM in Davao City, Philippines, is envisaged as a notable example of the combination of new infrastructure and local MSWM practices. A linear programming model was developed, following material flow analysis and life cycle assessment, to design an optimal system for Davao City. The performance of the system was evaluated in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy and revenue generated, and the amount of landfill waste. The results show that the proposed system positively affects the environment compared to the current system, due to additional treatment options. However, the main allocation concern transitions from organic waste in the current system to plastic waste in future scenarios. Furthermore, the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the extension of landfill life will be heavily influenced by trade-offs between sorting operations and the management of incinerated wastes with high calorific values. Therefore, plastic-waste-specific treatment options will be critical for future MSWM systems. The results herein underscore the need for sustainable MSWM in the study area, considering the region-specific conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Attribution Assessment and Prediction of Runoff Change in the Han River Basin, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042393 - 18 Feb 2022
Abstract
The ecological environment and water resources of the Han River Basin (HRB) are incredibly susceptible to global warming. Naturally, the analysis of future runoff in HRB is believed to offer a theoretical basis for water resources management and ecological protection in HRB. The [...] Read more.
The ecological environment and water resources of the Han River Basin (HRB) are incredibly susceptible to global warming. Naturally, the analysis of future runoff in HRB is believed to offer a theoretical basis for water resources management and ecological protection in HRB. The purpose of this study is to investigate and forecast the effects of climate change and land use change on runoff in the HRB. This study uses CMIP6 data to simulate three future climate change scenarios (SSP126, SSP245 and SSP585) for changes in precipitation and temperature, a CA-Markov model to simulate future land use change scenarios, and the Budyko framework to predict future runoff changes. The results show that: (1) Between 1974 and 2014, annual runoff (R) and annual precipitation (P) in the HRB decline not so significantly with a rate of 1.3673 mm/a and 1.2709 mm/a, while maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) and potential evapotranspiration (E0) show a non-significantly increasing trend with 0.0296 °C/a, 0.0204 °C/a and 1.3313 mm/a, respectively. Precipitation is considered as main contributor to the decline in Han River runoff, accounting for 54.1%. (2) In the HRB, overall precipitation and temperature are estimated to rise in the coming years, with all other hydrological variables. The comparison of precipitation rise under each scenario is as follows: SSP126 scenario > SSP585 scenario > SSP245 scenario. The comparison of the temperature increase under each scenario is as follows: SSP585 scenario > SSP245 scenario > SSP126 scenario. (3) In the HRB, farmland and grassland land will continue to decline in the future. The amount of forest acreage is projected to decline but not so significantly. (4) The future runoff of the HRB shows an increasing trend, and the future runoff varies in different scenarios and periods. Under the land use scenarios of maintaining LUCC1992–2014 and LUCC2040 and LUCC2060, the R change rates in 2015–2040 are 8.27–25.47% and −8.04–19.35%, respectively, and the R in 2040–2060 are 2.09–13.66% and 19.35–31.52%. At the same time, it is very likely to overestimate the future runoff of the HRB without considering the changes in the land use data of the underlying surface in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Systematic Application of Sponge City Facilities at Community Scale Based on SWMM
Water 2022, 14(4), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040591 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the context of global climate change, many countries have taken corresponding measures to cope with the stormwater problems in urbanization. The Chinese government introduced the concept of Sponge City to improve the urban water ecological security, which is a systematic project. Taking [...] Read more.
In the context of global climate change, many countries have taken corresponding measures to cope with the stormwater problems in urbanization. The Chinese government introduced the concept of Sponge City to improve the urban water ecological security, which is a systematic project. Taking the urban community as our research object, we studied the combination application of LID (low-impact development) measures and retention ponds in the community and then discussed the practicability of the systematic application of Sponge City facilities in the construction of community drainage systems. There are four simulation scenarios in SWMM (stormwater management model): traditional drainage scenario, LID scenario, retention pond scenario, and LID-retention pond scenario. By comparing the effects of different facilities on runoff and outflow under the six return periods of 1a, 2a, 5a, 10a, 20a, and 50a, we find that LID measures have evident effects on runoff and outflow reduction. Still, they are greatly affected by the return period. The retention pond has no noticeable impact on runoff, but it reduces the peak value of outflow and is less affected by the return period. The combination of LID and retention pond can combine their advantages, reduce the peak flow rate of the site stably and relieve the pressure of the urban drainage system. This study provides a basis for the graded implementation of Sponge City, especially for community-scale rainwater regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Effect of Different Sowing Methods on Water Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Wheat in the Loess Plateau, China
Water 2022, 14(4), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040577 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Research has revealed that summer fallow sowing improves the water use efficiency (WUE) and grain yield of winter wheat. However, wheat yields differ yearly with crop management. A field experiment over 8 years was established in the Loess Plateau to determine the role [...] Read more.
Research has revealed that summer fallow sowing improves the water use efficiency (WUE) and grain yield of winter wheat. However, wheat yields differ yearly with crop management. A field experiment over 8 years was established in the Loess Plateau to determine the role of precipitation and soil water storage in wheat yield formation under conservation tillage. The average WUE values were 7.8, 11.0, and 12.6 t·ha−1, while the average evapotranspiration (ET) values were 334.7, 365.5, and 410 mm when the yields were 3.0, 3.0–4.5, and over 4.5 t·ha−1, respectively. Compared to drill sowing (DS), high water consumption during early growth increased the spike number, grain number, and yield. In years of intermediate or low yields, wide-space sowing (WS) and furrow sowing (FS) improved the ET, WUE, spike number, grain number, and yield of wheat compared to (DS) drill sowing. When the wheat yield was 3.0–4.5 t·ha−1, higher soil water intake during jointing, anthesis, and anthesis–maturity increased the tiller number, 1000-grain weight, and yield, related to the use of suitable tillers. Synchronous increases in grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight were observed with increased soil water content at jointing, maturity, and anthesis, as well as consumption of soil water in the latter part during the growing season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Estimation of Methane Emissions from Reservoirs Based on Country-Specific Trophic State Assessment in Korea
Water 2022, 14(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040562 - 12 Feb 2022
Abstract
It has been reported that significant quantities of greenhouse gases are emitted from wetlands, from which emissions and their contributions to global warming have received much less attentions. Thus, a refinement to the previous published guidelines has recently been made to provide an [...] Read more.
It has been reported that significant quantities of greenhouse gases are emitted from wetlands, from which emissions and their contributions to global warming have received much less attentions. Thus, a refinement to the previous published guidelines has recently been made to provide an updated and sound scientific basis for the purpose of supporting the preparation of national inventories. This study is aimed at demonstrating the applicability of the refinement for estimating methane emissions from reservoirs in the Republic of Korea. It is desirable to take the direct measurement of total methane fluxes across the reservoir surface, which may require a substantial amount of research efforts though. Alternatively, methane emissions from individual reservoirs may be estimated with relevant parameters accounting for the regional environmental characteristics. The assessment of trophic state has been employed to better represent the emissions behavior of reservoirs, based on which the methane emissions from local reservoirs in Korea are estimated. It is noted that the country has developed its own water quality index with the consideration of environmental characteristics. The seasonal variations in methane emissions are tested for their statistical significance and it is proposed that the emission estimates can be predicted from the trophic state assessment with the application of regression analysis. Following the guidelines prescribed by the refinement and procedures outlined in this study, the results from emissions estimation and prediction can be effectively used for the improvement of national inventories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Ecological and Health Risk Assessment of Potential Toxic Elements from a Mining Area (Water and Sediments): The San Juan-Taxco River System, Guerrero, Mexico
Water 2022, 14(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040518 - 09 Feb 2022
Abstract
The San Juan-Taxco River system is situated in the Taxco mining district, which is a well-known international producer of silver, jewelry and precious metal handicrafts. The population and biota in the area have been affected by inappropriate disposal of anthropogenic activities that pollute [...] Read more.
The San Juan-Taxco River system is situated in the Taxco mining district, which is a well-known international producer of silver, jewelry and precious metal handicrafts. The population and biota in the area have been affected by inappropriate disposal of anthropogenic activities that pollute the hydric resources and threaten their health and sustainability, since the inhabitants use the groundwater and river water for human consumption, domestic water supply and irrigation. This study was conducted to assess the pollution in the river system, human health implications and ecological risk in the aquatic environment (groundwater, surface water and superficial sediment). This evaluation was done on the base of hydrochemical, textural, mineralogical and geochemical analysis supported by calculation of human health risk using chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) with environmental and geochemical indices for ecological risk evaluation. The health risk assessment indicated increasing non-health carcinogenic risk to the exposed population to the river water and dug wells (HI > 1), and thus, these resources are not recommended for human consumption, domestic activities and prolonged ingestion. The results demonstrated a high degree of pollution due to toxic elements and geochemical indices. The Pollution Load Index indicated potential risk that will cause harmful biological effects in the riverine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Resilience of a Complex Watershed under Water Variability: A Modeling Study
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14041948 - 09 Feb 2022
Abstract
Understanding how socio-ecological systems respond to environmental variability is an important step in promoting system resilience. In this paper, we asked: How do the frequency and amplitude of water availability variation affect both the social-ecological regimes present and how the system transitions between [...] Read more.
Understanding how socio-ecological systems respond to environmental variability is an important step in promoting system resilience. In this paper, we asked: How do the frequency and amplitude of water availability variation affect both the social-ecological regimes present and how the system transitions between them? How do these transitions differ under flood-prone and drought-prone conditions? We modified a dynamical systems model of a complex watershed to directly link environmental variability to system-level outcomes, specifically the livelihoods present in the system. The model results suggest that flood-prone systems exhibit more drastic regime shift behavior than drought-prone systems, with abrupt shifts from the complete participation to complete abandonment of livelihood sectors. Drought-prone systems appeared to be more sensitive to the amplitude of water variability, whereas flood-prone systems exhibited more complex relationships with amplitude and frequency, with frequency playing a bigger role compared to drought-prone systems. Lower frequency variations with sufficient amplitudes exposed the system to extended periods of environmental hardship, reducing the system’s ability to recover. Our analysis also highlighted the importance of environmental stochasticity: the deterministic version of the model that assumed no stochasticity overestimated system resilience. The model and analysis offer a more systematic framework to investigate the linkages between sustainability of social-ecological systems and environmental variability. This lays the groundwork for future research in systems with significant current or predicted environmental variability due to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Characteristic and Attribution of Runoff Variation in the Yanhe River Basin, Loess Plateau, Based on the Budyko Hypothesis
Water 2022, 14(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030495 - 07 Feb 2022
Abstract
The ecological restoration projects in the Loess Plateau (LP) has significantly altered the underlying surface conditions, coupled with a warming–wetting climate, which has profoundly affected the regional water cycle. Evaluating the response of runoff to external environmental change and quantitatively identifying the contribution [...] Read more.
The ecological restoration projects in the Loess Plateau (LP) has significantly altered the underlying surface conditions, coupled with a warming–wetting climate, which has profoundly affected the regional water cycle. Evaluating the response of runoff to external environmental change and quantitatively identifying the contribution of anthropogenic interference and climate change are prerequisites for efficient utilization of water resources in arid/semi-arid regions. Daily recorded data of hydrological and meteorological elements between 1969 and 2019 and the elasticity coefficient method based on Budyko hypothesis were used for attribution analysis of runoff change in the Yanhe River basin. The results show the following: (1) the measured runoff decreased significantly (p < 0.05, –0.2845 mm year−1), and suggested substantial difference before and after 2000; (2) the area of woodland and grassland had a sharp increase from 2000, while the elasticity of runoff to precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ET0), and vegetation all decreased; (3) the improvement of underlying surface conditions has become the leading factor of runoff reduction with a contribution of 96.78%; (4) the impact of vegetation restoration on runoff reduction is effective within a certain threshold. We consider that more attention should be paid to the afforestation scale and its possible negative eco-hydrological effects in future ecological restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Delineating MAR Sites Using GIS-MCDA for Nuweiba Alluvial Fan Aquifer, Sinai, Egypt
Water 2022, 14(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030475 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the last few decades, groundwater has been the main water supply to the Nuweiba alluvial fan. However, currently, the main water supply is a desalination plant. The desalination plant might be vulnerable to malfunctions resulting in a severe drought. In addition, the [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, groundwater has been the main water supply to the Nuweiba alluvial fan. However, currently, the main water supply is a desalination plant. The desalination plant might be vulnerable to malfunctions resulting in a severe drought. In addition, the aquifer type in the fan is coastal. Hence, replenishing the groundwater is necessary on a long-term basis to overcome drought events in the case of emergency. To replenish the groundwater using flash-flood water, a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) system could be installed. This study applies the Geo-Information System–Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (GIS-MCDA) method to delineate the feasible locations for installing a MAR system. To delineate the feasible MAR sites via a potential map, four steps were performed: problem definition, constraint mapping, suitability mapping, and sensitivity analysis. The results show that nearly 52% of the study area is suitable for installing MAR. Additionally, around 6% of the study area shows high potential for installing MAR, whereas nearly 20% falls under the moderate potential class. The potential map shows that the high-potential MAR sites are located at the western portion of the study area, near the ephemeral stream outlet. The map could be utilized as a tool for decision-makers to plan a future sustainable development strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Review
Water Benchmarking in Buildings: A Systematic Review on Methods and Benchmarks for Water Conservation
Water 2022, 14(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030473 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Water conservation is essential to sustainable development, and among human activities, buildings are responsible for a significant portion of total water consumption. Therefore, we present a systematic review that aims to search for valuable contributions from benchmarking and their potential significance to water [...] Read more.
Water conservation is essential to sustainable development, and among human activities, buildings are responsible for a significant portion of total water consumption. Therefore, we present a systematic review that aims to search for valuable contributions from benchmarking and their potential significance to water conservation. The relevance of performing such a review is to support the research in the field, organise information, and highlight both the lack of data and valuable results in specific building types. Benchmarking highlights best performance buildings, while it also classifies performances, which allows developing interventions for different buildings. Seventy-two documents on the environmental performance of buildings were reviewed, and a variety of methods, metering procedures, and indicators were found as valuable data for water-saving initiatives. In addition to a systematic search in SCOPUS, searches were made in Science Direct and Google Scholar databases. Although the main challenge in this matter lies in the lack of procedures standardisation, it was found that performing benchmarking is relevant for accurately developing water conservation initiatives. Gains of over five million m3 per year in a set of buildings or above 151 thousand m3 per year in a single factory were found, which indicate the existing potential for water conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Hydrological Effects of Agricultural Water Supplies on Paddy Fields using Surface–Groundwater Integrated Model
Water 2022, 14(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030460 - 03 Feb 2022
Abstract
Agricultural water demands are mainly dependent on the supply from groundwater withdrawals and the supply from agricultural reservoirs. To understand the water cycle of the agricultural catchment, it is necessary to consider the actual situation of the water cycle of paddy fields in [...] Read more.
Agricultural water demands are mainly dependent on the supply from groundwater withdrawals and the supply from agricultural reservoirs. To understand the water cycle of the agricultural catchment, it is necessary to consider the actual situation of the water cycle of paddy fields in catchments through accurate hydrological modeling. In this study, streamflow simulations were implemented in consideration of the levee height of paddy fields and the irrigation period for one sub-catchment of the Boryeong Dam catchment using the integrated surface–groundwater model, CAT (Catchment Hydrologic Cycle Assessment Tool). To consider the agricultural reservoirs in modeling, the catchment was divided into the reservoir sub-catchments, upstream sub-catchments, downstream sub-catchments, and irrigated districts of each sub-catchment. This study aims to analyze the hydrological effects of agricultural reservoirs and groundwater pumping on the hydrological cycle of the catchment and on the soil moisture and groundwater level. As a result of the simulations, we found that the direct flow, baseflow, and groundwater recharge of the catchment increased with the agricultural reservoir supply water. In addition, the effect of drought on soil moisture content and groundwater level in the irrigated paddy fields from agricultural reservoirs was evaluated. The soil moisture increased by about 10% according to the water supply of agricultural reservoirs. The groundwater level rapidly decreased due to the groundwater abstraction during the irrigation period; however, it was analyzed that the water supply from agricultural reservoirs is significantly effective in preventing the decrease in the groundwater level in the irrigation season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Review
Analysis of River Basin Management in Madagascar and Lessons Learned from Japan
Water 2022, 14(3), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030449 - 02 Feb 2022
Abstract
River basins in Madagascar are prone to water scarcity and conflicts of use, which are projected to worsen due to climate change. Therefore, effective integrated water resources management (IWRM) is key. This review examines the current condition of IWRM in Madagascar, evaluates its [...] Read more.
River basins in Madagascar are prone to water scarcity and conflicts of use, which are projected to worsen due to climate change. Therefore, effective integrated water resources management (IWRM) is key. This review examines the current condition of IWRM in Madagascar, evaluates its sustainability, and compares it with the one in Japan. The effects of climate change were analyzed using Aqueduct data. Madagascar has established an IWRM legal framework aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals; however, its application remains limited. For Japan, it was useful to establish IWRM for floods, water utilization, and environmental conservation. This study analyzes the future projections of water availability and demand for the 12 major river basins of Madagascar. Climate change will reduce water availability; the West and the East will experience water stress; the demand will be higher in the highlands, with less water available in the south. The proposed framework and Japan’s experience in river basin management can contribute to solving those problems. The findings of this study serve to enhance the knowledge on IWRM and the impact of climate change in Madagascar; they also suggest actions to be taken by the Malagasy government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Determinants of Food Consumption Water Footprint in the MENA Region: The Case of Tunisia
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031539 - 28 Jan 2022
Abstract
Tunisia, like most countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, has limited renewable water resources and is classified as a water stress country. The effects of climate change are exacerbating the situation. The agricultural sector is the main consumer (80%) [...] Read more.
Tunisia, like most countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, has limited renewable water resources and is classified as a water stress country. The effects of climate change are exacerbating the situation. The agricultural sector is the main consumer (80%) of blue water reserves. In this study, to better understand the factors that influence the food water footprint of Tunisian consumers, we used a multiple linear regression model (MLR) to analyze data from 4853 households. The innovation in this paper consists of integrating effects of socio-economic, demographic, and geographic trends on the food consumption water footprint into the assessment of water and food security. The model results showed that regional variations in food choices meant large differences in water footprints, as hypothesized. Residents of big cities are more likely to have a large water footprint. Significant variability in water footprints, due to different food consumption patterns and socio-demographic characteristics, was also noted. Food waste is also one of the determining factors of households with a high water footprint. This study provides a new perspective on the water footprint of food consumption using “household” level data. These dietary water footprint estimates can be used to assess potential water demand scenarios as food consumption patterns change. Analysis at the geographic and socio-demographic levels helps to inform policy makers by identifying realistic dietary changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
Article
Transboundary Water Cooperation in the Post-Cold War Era: Spatial Patterns and the Role of Proximity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031503 - 28 Jan 2022
Abstract
Transboundary water cooperation (TWC) is an important theme of international cooperation. We conducted macro-level research on TWC from the perspective of inter-country relations and constructed a theoretical framework in which multidimensional proximity influences the formation of global TWC. We explained how multidimensional proximity [...] Read more.
Transboundary water cooperation (TWC) is an important theme of international cooperation. We conducted macro-level research on TWC from the perspective of inter-country relations and constructed a theoretical framework in which multidimensional proximity influences the formation of global TWC. We explained how multidimensional proximity and the constituent elements comprehensively influence the cooperative willingness and ability of actors, which directly drive the generation of global TWC. During the empirical research phase, we constructed the TWC frequency and intensity networks based on historical TWC events data from 1992 to 2013. By using social network analysis and QAP regression analysis, the spatial structure and proximity effect of water cooperation linkages are examined. It can be found that: (1) the reconstruction of territorial space on the eve of the end of the Cold War led to the peak of water cooperation events in 1992. The overall scale of events in the Post-Cold War era was relatively high and fluctuated steadily. (2) Water cooperation linkages have distinct spatial heterogeneity and are concentrated in the Eurasian and the African continents. Water cooperation is sensitive to geographical distance, and high-intensity water cooperation linkages exist in only a few areas. (3) China, Egypt, Germany, the United States, and Russia have prominent positions in the network. The United States, Japan, and other extra-regional powers actively participated in TWC in the Eastern Hemisphere. (4) The regression results show that geographical, economic, organizational, and colonial proximity significantly affect the intensity of water cooperation among countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Communication
Characteristics and Cause Analysis of the 1954 Yangtze Precipitation Anomalies
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030555 - 24 Jan 2022
Abstract
In 1954, the Yangtze River valley was hit by heavy precipitation anomalies, which caused large casualties and economic losses; however, systematic analyses of the causes are lacking. Adopting the latest national historical precipitation data collected by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and global [...] Read more.
In 1954, the Yangtze River valley was hit by heavy precipitation anomalies, which caused large casualties and economic losses; however, systematic analyses of the causes are lacking. Adopting the latest national historical precipitation data collected by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and global sea surface temperature (SST) records, this retrospective study determined the spatial–temporal distribution characteristics of the precipitation in 1954 in Wuhan, a city situated in the Yangtze River valley. The results confirmed that the 1954 precipitation anomalies were characterized by a high volume and a long period of rainfall, plus numerous cloudbursts, with most of the precipitation concentrated during June and July at the mid- and low-Yangtze areas along the Yangtze. An El Niño event caused the West Pacific subtropical highs to continually move southward during the summer, creating a long-term rainband in the drainage basin. Moreover, the continued low SSTs in the Sea of Okhotsk generated an active blocking high that continuously brought high-latitude cold air into the south, boosting precipitation over the drainage basin. This study proposed a new causal model of summertime precipitation across the Yangtze River valley in 1954, whereby the unusual SST changes initially triggered atmospheric circulation anomalies, which caused the precipitation anomalies of 1954. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Improving the Inversion Accuracy of Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly by Combining GNSS and LSTM Algorithm and Its Application in Mainland China
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(3), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14030535 - 23 Jan 2022
Abstract
Densely distributed Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations can invert the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) with high precision. However, the uneven distribution of GNSS stations greatly limits the application of TWSA inversion. The purpose of this study was to compensate for the [...] Read more.
Densely distributed Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations can invert the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) with high precision. However, the uneven distribution of GNSS stations greatly limits the application of TWSA inversion. The purpose of this study was to compensate for the spatial coverage of GNSS stations by simulating the vertical deformation in unobserved grids. First, a new deep learning weight loading inversion model (DWLIM) was constructed by combining the long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm, inverse distance weight, and the crustal load model. DWLIM is beneficial for improving the inversion accuracy of TWSA based on the GNSS vertical displacement. Second, the DWLIM-based and traditional GNSS-derived TWSA methods were utilized to derive TWSA over mainland China. Furthermore, the TWSA results were compared with the TWSA solutions of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model. The results indicate that the maximum Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficient, and root mean square error (RMSE) equal 0.81, 0.61, and 2.18 cm, respectively. The accuracy of DWLIM was higher than that of the traditional GNSS inversion method according to PCC, NSE, and RMSE, which were increased by 67.11, 128.15, and 22.75%. The inversion strategy of DWLIM can effectively improve the accuracy of TWSA inversion in regions with unevenly distributed GNSS stations. Third, this study investigated the variation characteristics of TWSA based on DWLIM in 10 river basins over mainland China. The analysis shows that the TWSA amplitudes of Songhua and Liaohe River basins are significantly higher than those of the other basins. Moreover, TWSA sequences in each river basin contain annual seasonal signals, and the wave peaks of TWSA estimates emerge between June and July. Overall, DWLIM provides a useful measure to derive TWSA in regions where GNSS stations are uneven or sparse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Environmental and Economic Impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam in Africa
Water 2022, 14(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030312 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
A multidisciplinary study was conducted to investigate the environmental and economic impact of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). Focusing on Egypt, we estimate projected losses in Egypt’s annual water allocation from the Blue Nile under the 3, 7, and 10-year GERD reservoir [...] Read more.
A multidisciplinary study was conducted to investigate the environmental and economic impact of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). Focusing on Egypt, we estimate projected losses in Egypt’s annual water allocation from the Blue Nile under the 3, 7, and 10-year GERD reservoir filling scenarios, which are part of an array of scenarios currently under consideration. We then examine the resultant losses in Egypt’s agricultural land and the corresponding impact on selected macroeconomic variables relative to a baseline (no GERD) scenario. For the 3-year filling period, in particular, we estimate projected losses in Egypt’s annual water allocation to be 51.29 ± 2.62%. This translates into annual losses of agricultural land of 52.75 ± 2.44% relative to the baseline, with a resultant decline in food production of 38.47 ± 2.18% and an overall decline in agricultural sector output by 17.51 ± 0.99%. This contributes to a rise in the national unemployment rate of 11.24 ± 1.77 percentage points above the baseline. Moreover, we estimate projected annual losses in real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita to be 8.02 ± 0.45% relative to the baseline, which translates into an annual loss in real GDP of $26.30 ± 2.81 billion and a loss in welfare of 12.83 ± 0.73% annually, relative to the baseline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Assessment of Regional Spatiotemporal Variations in Drought from the Perspective of Soil Moisture in Guangxi, China
Water 2022, 14(3), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030289 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Understanding the changes in regional droughts is important for promoting overall sustainable development. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil droughts in Guangxi under the background of global warming and regional vegetation restoration have not been studied extensively, and the potential causes are scarcely [...] Read more.
Understanding the changes in regional droughts is important for promoting overall sustainable development. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil droughts in Guangxi under the background of global warming and regional vegetation restoration have not been studied extensively, and the potential causes are scarcely understood. Here, using TerraClimate soil moisture data, we constructed a monthly standardized soil moisture index (SSMI), analyzed the seasonal and annual spatiotemporal distribution of droughts from the perspective of soil moisture, and studied past soil drought events in Guangxi. Migration methods of drought centroid, trend analysis, and principal component decomposition were used. In the interannual dynamics, the overall SSMI increased, indicating that the soil drought situation was gradually alleviated in Guangxi. Further, the frequency of extreme and severe droughts decreased with time, mainly in autumn and winter. During early drought stages, the migration path was short, which extended as the droughts progressed. Ocean temperature and soil moisture were strongly correlated, indicating that abnormal ocean surface temperature may drive soil moisture. This study provides scientific guidance for the early warning, prevention, and mitigation of losses associated with soil droughts in Guangxi and serves as valuable reference for understanding the impacts of large-scale climate anomalies on soil moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Optimal Allocation Model for Water Resources Coupled with Ecological Value Factors—A Case Study of Dalian, China
Water 2022, 14(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020266 - 17 Jan 2022
Abstract
The surface water ecosystem has important ecological value and plays an important supporting and guarantee role in the sustainable development of human society. In this study, an inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) model was developed for supporting water resource allocation for the four [...] Read more.
The surface water ecosystem has important ecological value and plays an important supporting and guarantee role in the sustainable development of human society. In this study, an inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) model was developed for supporting water resource allocation for the four main water sectors (industry, municipal, agriculture, and ecological environment). Several scenarios corresponding to different flow patterns, which reflect different probabilities of water resource availability and environmental carrying capacity, were examined. On the basis of traditional water resource allocation, this model adds consideration of ecological value factors, which is conducive to the synergistic efficiency of socio-economic and ecological water consumption. Results revealed that the water resource carrying capacity, ecological value factors, and water environmental capacity are the main factors affecting the optimal allocation of water resources. Furthermore, the optimal allocation scheme for water resources coupled with ecological value factors were determined to realize the coordinated development of social economic benefits and ecological benefits. The current study findings are of great significance for establishing a rational water resource management system for water resource exploitation and utilization. This model can be used to guide various departments in Dalian to formulate an optimal water resources allocation scheme by considering ecological value factors, and provide a basis for realizing the coordinated development of Dalian’s socio-economic development goals, water resource utilization, and environmental quality improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
An Analysis of Household Perceptions of Water Costs across the United States: A Survey Based Approach
Water 2022, 14(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020247 - 15 Jan 2022
Abstract
Research analyzing perceptions of water services has focused on water quality, water safety, and the propensity to consume water from different sources. It has not assessed perceptions of water costs. To address this knowledge gap, this study collected nationally representative survey data from [...] Read more.
Research analyzing perceptions of water services has focused on water quality, water safety, and the propensity to consume water from different sources. It has not assessed perceptions of water costs. To address this knowledge gap, this study collected nationally representative survey data from households in the United States about water issues and incorporated these data into logistic regression models. In doing so, our study advances the water and public policy literature in three ways. One, it addresses the need for household resolution information about water issues given the absence of data at this scale in the United States. Two, it creates and utilizes one-of-a-kind survey data to understand the perceptions of household water bills and the drivers of these perceptions. Three, we assess the impact of proposed solutions to improve water affordability on household perceptions of water costs. Model results indicate low-income and households in underrepresented groups were more likely to perceive their water bills to be too high. The perception of water costs also varied geographically. From a policy perspective, model results indicate utilities can positively affect perceptions of water bills via the frequency of water billing and provision of payment assistance programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
Article
A Model of Evapotranspirative Irrigation to Manage the Various Water Levels in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Its Effect on Crop and Water Productivities
Water 2022, 14(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020170 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Evapotranspirative irrigation is a simple idea in a watering field based on the actual evapotranspiration rate, by operating an automatic floating valve in the inlet without electric power to manage water levels. The current study introduces a model of evapotranspirative irrigation and its [...] Read more.
Evapotranspirative irrigation is a simple idea in a watering field based on the actual evapotranspiration rate, by operating an automatic floating valve in the inlet without electric power to manage water levels. The current study introduces a model of evapotranspirative irrigation and its application under different water levels. The objectives were (1) to evaluate the performances of evapotranspirative irrigation under various irrigation regimes, and to (2) to observe crop and water productivities of the system of rice intensification (SRI) as affected by different types of irrigation. The experiment was performed during one rice planting season, starting from July to November 2020, with three irrigation regimes, i.e., continuous flooded (CFI), moderate flooded (MFI) and water-saving irrigation (WSI). Good performance of the system was achieved; low root mean square error (RMSE) was indicated between observed water level and the set point in all irrigation regimes. Developing a better drainage system can improve the system. Among the regimes, the WSI regime was most effective in water use. It was able to increase water productivity by up to 14.5% while maintaining the crop yield. In addition, it has the highest water-use efficiency index. The index was 34% and 52% higher than those of the MFI and CFI regimes, respectively. Accordingly, the evapotranspirative irrigation was effective in controlling various water levels, and we recommend the system implemented at the field levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Estimation of Groundwater Depletion in Iran’s Catchments Using Well Data
Water 2022, 14(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010131 - 05 Jan 2022
Abstract
Iran is experiencing significant water challenges that have now turned water security into a national priority. By estimating secular trend groundwater storage in Iran between 2002 and 2017, we see that there is an intensive negative trend, even −4400 Mm3 in some [...] Read more.
Iran is experiencing significant water challenges that have now turned water security into a national priority. By estimating secular trend groundwater storage in Iran between 2002 and 2017, we see that there is an intensive negative trend, even −4400 Mm3 in some areas. These estimations show shifting in the climate and extra extraction from aquifers for agricultural use in some areas in Iran. The secular trend of groundwater storage changes across the whole of Iran inferred from observation well data is −20.08 GT/yr. The secular trends of GWS changes based on observation well data are: −11.55 GT/yr for the Central Plateau basin, −3.60 GT/yr for the Caspian Sea basin, −3.0 GT/yr for the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea basin, −0.53 GT/yr for the Urmieh Lake basin, −0.57 GT/yr for the Eastern Boundary basin, and −0.83 GT/yr for the Gharaghom basin. The most depleted sub-basin (Kavir Markazi) has secular trends of GWS changes of −4.503 GT/yr. This study suggests that groundwater depletion is the largest single contributor to the observed negative trend of groundwater storage changes in Iran, the majority of which occurred after the drought in 2007. The groundwater loss that has been accrued during the study period is particularly alarming for Iran, which is already facing severe water scarcity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Improving the Accuracy of Groundwater Storage Estimates Based on Groundwater Weighted Fusion Model
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010202 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is an effective measure to estimate groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) by combining Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and hydrological models. However, GWSA results based on a single hydrological model and GRACE data may have greater uncertainties, and it is difficult [...] Read more.
It is an effective measure to estimate groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) by combining Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and hydrological models. However, GWSA results based on a single hydrological model and GRACE data may have greater uncertainties, and it is difficult to verify in some regions where in situ groundwater-level measurements are limited. First, to solve this problem, a groundwater weighted fusion model (GWFM) is presented, based on the extended triple collocation (ETC) method. Second, the Shiyang River Basin (SYRB) is taken as an example, and in situ groundwater-level measurements are used to evaluate the performance of the GWFM. The comparison indicates that the correlation coefficient (CC) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) are increased by 9–40% and 23–657%, respectively, relative to the original results. Moreover, the root mean squared error (RMSE) is reduced by 9–28%, which verifies the superiority of the GWFM. Third, the spatiotemporal distribution and influencing factors of GWSA in the Hexi Corridor (HC) are comprehensively analyzed during the period between 2003 and 2016. The results show that GWSA decline, with a trend of −2.37 ± 0.38 mm/yr from 2003 to 2010, and the downward trend after 2011 (−0.46 ± 1.35 mm/yr) slow down significantly compared to 2003–2010. The spatial distribution obtained by the GWFM is more reliable compared to the arithmetic average results, and GWFM-based GWSA fully retain the advantages of different models, especially in the southeastern part of the SYRB. Additionally, a simple index is used to evaluate the contributions of climatic factors and human factors to groundwater storage (GWS) in the HC and its different subregions. The index indicates that climate factors occupy a dominant position in the SLRB and SYRB, while human factors have a significant impact on GWS in the Heihe River Basin (HRB). This study can provide suggestions for the management and assessments of groundwater resources in some arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Integrating SAR and Optical Remote Sensing for Conservation-Targeted Wetlands Mapping
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14010159 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) contains numerous depressional wetlands known as potholes that provide habitats for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species. Mapping these wetlands is essential for identifying viable waterfowl habitat and conservation planning scenarios, yet it is a challenging task due to [...] Read more.
The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) contains numerous depressional wetlands known as potholes that provide habitats for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species. Mapping these wetlands is essential for identifying viable waterfowl habitat and conservation planning scenarios, yet it is a challenging task due to the small size of the potholes, and the presence of emergent vegetation. This study develops an open-source process within the Google Earth Engine platform for mapping the spatial distribution of wetlands through the integration of Sentinel-1 C-band SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data with high-resolution (10-m) Sentinel-2 bands. We used two machine-learning algorithms (random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM)) to identify wetlands across the study area through supervised classification of the multisensor composite. We trained the algorithms with ground truth data provided through field studies and aerial photography. The accuracy was assessed by comparing the predicted and actual wetland and non-wetland classes using statistical coefficients (overall accuracy, Kappa, sensitivity, and specificity). For this purpose, we used four different out-of-sample test subsets, including the same year, next year, small vegetated, and small non-vegetated test sets to evaluate the methods on different spatial and temporal scales. The results were also compared to Landsat-derived JRC surface water products, and the Sentinel-2-derived normalized difference water index (NDWI). The wetlands derived from the RF model (overall accuracy 0.76 to 0.95) yielded favorable results, and outperformed the SVM, NDWI, and JRC products in all four testing subsets. To provide a further characterization of the potholes, the water bodies were stratified based on the presence of emergent vegetation using Sentinel-2-derived NDVI, and, after excluding permanent water bodies, using the JRC surface water product. The algorithm presented in the study is scalable and can be adopted for identifying wetlands in other regions of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Modeling Basin-Scale Impacts of Cultivation Practices on Cotton Yield and Water Conservation under Various Hydroclimatic Regimes
Agriculture 2022, 12(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12010017 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The SWAT model equipped with an improved auto-irrigation function was used to assess the impacts of cultivation practices on irrigated and dryland cotton yield and water conservation in the Texas Panhandle. Results showed the largest irrigation depth led to reductions in irrigation and [...] Read more.
The SWAT model equipped with an improved auto-irrigation function was used to assess the impacts of cultivation practices on irrigated and dryland cotton yield and water conservation in the Texas Panhandle. Results showed the largest irrigation depth led to reductions in irrigation and crop evapotranspiration (ETc) with slightly increased cotton yields compared to the baseline scenarios under different hydroclimatic regimes. However, soil water content and surface runoff values were increased when using the largest irrigation depth. The opposite results were observed for the small irrigation depth. Early planting of cotton resulted in decreased irrigation and ETc, and increased cotton yields under both irrigated and dryland conditions, particularly in normal and wet years. By contrast, the late planting scenarios indicated the opposite for those variables. Simulated hydrologic variables were relatively stable using various maturity cultivars. Nevertheless, greater than 10% reductions in irrigated cotton yield under diverse hydroclimatic years and dryland yields during normal and wet years were identified in the long-season cotton. The opposite was determined for the short-season cotton. These outcomes suggest that a larger irrigation depth, earlier planting date, and short-season cultivar are promising cultivation practices for improving cotton yield and water conservation in the Texas Panhandle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Willingness to Pay for Irrigation Services in the Cold Winter Deserts of Uzbekistan
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010094 - 22 Dec 2021
Abstract
Irrigation facilities in the cold winter deserts (CWDs) of Uzbekistan are very traditional and poorly managed, resulting in low water use efficiency and low productivity. Improving the irrigation facilities in these deserts is a key priority for the country. This study intended to [...] Read more.
Irrigation facilities in the cold winter deserts (CWDs) of Uzbekistan are very traditional and poorly managed, resulting in low water use efficiency and low productivity. Improving the irrigation facilities in these deserts is a key priority for the country. This study intended to contribute towards the development of the irrigation systems through identification and quantification of the relative implicit values smallholder farmers confer to the key characteristics of irrigation facilities. We elicited preferences with discrete choice experiments, estimated willingness to pay for these attributes using random parameters logit models, and analyzed heuristics in the choice process using a series of latent class models. Our results show that farmers have clear preferences for higher watering frequency and no interest in sharing irrigation water with downstream users. We also observed that there are distinct groups of farmers with comparable but different levels of preference. The development of irrigation facilities in the water-scarce parts of Uzbekistan would benefit from careful consideration of the preferences of the target communities and targeting of the schemes based on the broad heterogeneities within the communities. This will aid in the maintenance of irrigation systems and, as a result, increase agricultural production and productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Monitoring Small Water Bodies Using High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Analysis Ready Datasets
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(24), 5176; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13245176 - 20 Dec 2021
Abstract
Basemap and Planet Fusion—derived from PlanetScope imagery—represent the next generation of analysis ready datasets that minimize the effects of the presence of clouds. These datasets have high spatial (3 m) and temporal (daily) resolution, which provides an unprecedented opportunity to improve the monitoring [...] Read more.
Basemap and Planet Fusion—derived from PlanetScope imagery—represent the next generation of analysis ready datasets that minimize the effects of the presence of clouds. These datasets have high spatial (3 m) and temporal (daily) resolution, which provides an unprecedented opportunity to improve the monitoring of on-farm reservoirs (OFRs)—small water bodies that store freshwater and play important role in surface hydrology and global irrigation activities. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of both datasets to monitor sub-weekly surface area changes of 340 OFRs in eastern Arkansas, USA, and we evaluated the datasets main differences when used to monitor OFRs. When comparing the OFRs surface area derived from Basemap and Planet Fusion to an independent validation dataset, both datasets had high agreement (r2 ≥ 0.87), and small uncertainties, with a mean absolute percent error (MAPE) between 7.05% and 10.08%. Pairwise surface area comparisons between the two datasets and the PlanetScope imagery showed that 61% of the OFRs had r2 ≥ 0.55, and 70% of the OFRs had MAPE <5%. In general, both datasets can be employed to monitor OFRs sub-weekly surface area changes, and Basemap had higher surface area variability and was more susceptible to the presence of cloud shadows and haze when compared to Planet Fusion, which had a smoother time series with less variability and fewer abrupt changes throughout the year. The uncertainties in surface area classification decreased as the OFRs increased in size. In addition, the surface area time series can have high variability, depending on the OFR environmental conditions (e.g., presence of vegetation inside the OFR). Our findings suggest that both datasets can be used to monitor OFRs sub-weekly, seasonal, and inter-annual surface area changes; therefore, these datasets can help improve freshwater management by allowing better assessment and management of the OFRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Willingness to Pay for Public Benefit Functions of Daecheong Dam Operation: Moderating Effects of Climate Change Perceptions
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14060; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414060 - 20 Dec 2021
Abstract
This study estimates the economic value of the Daecheong Dam for the public function of responding to climate change. It examines the moderating effect of climate change perceptions on value estimates by applying choice experiments (CE). The study specifies three dam function attributes—drought [...] Read more.
This study estimates the economic value of the Daecheong Dam for the public function of responding to climate change. It examines the moderating effect of climate change perceptions on value estimates by applying choice experiments (CE). The study specifies three dam function attributes—drought management (DM), flood control (FC), and water quality monitoring (WM)—subdivided into three levels to improve the existing conditions. Survey data from 603 households living in Daejeon, Chungbuk, and Chungnam have been collected to perform the CE. Subsequently, two clusters—high-involvement and low-involvement groups—have been extracted, based on the climate change perception index. The main results of comparing the marginal willingness-to-pay between the two clusters are as follows. The attributes and price variable significantly affected the choice probability to benefit from improvements in the rational signs of the coefficients. This does not violate the independence of the irrelevant alternatives assumption. The improvement values of high-involvement and low-involvement groups are estimated as KRW 21,570 and KRW 14,572 a year per household, respectively. Both show the same value intensities in the order of WM, DM, and FC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Review
An Integrated Framework of Green Stormwater Infrastructure Planning—A Review
by and
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13942; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413942 - 17 Dec 2021
Abstract
Conventional stormwater management infrastructures show low levels of sustainability owing to the consistent impact of urbanization and climate change, and the green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) has been identified as a more sustainable alternative approach. According to a systematic review, the articles and papers [...] Read more.
Conventional stormwater management infrastructures show low levels of sustainability owing to the consistent impact of urbanization and climate change, and the green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) has been identified as a more sustainable alternative approach. According to a systematic review, the articles and papers concerning GSI planning are fragmented, especially those discussing the planning steps; thus, an integrated framework of GSI planning is developed here to guide forthcoming planning. In the facility aspect, the research status and prospects of four critical planning steps (i.e., objective formulation, type/scenario evaluation, quantity/scale determination, and site selection) are discussed, and a method of quantifying the relationship between GSI and ecosystem services is given. In the ecosystem aspect, ecosystem resilience promotion is regarded as an approach to guarantee the interaction between hydrological processes and ecological processes, which maintains the sustainable provision of ecosystem services produced by GSI in diverse disturbances. Proposals for future GSI planning research are put forward as comprehensive consideration of the two abovementioned aspects to harvest ecosystem services from GSI directly and to promote the anti-disturbance ability of the ecosystem to guarantee the stable provision of ecosystem services indirectly, which are conducive to the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of GSI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Uncertainty in Drought Identification Due to Data Choices, and the Value of Triangulation
Water 2021, 13(24), 3611; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243611 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Droughts are complex and gradually evolving conditions of extreme water deficits which can compromise livelihoods and ecological integrity, especially in fragile arid and semi-arid regions that depend on rainfed farming, such as Kitui West in south-eastern Kenya. Against the background of low ground-station [...] Read more.
Droughts are complex and gradually evolving conditions of extreme water deficits which can compromise livelihoods and ecological integrity, especially in fragile arid and semi-arid regions that depend on rainfed farming, such as Kitui West in south-eastern Kenya. Against the background of low ground-station density, 10 gridded rainfall products and four gridded temperature products were used to generate an ensemble of 40 calculations of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to assess uncertainties in the onset, duration, and magnitude of past droughts. These uncertainties were driven more by variations between the rainfall products than variations between the temperature products. Remaining ambiguities in drought occurrence could be resolved by complementing the quantitative analysis with ground-based information from key informants engaged in disaster relief, effectively formulating an ensemble approach to SPEI-based drought identification to aid decision making. The reported trend towards drier conditions in Eastern Africa was confirmed for Kitui West by the majority of data products, whereby the rainfall effect on those increasingly dry conditions was subtler than just annual and seasonal declines and greater annual variation of rainfall, which requires further investigation. Nevertheless, the effects of increasing droughts are already felt on the ground and warrant decisive action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Water Diplomacy and Its Strategic Significance for Sustainable Development Goals and Global Security Architecture
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13898; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413898 - 16 Dec 2021
Abstract
This article presents new approaches to water diplomacy connected with the United Nations 2030 Agenda. The research question is what is the role and significance of water diplomacy for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and global security architecture? The paper is based on the [...] Read more.
This article presents new approaches to water diplomacy connected with the United Nations 2030 Agenda. The research question is what is the role and significance of water diplomacy for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and global security architecture? The paper is based on the theory of interdependence. To illustrate this concept, the author used several case studies to identify the international security role of water diplomacy in the context of SDGs. The case studies point to the greater likelihood that wars in the twenty-first century will be due to freshwater disputes; water diplomacy should be a crucial instrument for the SDGs implementation. Water diplomacy has the potential to become an effective platform for international cooperation in the face of many current and future global water challenges. Water diplomacy combines preventive and reactive measures, as well as the mediation and implementation of solutions. It is crucial for regional and world security. The results of this paper show future research directions on water diplomacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Low-Level Groundwater Atrazine in High Atrazine Usage Nebraska Counties: Likely Effects of Excessive Groundwater Abstraction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413241 - 15 Dec 2021
Abstract
Recent studies observed a correlation between estrogen-related cancers and groundwater atrazine in eastern Nebraska counties. However, the mechanisms of human exposure to atrazine are unclear because low groundwater atrazine concentration was observed in counties with high cancer incidence despite having the highest atrazine [...] Read more.
Recent studies observed a correlation between estrogen-related cancers and groundwater atrazine in eastern Nebraska counties. However, the mechanisms of human exposure to atrazine are unclear because low groundwater atrazine concentration was observed in counties with high cancer incidence despite having the highest atrazine usage. We studied groundwater atrazine fate in high atrazine usage Nebraska counties. Data were collected from Quality Assessed Agrichemical Contaminant Nebraska Groundwater, Parameter–Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), and water use databases. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were performed. Domestic wells (59%) were the predominant well type. Groundwater atrazine was affected by well depth. Clusters consisting of wells with low atrazine were characterized by excessive groundwater abstraction, reduced precipitation, high population, discharge areas, and metropolitan counties. Hence, low groundwater atrazine may be due to excessive groundwater abstraction accompanied by atrazine. Human exposure to atrazine in abstracted groundwater may be higher than the estimated amount in groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Decision-Making Process Factors Explain Some of the Heterogeneity of Irrigation Practices among Maize Farmers in Southwestern France
Water 2021, 13(24), 3504; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243504 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Agricultural practices are heterogeneous among farmers in the face of climate hazards. Structural and material resources as well as risk preferences explain some of this heterogeneity, but little is known about how psychological factors associated with the decision-making process may explain differences in [...] Read more.
Agricultural practices are heterogeneous among farmers in the face of climate hazards. Structural and material resources as well as risk preferences explain some of this heterogeneity, but little is known about how psychological factors associated with the decision-making process may explain differences in practices among farmers. The aim of this study was to understand whether decision-making process factors help explain the heterogeneity of a specific practice—the date of first irrigation—among maize farmers, along with material and structural factors. We conducted semi-directed interviews with 35 farmers who irrigated maize in southwestern France. We analyzed discriminating factors of the decision-making process, such as reactivity (i.e., capacity to change plans), deliberation (i.e., level of internal information used to make decisions) and assistance (i.e., level of external information used to make decisions). We used two complementary statistical methods (linear regression and regression trees) to analyze the database. Our study confirms the influence of material and structural factors, and also reveals the strong influence of decision-making process factors. A high level of reactivity is associated with adaptive behavior. Moreover, using decision-support tools and technologies helps farmers to manage the use of water resources. These elements could be used by advisors and public policy-makers in the agriculture sector to improve adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Mapping Flood Extent and Frequency from Sentinel-1 Imagery during the Extremely Warm Winter of 2020 in Boreal Floodplains and Forests
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(23), 4949; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13234949 - 06 Dec 2021
Abstract
The current study presents a methodology for water mapping from Sentinel-1 (S1) data and a flood extent analysis of the three largest floodplains in Estonia. The automatic processing scheme of S1 data was set up for the mapping of open-water flooding (OWF) and [...] Read more.
The current study presents a methodology for water mapping from Sentinel-1 (S1) data and a flood extent analysis of the three largest floodplains in Estonia. The automatic processing scheme of S1 data was set up for the mapping of open-water flooding (OWF) and flooding under vegetation (FUV). The extremely mild winter of 2019/2020 resulted in several large floods at floodplains that were detected from S1 imagery with a maximal OWF extent up to 5000 ha and maximal FUV extent up to 4500 ha. A significant correlation (r2 > 0.6) between the OWF extent and the closest gauge data was obtained for inland riverbank floodplains. The outcome enabled us to define the water level at which the water exceeds the shoreline and flooding starts. However, for a coastal river delta floodplain, a lower correlation (r2 < 0.34) with gauge data was obtained, and the excess of river coastline could not be related to a certain water level. At inland riverbank floodplains, the extent of FUV was three times larger compared to that of OWF. The correlation between the water level and FUV was <0.51, indicating that the river water level at these test sites can be used as a proxy for forest floods. Relating conventional gauge data to S1 time series data contributes to flood risk mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Evaluation of Flood Mitigation Effectiveness of Nature-Based Solutions Potential Cases with an Assessment Model for Flood Mitigation
Water 2021, 13(23), 3451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233451 - 05 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, climate change has been widely discussed around the world. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) in 2021, which stated that with the intensification of global warming, heavy rainfalls are becoming more severe and [...] Read more.
In recent years, climate change has been widely discussed around the world. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) in 2021, which stated that with the intensification of global warming, heavy rainfalls are becoming more severe and frequent. Economic development in recent years has also caused the proportion of impervious areas in urban regions to increase with the advancement of urbanization. When the two aforementioned factors are coupled together, the result is faster surface runoff speeds and reduced infiltration rates, which in turn result in worse flooding. Thus, water disaster mitigation is becoming a topic of great importance to developed and developing countries. This study examined five Nature-based Solutions (NbS) cases (A, B C, D, E) for the Nangang river in Taiwan. Case A is to design levees with a 100-year return period flood design standard. Under steady flow conditions, floods can be smoothly discharged downstream without any significant inundation in most situations. Case B and C used gabions with a 10-year return period flood design standard and discontinuous levees with a 25-year return period flood design standard, respectively. Though neither case is as effective in flood mitigation, both cases B and C can still reduce inundation from the flooding disaster relatively well. Case D is to dredge local areas of the main channel, but the steady flow simulation showed little flood mitigation effect. Case E is the implementation of “Room for the River”, and employs main channel dredging and floodplain land grading to increase flood conveyance capacity. Case E provides good flood mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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Article
Case Study of Urban Flood Inundation—Impact of Temporal Variability in Rainfall Event