Topic Editors

CERIS—Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Instituto Superior Tecnico, University of Lisbon. Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Department of Civil Engineering: Hydraulics, Energy and Environment, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain

Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change

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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is a crucial element on Earth for all living and non-living components. Presently, climate change is an alarming issue for managing and sustaining life on Earth. Given climate change, the water resources all over the world have been drastically placed under a stressed condition, which is evident from the uneven weather patterns, droughts, floods, and cloud bursts, among others. Only three percent of the water resources on Earth are fresh and two-thirds of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. Of the remaining one percent, a fifth is in remote, inaccessible areas. Much seasonal rainfall in monsoonal deluges and floods cannot be easily used. At present, only about 0.08 percent of all the world's freshwater is exploited by humankind in an ever-increasing demand for sanitation, drinking, manufacturing, leisure, and agriculture. Ever-increasing water exploitation has intensively degraded freshwater ecosystems, notably rivers.

Furthermore, the climate extremes and water scarcity enhanced by climate change induce additional stress in the freshwater ecosystems and may stimulate conflicts among water users. In addition, we are aware that water is needed for several vital human activities, of which agricultural and industrial activities seem to be the primary water consumer. In the context in which we observe more frequent droughts and incidences of water scarcity in the world, water systems management requires the most advanced approaches and tools for rigorously addressing all of the dimensions involved in the sustainability of its development.

Therefore, this Topic Collection's main objective is to contribute to understanding water systems management and to provide science-based knowledge, new ideas/approaches, and solutions for water resources management. Water demand for irrigation has been steadily increasing during the last decades. However, simultaneously, other water users have been competing with agricultural sectors for water resources. Conservation of freshwater ecosystems also needs special attention through sufficient allocation of the environmental flows. In addition, in terms of projected climate change through warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns, it is expected to decrease water availability and to increase water demand in many areas of the world.

Consequently, soil productivity and thus crop production could be drastically reduced. These trends raise concerns, highlighting the role of water and natural resources management, as well as their conservation for the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. How well irrigated agriculture adapts to water scarcity scenarios, particularly by increasing water use efficiency and better estimating evapotranspiration, will directly affect the future and sustainability of the sector. Therefore, we invite authors to contribute original research articles and review articles focused on different practices and experiences of water management issues.

This collection includes but is not limited to the following topics:

  • Water management under climate extremes/change;
  • River restoration;
  • River rehabilitation;
  • Freshwater ecosystem conservation;
  • Environmental flows;
  • Hydrologic alteration;
  • Evapotranspiration;
  • Irrigation scheduling;
  • Water supply;
  • Drip irrigation;
  • Soil moisture sensors;
  • Water quality;
  • Heuristic methods in water management;
  • Precision agriculture;
  • Climate-smart irrigation tools;
  • Role of GIS and RS in water management;
  • Rainwater harvesting;
  • Green infrastructure;
  • Bioswales and rain gardens;
  • Hydroponics.

Dr. Alban Kuriqi
Prof. Dr. Luis Garrote
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • remote sensing
  • soil moisture
  • water management optimization and modeling
  • ecohydrology
  • ecohydraulic
  • water quality
  • water harvesting
  • climate change
  • irrigation
  • evapotranspiration
  • water governance
  • urban floods

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (89 papers)

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16 pages, 3223 KiB  
Article
Water Balance Trends along Climatic Variations in the Mediterranean Basin over the Past Decades
Water 2023, 15(10), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101889 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
The heterogeneous ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin (MB) are becoming sensitive to water stress. To investigate the climatic stress, a water budget study was conducted over the basin using TerraClimate simulations for a long temporal range (1990–2020). According to the budget accounting, forested [...] Read more.
The heterogeneous ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin (MB) are becoming sensitive to water stress. To investigate the climatic stress, a water budget study was conducted over the basin using TerraClimate simulations for a long temporal range (1990–2020). According to the budget accounting, forested regions received the highest precipitation (P) on average compared to other land use types (annual mean ≈633 mm yr−1), and even then, they were in a water deficit state (−0.42 mm yr−1). Tree plantations in North Africa (Libya and Morocco) were also in a water deficit state; however, their average P was very low (≈12 mm yr−1) compared to that of northern parts of the MB, and the average Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) was ≈15 mm yr−1. Also, the water balance in other land use systems (rain-fed, irrigated croplands, and rangelands) was either negative or near zero. As a whole, the basin’s average annual P was ≈538 mm yr−1, the annual average AET was ≈415 mm yr−1, and the runoff (Q) was equivalent to 123 mm yr−1, which shows a strong influence of ET over the region. Since runoff was negligible in most dry areas, the AET’s large contribution was notable in the North African base of the Atlas Mountains including the Nile delta region. This indicates that precipitation and evaporation are the principal mechanisms of the water balance in the MB. The result shows strong climate variability over Southern Europe, Turkey, and the western Balkans in the recent years, affecting the AET and making their land use systems more vulnerable to water stress. This benchmark study signifies the consistent need for water storage in the Mediterranean vegetation systems of the basin. It also indicates two distinct climate clusters for water balance modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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28 pages, 7461 KiB  
Article
High Resolution Estimation of Ocean Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, Total Alkalinity and pH Based on Deep Learning
Water 2023, 15(8), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081454 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1873
Abstract
This study combines measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), pH, earth observation (EO), and ocean model products with deep learning to provide a good step forward in detecting changes in the ocean carbonate system parameters at a high spatial and [...] Read more.
This study combines measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), pH, earth observation (EO), and ocean model products with deep learning to provide a good step forward in detecting changes in the ocean carbonate system parameters at a high spatial and temporal resolution in the North Atlantic region (Long. −61.00° to −50.04° W; Lat. 24.99° to 34.96° N). The in situ reference dataset that was used for this study provided discrete underway measurements of DIC, TA, and pH collected by M/V Equinox in the North Atlantic Ocean. A unique list of co-temporal and co-located global daily environmental drivers derived from independent sources (using satellite remote sensing, model reanalyses, empirical algorithms, and depth soundings) were collected for this study at the highest possible spatial resolution (0.04° × 0.04°). The resulting ANN-estimated DIC, TA, and pH obtained by deep learning shows a high correspondence when verified against observations. This study demonstrates how a select number of geophysical information derived from EO and model reanalysis data can be used to estimate and understand the spatiotemporal variability of the oceanic carbonate system at a high spatiotemporal resolution. Further methodological improvements are being suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 896 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Indigenous Knowledge Development in Agriculture and the Sustainability of Water Resources
Sustainability 2023, 15(7), 5665; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075665 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
The relationship between agricultural knowledge and water management is very important. Indigenous knowledge in agriculture can improve the water crisis situation and alleviate water stress from dry and semi-arid areas. Therefore, the combination of these two impacts can improve the agricultural sector and [...] Read more.
The relationship between agricultural knowledge and water management is very important. Indigenous knowledge in agriculture can improve the water crisis situation and alleviate water stress from dry and semi-arid areas. Therefore, the combination of these two impacts can improve the agricultural sector and reduce the effects of drought. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting indigenous knowledge and the sustainable management of water resources for optimal water use in agriculture in the Sistan region of Iran. Alongside field research and interviews with 40 indigenous experts and experts from the Jihad-e-Agriculture sector of the Sistan region, the required information was collected by means of a questionnaire. Using the fuzzy hierarchy process (FAHP), the factors affecting indigenous knowledge and the sustainable management of water resources for optimal water use in the Sistan region were ranked. The final rankings of the factors influencing indigenous knowledge for optimal agricultural use of water resources indicate that the educational-extensional factor, with a final weight of 0.37, is the first priority, while social factors, government support, economics, farmers’ knowledge, and information, with weights of 0.24, 0.21, 0.13, and 0.03, respectively, are the next priorities. It is recommended that the indigenous knowledge of local authorities be augmented, and that farmers be encouraged to use modern irrigation techniques to optimize the agricultural irrigation of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 5818 KiB  
Article
Shallow Groundwater Responses to Rainfall Based on Correlation and Spectral Analyses in the Heilonggang Region, China
Water 2023, 15(6), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061100 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
To clarify the long-term dynamics of groundwater and its response to precipitation in the Heilonggang region, China, variation trends of the monitored groundwater were studied according to the Mann–Kendall statistics. Based on observations from four monitoring wells, the persistence and periodicities of the [...] Read more.
To clarify the long-term dynamics of groundwater and its response to precipitation in the Heilonggang region, China, variation trends of the monitored groundwater were studied according to the Mann–Kendall statistics. Based on observations from four monitoring wells, the persistence and periodicities of the loose porous aquifers, and the interrelation between precipitation and groundwater levels was examined based on a number of tools including autocorrelation, cross-correlation, spectral analysis, and wavelet transform. The results show that the groundwater levels at W1 and W2 present a downward trend while those at W3 and W4 show an upward trend. The dominant time period increases from 2.1 years (upstream) to 3.7 years (downstream). The time lags between aquifers and rainfall at W1, W2, W3 and W4 are 139.14 ± 59.76 days (2008–2020), 23.27 ± 12.03 days (2005–2014), 145.01 ± 68.00 days (2007–2020), and 59.22 ± 26.14 days (2005–2019), respectively. The lags for the pumping years are 1.2~2.1 times of those during the years without pumping. The recharge ratio overestimated by the water table fluctuation method decreases from 0.32 at W2 to 0.17 at W4, suggesting that the site W2 has a good potentiality for groundwater recharge. This research helps us better understand the local groundwater circulation and provide references for groundwater management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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22 pages, 1449 KiB  
Review
How Can We Adapt Together? Bridging Water Management and City Planning Approaches to Climate Change
Water 2023, 15(4), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040715 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
Different dynamics of climate change, population growth, and urbanisation challenge water service providers (WSPs) and those managing urban planning. The scientific community has been evidencing the concept of sustainable urban water management (SUWM) as a driver to foster the integration of the urban [...] Read more.
Different dynamics of climate change, population growth, and urbanisation challenge water service providers (WSPs) and those managing urban planning. The scientific community has been evidencing the concept of sustainable urban water management (SUWM) as a driver to foster the integration of the urban water cycle with its environmental, economic, and social sustainability dimensions. This article studies the approaches addressed by recent research on sustainable urban water management, focusing on the attention given by the scientific community to the way WSPs and city planners address the new challenges brought by climate change. A systematic review of existing literature shows how emergent challenges address the articulation between urban water cycle management and city planning. The results underline the need for the technical and economic evaluation of the overarching concept of SUWM systems, integrating values that go beyond financial issues; the need to address water scarcity not only from the supply side but also from the demand point of view; and the deepening of the relationship between new sources of water, such as the reuse, with the city planning in a context of climate change. Nevertheless, strategies for collaboration are still poorly addressed. The insights and gaps emerging from the analysis suggest new paths for research and practice in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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22 pages, 4651 KiB  
Article
Hydroclimate Impact Analyses and Water Management in the Central Rift Valley Basin in Ethiopia
Water 2023, 15(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010018 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1948
Abstract
This study explores the impacts of climate change on the major components of the water balance such as surface runoff (Q), water yield (WY), and evapotranspiration (ET) in the Central Rift Valley Basin (CRVB) in Ethiopia. Projected climate data from the climate emission [...] Read more.
This study explores the impacts of climate change on the major components of the water balance such as surface runoff (Q), water yield (WY), and evapotranspiration (ET) in the Central Rift Valley Basin (CRVB) in Ethiopia. Projected climate data from the climate emission scenarios were used for the analyses. Representative concentration pathway (RCP) data from the MIROC-RCA4 ensemble driving climate models were downscaled, bias-corrected, and applied for impact analyses. Climate scenario analyses for the near-term (2031–2060) and long-term (2070–2099) periods were used to assess the conditions of the water balance components. The endo hydrogenic CRVB was divided into three sub-basins, and their respective hydroclimatic impacts were simulated separately with calibrated Arc-SWAT models. The future impacts simulated on the annual average basis vary in their maximum ranges from −65.2% to +85.8% in Q, from −42.2% to +23.9% in WY, and from −4.1% to +17.3% in ET compared to the baseline data outputs in the individual sub-basin. Water management options according to the water balance sensitivities to the climate impacts were proposed for each of the sub-basins. SWAT-based studies aimed at balanced water resources management in combination with agricultural practices within the CRVB are recommended for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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31 pages, 4398 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Representativeness of Irrigation Adoption Studies: A Meta-Study of Global Research
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122105 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
For decades, nations around the world have been promoting irrigation expansion as a method for improving agricultural growth, smoothing production risk, and alleviating rural poverty. Despite its apparent advantages, suboptimal adoption rates persist. According to the existing literature, determinants of irrigation adoption are [...] Read more.
For decades, nations around the world have been promoting irrigation expansion as a method for improving agricultural growth, smoothing production risk, and alleviating rural poverty. Despite its apparent advantages, suboptimal adoption rates persist. According to the existing literature, determinants of irrigation adoption are often highly dependent on cultural, contextual, and/or local institutional factors. Yet, studies from diverse geographies identify a consistent set of factors. Thus, to be able to make generalizable inferences from such studies, a global geographic representativeness assessment of irrigation adoption studies was conducted to determine whether identified factors influencing irrigation were the result of geographic, epistemological, or disciplinary biases. The results indicate that multiple geographic biases exist with respect to studying farmers’ irrigation adoption decision-making. More research on this topic is being conducted in regions that have little to a high percentage of irrigation (>1%), are readily accessible, receive moderate amounts of average annual rainfall, and have moderate amounts of cropland cover. The results suggest the need to expand research efforts in areas with little to no irrigation to identify constraints and help accelerate economic growth, poverty reduction, and food and livelihood security for rural communities in these regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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18 pages, 7735 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Driving Factors of Drought in Growing Season in the Inner Mongolia Based on Geodetector and GWR Models
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(23), 6007; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14236007 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
As an important ecological security barrier in northern China, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (hereinafter referred to as Inner Mongolia) is seriously affected by drought. It is of great significance to characterize the spatial distribution of drought and identify the influencing factors of [...] Read more.
As an important ecological security barrier in northern China, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (hereinafter referred to as Inner Mongolia) is seriously affected by drought. It is of great significance to characterize the spatial distribution of drought and identify the influencing factors of drought. Due to complex interactions among drought driving factors, it is difficult to quantify the contribution of each driving factor to drought using linear correlation analysis alone. In this study, we used the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) as a quantitative indicator of drought to discuss the spatiotemporal variation of drought during growing seasons in the Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2018. We quantitatively characterized mode, scope, and intensity of changes in SPEI caused by drought-influencing factors such as weather, water, topography, soil, and human activities using the Geodetector and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models. We concluded that about 20.3% of the region showed a downward trend in SPEI, with the fastest rate of decline in the central and western Inner Mongolia. Air temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to rivers are the main controlling factors in drought change, and the factor interactions showed nonlinear enhancement. The drought driving effect was obvious in Alxa League, Wuhai City, Ulanqab City, and Baotou City. The results will help us to understand the effects of the driving factors on drought and eventually help policymakers with water-resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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31 pages, 3317 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Water Resources Management Assessment Frameworks (SWRM-AF) for Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Systematic Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 15293; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215293 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Sustainable water resources management assessment frameworks (SWRM-AF) with associated indicators and benchmarks have appeared widely during the last decades to improve or maintain water resources. Examination or evaluation of their appropriateness and refinement for particular arid and semi-arid regions is a relatively unexplored [...] Read more.
Sustainable water resources management assessment frameworks (SWRM-AF) with associated indicators and benchmarks have appeared widely during the last decades to improve or maintain water resources. Examination or evaluation of their appropriateness and refinement for particular arid and semi-arid regions is a relatively unexplored area. To fill this gap in knowledge, a systematic review of relevant 21st century studies identified within two extensive databases, Scopus and Engineering Village, and in grey literature, is undertaken in this study. Therein, 17 studies are identified and thoroughly explored to identify their focus, application, and framework construction. The results of the comparative analysis among these frameworks show that the average numbers of components and indicators are 4.5 and 17.6, respectively. Meanwhile, categorical rescaling (47.1%), equal weighting (47.1%), arithmetic technique (82.35%), local scale (52.8%), and interval of the final index value of [0–100] (41.2%) are the most commonly used normalization methods and elements. The paper concludes that none of the existing tools reviewed is 100% applicable for arid and semi-arid regions, and therefore the case is made for developing a new bespoke SWRM-AF. The outcomes of this paper provide some useful insights into what should be included therein (e.g., stakeholder engagement and specific indicators to fit the context). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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21 pages, 8091 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Future Spatial and Temporal Evolution Trends of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Yellow River Basin, China
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(22), 5674; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14225674 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an integral part of the regional hydrological cycle and energy balance and is extremely sensitive to climate change. Based on temperature data from 24 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 [...] Read more.
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an integral part of the regional hydrological cycle and energy balance and is extremely sensitive to climate change. Based on temperature data from 24 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), this study developed a multi-model ensemble based on delta statistical downscaling with multiple interpolation methods and evaluation indicators to predict the spatial and temporal evolution trends of ET0 in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) under four emission scenarios (SSP126, SSP245, SSP370, and SSP585) for the near- (2022–2040), mid- (2041–2060), and long- (2081–2100) term future. Results demonstrate that regional data generated based on delta statistical downscaling had good simulation performance for the monthly mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures in the YRB, and the developed multi-model ensemble had better simulation capability than any single model. Compared to the historical period (1901–2014), the annual ET0 showed a highly significant increase for different future emission scenarios, and the increase is faster with increasing radiative forcing. The first main cycle of ET0 change was 52, 53, 60, and 48 years for the SSP126, SSP245, SSP370, and SSP585, respectively. ET0 in the YRB had positive values for EOF1 under all four emission scenarios, responding to a spatially consistent trend across the region. Compared to the historical period, the spatial distribution of ET0 under different future emission scenarios was characterized by being larger in the west and smaller in the east. As the radiative forcing scenario increased and time extended, ET0 significantly increased, with a maximum variation of 112.91% occurring in the western part of the YRB in the long-term future under the SSP585 scenario. This study can provide insight into the water cycle patterns of watersheds and scientific decision support for relevant departments to address the challenges of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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18 pages, 83928 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamic Modelling and Flood Risk Analysis of Urban Catchments under Multiple Scenarios: A Case Study of Dongfeng Canal District, Zhengzhou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214630 - 08 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
In recent years, urban flooding has become an increasingly serious problem, posing a serious threat to socio-economic development and personal safety. In this paper, we consider the Dongfeng Canal area in Zhengzhou City as an example and build a 1D/2D coupled urban flood [...] Read more.
In recent years, urban flooding has become an increasingly serious problem, posing a serious threat to socio-economic development and personal safety. In this paper, we consider the Dongfeng Canal area in Zhengzhou City as an example and build a 1D/2D coupled urban flood model using the InfoWorks ICM. This study area uses six scenarios with rainfall return periods of 5 a, 20 a, and 50 a, corresponding to rainfall ephemeris of 1 h and 2 h to assess the flood risk. The results of the study show that (1) The flood depth, inundation duration, and extent of inundation in the study area vary with the return period and rainfall history. Generally, most of the water accumulation is concentrated in the low-lying areas adjacent to the river and near the roadbed. (2) As the rainfall recurrence period and rainfall duration increase, the proportion of overflow at the nodes becomes more pronounced and the overload from the pipe network flows mainly to the overload. (3) The high-risk areas under the different scenarios are mainly distributed on both sides of the river, and most of the low-risk areas transform into medium- and high-risk areas as the rainfall recurrence period and rainfall duration increase. This study analyses the flood risk situation under different scenarios, as well as the elements and areas that should be monitored in case of flooding, with the aim of providing a reference for flood prevention and control in the study area and formulating corresponding countermeasures. It also serves as a reference for flood risk analysis in other areas with similar situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 4256 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Baseflow Responses to Projected Climate Change in the Weihe River Basin, Loess Plateau, China
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(20), 5097; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14205097 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Climate change is a significant force influencing catchment hydrological processes, such as baseflow, i.e., the contribution of delayed pathways to streamflow in drought periods and is associated with catchment drought propagation. The Weihe River Basin is a typical arid and semi-arid catchment on [...] Read more.
Climate change is a significant force influencing catchment hydrological processes, such as baseflow, i.e., the contribution of delayed pathways to streamflow in drought periods and is associated with catchment drought propagation. The Weihe River Basin is a typical arid and semi-arid catchment on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. Baseflow plays a fundamental role in the provision of water and environmental functions at the catchment scale. However, the baseflow variability in the projected climate change is not well understood. In this study, forcing meteorological data were derived from two climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of three representative general circulation models (CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, MIROC5, and FGOALSg2) in CMIP5 and then were used as inputs in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model to simulate future streamflow. Finally, a well-revised baseflow separation method was implemented to estimate the baseflow to investigate long-term (historical (1960–2012) and future (2010–2054) periods) baseflow variability patterns. We found (1) that baseflow showed a decreasing trend in some simulations of future climatic conditions but not in all scenarios (p < 0.05), (2) that the contribution of baseflow to streamflow (i.e., baseflow index) amounted to approximately 45%, with a slightly increasing trend (p ≤ 0.001), and (3) an increased frequency of severe hydrological drought events in the future (2041–2053) due to baseflows much lower than current annual averages. This study benefits the scientific management of water resources in regional development and provides references for the semi-arid or water-limited catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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20 pages, 4517 KiB  
Article
NIRAVARI: A Parsimonious Bio-Decisional Model for Assessing the Sustainability and Vulnerability of Rainfed or Groundwater-Irrigated Farming Systems in Indian Agriculture
Water 2022, 14(20), 3211; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203211 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Groundwater irrigation is essential to sustain food production, and aquifer depletion represents a major sustainability challenge for humanity. There is a need for adequate modelling tools to assess the impacts of farming practices on groundwater resources with policy-makers and farmers in different contexts, [...] Read more.
Groundwater irrigation is essential to sustain food production, and aquifer depletion represents a major sustainability challenge for humanity. There is a need for adequate modelling tools to assess the impacts of farming practices on groundwater resources with policy-makers and farmers in different contexts, especially in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics. We introduce the NIRAVARI model, which was designed to represent the Indian farming and water resource context. NIRAVARI is a parsimonious model integrating biophysical and decisional processes dealing with the farming system and the water table processes. A specific focus is given to how to irrigate with multiple water resources. Its formalisms include equations from well-tested published models for soil moisture and plant water stress simulations. The programming and graphic user interface is based on Excel VBA. We illustrate the ability of NIRAVARI to simulate a broad range of farmer adaptation strategies using four scenarios of cropping systems and water resources policies, and therefore, its interest for participatory scenario design and assessment with stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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12 pages, 1985 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Variations of Water Quality in Urban Rivers after Small Sluices Construction: A Case in Typical Regions of the Taihu Lake Basin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912453 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Urban river pollution is considered a ‘necessary evil’ consequence of disproportionate developmental expansion in metropolises. Unprecedented expansion and anthropic activities lead to the deterioration of urban rivers with municipal and industrial sewage. The construction of sluices is one of the irrefutable parts of [...] Read more.
Urban river pollution is considered a ‘necessary evil’ consequence of disproportionate developmental expansion in metropolises. Unprecedented expansion and anthropic activities lead to the deterioration of urban rivers with municipal and industrial sewage. The construction of sluices is one of the irrefutable parts of the process. In order to prevent floods and drought, many cities build sluices and dams in rivers to balance water quantity in different seasons. To explore the change characteristics of the water quality in urban rivers after the construction of sluices and dams, the change in the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations upstream and downstream of rivers was investigated under the condition of sluices closure in Wuxi. According to the results, when the sluices were closed, the pollutants of TP and TN would accumulate upstream in rivers, which caused the water quality in the upper reaches to be worse than that in the lower reaches. Specifically, the TN and TP concentrations downstream of urban rivers in Wuxi were approximately 14.42% and 13.80% lower than those upstream when the sluices were closed. Additionally, the water quality in urban rivers was usually better in summer and autumn than in the other seasons, showing obvious seasonality after the construction of the sluices. The research will provide a theoretical basis for future sluice operation and the water resources management of urban rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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21 pages, 784 KiB  
Article
Examining the Role of Clean Drinking Water Plants in Mitigating Drinking Water-Induced Morbidity
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9644; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159644 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Access to clean drinking water is essentially required for human existence. It is a formalized fact that contaminated drinking water poses a serious threat to human life as the endowment of unpolluted drinking water to Pakistan’s inhabitants is the local government’s foremost duty. [...] Read more.
Access to clean drinking water is essentially required for human existence. It is a formalized fact that contaminated drinking water poses a serious threat to human life as the endowment of unpolluted drinking water to Pakistan’s inhabitants is the local government’s foremost duty. Thus, to conquer this purpose, the local government, with the coordination of the community development department (CD), fixed drinking water filtration plants at several places in Lahore. This study aimed to discover the health threats and health-associated costs endured by households in the target study areas and the effects of drinking water on infants’ and children’s health in areas having and lacking water filtration plants by employing the health lifestyle model. Moreover, this study compared waterborne disease incidence in households in targeted areas with and without local government filtration plants. For this purpose, a multistage random sampling technique was employed to collect the data from 300 households residing at different locations in Pakistan. This study revealed that people who make life choices to drink filtration plants’ water installed by the local government are less likely to contract waterborne diseases. Besides, class circumstances such as the size of the family, education of the family head, and plant water usage are highly correlated to the quality and use of drinking water and, ultimately, to the health-associated outcomes by improving a healthy lifestyle. In contrast, the age of the household head was found to be insignificant in making choices regarding drinking water choices and reducing waterborne illness. The more the education of the family head, the fewer family members found to indulge in practices for using plant water. Thus, infants/children and other people are less likely to contract waterborne incidents in areas equipped with these filtration plants. Moreover, the probability of contracting waterborne illness is higher in males than in females in areas lacking filtration plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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25 pages, 2054 KiB  
Article
Simulating the Effects of Agricultural Adaptation Practices onto the Soil Water Content in Future Climate Using SWAT Model on Upland Bystra River Catchment
Water 2022, 14(15), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152288 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
The article presents predicted changes in soil water content in the Bystra river catchment (eastern Poland) for various scenarios of climate change and adaptation practices obtained on the basis of a SWAT model simulation for three regional climate models driven by the global [...] Read more.
The article presents predicted changes in soil water content in the Bystra river catchment (eastern Poland) for various scenarios of climate change and adaptation practices obtained on the basis of a SWAT model simulation for three regional climate models driven by the global climate model EC-EARTH for the years 2041–2050 and the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 RCP scenarios. Climate scenarios were put against five adaptation scenarios presenting changes in land use and protective measures compared against a zero scenario of BaU (Business as Usual) kept in the future climate. Adaptation scenarios 1–5 are modifications of Scenario 0 (S-0). The 0–5 scenarios’ analysis was based on comparing soil water content and total runoff, sediment yield, actual evapotranspiration. The first adaptation scenario (AS-1) assumes an increase in afforestation on soils from the agricultural suitability complex of soil 6–8 (semi-dry, permanent dry, semi-wet). The second adaptation scenario (AS-2) assumes the creation of a forested buffer for the Bystra River and its tributaries. The third adaptation scenario (AS-3) shows one of the erosion prevention practices, the so-called filter strips. The fourth adaptation scenario (AS-4) assumes the reduction in plowing on arable land. The fifth adaptation scenario (AS-5) involves increasing soil organic carbon to 2%. Simulations revealed that each of the adaptation scenarios 1, 2, 3, 5 does not generally contribute to increasing the water content in soil on BARL (spring crops), CANP (rape), WWHT (winter crops), CRDY (other crops) on arable lands (which together account for over 50% of the catchment area). However, they can contribute to the reduction in sediment yield, total runoff and changes in actual evapotranspiration. The adaptation scenario 4 (AS-4) shows a slight increase in the soil water content on Bystra catchment in the 2041–2050 perspective. Scenario 4 indicated a slight increase in total runoff and a decrease in sediment yield, which in combination with slightly higher water content reflects the protective role of plant residue mulch, lowering the evaporation from the bare soil surface during warm seasons. The no-till adaptation practice had the highest effect in positively affecting water balance at the catchment scale among the adaptation scenarios considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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19 pages, 8531 KiB  
Article
Development of an Energy Efficient and Fully Autonomous Low-Cost IoT System for Irrigation Scheduling in Water-Scarce Areas Using Different Water Sources
Agriculture 2022, 12(7), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12071044 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Politicians and the general public are concerned about climate change, water scarcity, and the constant reduction in agricultural land. Water reserves are scarce in many regions in the world, negatively affecting agricultural productivity, which makes it a necessity to introduce sustainable water resource [...] Read more.
Politicians and the general public are concerned about climate change, water scarcity, and the constant reduction in agricultural land. Water reserves are scarce in many regions in the world, negatively affecting agricultural productivity, which makes it a necessity to introduce sustainable water resource management. Nowadays, there is a number of commercial IoT systems for irrigation scheduling, helping farmers to manage and save water. However, these systems focus on using the available fresh water sources, without being able to manage alternative water sources. In this study, an Arduino-based low-cost IoT system for automated irrigation scheduling is developed and implemented, which can provide measurements of water parameters with high precision using low-cost sensors. The system used weather station data combined with the FAO56 model for computing the water requirements for various crops, and it was capable of handling and monitoring different water streams by supervising their quality and quantity. The developed IoT system was tested in several field trials, to evaluate its capabilities and functionalities, including the sensors’ accuracy, its autonomous controlling and operation, and its power consumption. The results of this study show that the system worked efficiently on the management and monitoring of different types of water sources (rainwater, groundwater, seawater, and wastewater) and on automating the irrigation scheduling. In addition, it was proved that the system is can be used for long periods of time without any power source, making it ideal for using it on annual crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 4941 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Rule Curves and Streamflow under Climate Change for Multipurpose Reservoir Operation Using Honey-Bee Mating Optimization
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8599; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148599 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Climate change in the watershed above the reservoir has a direct impact on the quantity of streamflow that enters the reservoir and the management of water resources. Developing effective reservoir rule curves helps reduce the risk of future failures of water resource management. [...] Read more.
Climate change in the watershed above the reservoir has a direct impact on the quantity of streamflow that enters the reservoir and the management of water resources. Developing effective reservoir rule curves helps reduce the risk of future failures of water resource management. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of climate change on the volume of streamflow entering the Ubolratana Reservoir, Thailand during the years 2020–2049 with climate simulations from the CIMP5 model under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. SWAT models were used to forecast future reservoir streamflow quantities. Moreover, suitable reservoir rule curves using the Honey-Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO) were developed and the effectiveness of the new rule curves was assessed. According to the research findings, the average yearly streamflow in the future apparently grew from 32% in the base years (2011–2019) and 65% under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. It was discovered that the average monthly streamflow was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Both of the projected situations have a form compatible with the present rule curves in the section of the new reservoir rule curves generated with the HBMO. Furthermore, the newly constructed rule curves may allow the reservoir to keep more water during the rainy season, thereby assuring that there will be adequate water during the following dry season. Additionally, during the dry season, the reservoir was able to release more water that would be able to reduce the water shortage, indicating that it was able to effectively reduce the amount of water shortage and average overflow under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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25 pages, 748 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Human Dimensions of Recycling and Source Separation Practices at the Household Level: An Evidence in Perak, Malaysia
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8023; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138023 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
Recycling and source separation (R&SS) are believed to have been the first attempt to minimise waste. This research adopted mixed methods that followed sequential quantitative then qualitative data collection, combining questionnaire surveys from 100 households, semi-structured interviews, and participatory observations to study the [...] Read more.
Recycling and source separation (R&SS) are believed to have been the first attempt to minimise waste. This research adopted mixed methods that followed sequential quantitative then qualitative data collection, combining questionnaire surveys from 100 households, semi-structured interviews, and participatory observations to study the human dimension of waste generation and management. Scoring Assessment (with modified Bloom’s Cut Off point) indicated that households had moderate knowledge and positive attitudes yet poor behaviour, and these three components indicated no linear associations, tested using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. However, age group, marital status, educational level and living duration showed statistical significance with households’ participation in source separation through Chi-Square Test. Meanwhile, observation data showed that waste management mechanisms and environment had inefficiently supported households’ participation in R&SS practices (external factors: poor accessibility to services, lack of tangible incentives, and absence of restriction in consumption). Elicited data indicated that a satisfactory level of intentions, knowledge, and willingness, together with good habit and quality persuasion (internal factors), were required to drive good behaviour. Subsequently, a series of recommendations were formulated to promote gradual yet solid transformation of the waste management system, tapping on existing initiatives by considering additional parameters upon the gap in households’ knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 1929 KiB  
Review
Diversifying Water Sources with Atmospheric Water Harvesting to Enhance Water Supply Resilience
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7783; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137783 - 26 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3690
Abstract
The unequivocal global warming has an explicit impact on the natural water cycle and resultantly leads to an increasing occurrence of extreme weather events which in turn bring challenges and unavoidable destruction to the urban water supply system. As such, diversifying water sources [...] Read more.
The unequivocal global warming has an explicit impact on the natural water cycle and resultantly leads to an increasing occurrence of extreme weather events which in turn bring challenges and unavoidable destruction to the urban water supply system. As such, diversifying water sources is a key solution to building the resilience of the water supply system. An atmospheric water harvesting can capture water out of the air and provide a point-of-use water source directly. Currently, a series of atmospheric water harvesting have been proposed and developed to provide water sources under various moisture content ranging from 30–80% with a maximum water collection rate of 200,000 L/day. In comparison to conventional water source alternatives, atmospheric water harvesting avoids the construction of storage and distribution grey infrastructure. However, the high price and low water generation rate make this technology unfavorable as a viable alternative to general potable water sources whereas it has advantages compared with bottled water in both cost and environmental impacts. Moreover, atmospheric water harvesting can also provide a particular solution in the agricultural sector in countries with poor irrigation infrastructure but moderate humidity. Overall, atmospheric water harvesting could provide communities and/or cities with an indiscriminate solution to enhance water supply resilience. Further research and efforts are needed to increase the water generation rate and reduce the cost, particularly via leveraging solar energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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30 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Climate Change on the Tagus–Segura Transfer: Diagnosis of the Water Balance in the Vega Baja del Segura (Alicante, Spain)
Water 2022, 14(13), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132023 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
Climate change is one of the most important problems facing society in the 21st century. Despite the uncertainty about the behaviour of rainfall due to climate change, what is clear is that average rainfall has been reduced in the inland areas and headwaters [...] Read more.
Climate change is one of the most important problems facing society in the 21st century. Despite the uncertainty about the behaviour of rainfall due to climate change, what is clear is that average rainfall has been reduced in the inland areas and headwaters of Spain’s river basins. The Tagus basin is one of the most affected, with implications for the Jucar and Segura basins. The working hypothesis is to corroborate with the data collected on the effects of climate change on the TTS. To this end, the following methodology has been applied: (a) analysis in the headwaters of the Tagus, using data on precipitation, surface runoff and reservoir water; (b) analysis of the resources of the Segura basin (supply and demand), based on the basin organisation’s own data; (c) construction of a water balance adjusted to the Bajo Segura district (Alicante), a user of the water transferred for agricultural use. Likewise, the data provided by the basin organisation have made it possible to corroborate the data on consumption and allocation of the corresponding volumes of water. The results obtained make it possible to put forward a novel proposal in the scientific field related to hydrological planning based on the principles of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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24 pages, 5412 KiB  
Article
Virtual Water Flow Pattern in the Yellow River Basin, China: An Analysis Based on a Multiregional Input–Output Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127345 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Research on the Yellow River Basin’s virtual water is not only beneficial for rational water resource regulation and allocation, but it is also a crucial means of relieving the pressures of a shortage of water resources. The water stress index and pull coefficient [...] Read more.
Research on the Yellow River Basin’s virtual water is not only beneficial for rational water resource regulation and allocation, but it is also a crucial means of relieving the pressures of a shortage of water resources. The water stress index and pull coefficient have been introduced to calculate the implied virtual water from intraregional and interregional trade in the Yellow River Basin on the basis of a multi-regional input–output model; a systematic study of virtual water flow has been conducted. The analysis illustrated that: (1) Agriculture is the leading sector in terms of virtual water input and output among all provinces in the Yellow River Basin, which explains the high usage. Therefore, it is important to note that the agricultural sector needs to improve its water efficiency. In addition to agriculture, virtual water is mainly exported through supply companies in the upper reaches; the middle reaches mainly output services and the transportation industry, and the lower reaches mainly output to the manufacturing industry. Significant differences exist in the pull coefficients of the same sectors in different provinces (regions). The average pull coefficients of the manufacturing, mining, and construction industries are large, so it is necessary to formulate stricter water use policies. (2) The whole basin is in a state of virtual net water input, that is, throughout the region. The Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Qinghai Provinces, which are relatively short of water, import virtual water to relieve local water pressures. However, in the Gansu Province and the Ningxia Autonomous Region, where water resources are not abundant, continuous virtual water output will exacerbate the local resource shortage. (3) The Yellow River Basin’s virtual water resources have obvious geographical distribution characteristics. The cross-provincial trade volume in the downstream area is high; the virtual water trade volume in the upstream area is low, as it is in the midstream and downstream areas; the trade relationship is insufficient. The Henan and Shandong Provinces are located in the dominant flow direction of Yellow River Basin’s virtual water, while Gansu and Inner Mongolia are at the major water sources. Trade exchanges between the midstream and downstream and the upstream should be strengthened. Therefore, the utilization of water resources should be planned nationwide to reduce water pressures, and policymakers should improve the performance of agricultural water use within the Yellow River Basin and change the main trade industries according to the resource advantages and water resources situation of each of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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18 pages, 4888 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Variations of Water Ecosystem Services Value and Its Influencing Factors: A Case in Typical Regions of the Central Loess Plateau
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7169; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127169 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Water resources provide indispensable ecosystem services, which are related to human well-being and sustainable social development. Accurately measuring the water ecosystem services value (WESV), and then grasping its changing characteristics, is particularly important for solving water problems. In this study, the typical area [...] Read more.
Water resources provide indispensable ecosystem services, which are related to human well-being and sustainable social development. Accurately measuring the water ecosystem services value (WESV), and then grasping its changing characteristics, is particularly important for solving water problems. In this study, the typical area of the central Loess Plateau location is taken as the research area. Based on remote sensing images and statistical data, the direct market method combined with the equivalent factor method was used to calculate the WESV including groundwater and surface water, which is of greatest originality. The temporal and spatial variation characteristics in 2010, 2015 and 2020 were analyzed. Then, four WESV driving factors including per capita GDP, population density, proportion of water areas, and water consumption were selected, and the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern and temporal variation of WESV’s response to the influencing factors. The results showed that WESV experienced a process of first decreasing and then increasing, which was mainly caused by Yulin. For the composition of WESV, the proportion of provisioning services value has increased, which caused the proportion of regulating services value to decrease. The correlations between four factors and WESV were different. The distribution pattern of the influences was spatially heterogeneous, which showed regular variations over time. These results indicate the necessity of WESV’s independent research and provide a realistic basis for ecological compensation in the Yellow River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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22 pages, 5323 KiB  
Article
New Insights into Microbial Degradation of Cyanobacterial Organic Matter Using a Fractionation Procedure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 6981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126981 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by phytoplankton Microcystis have occurred successively since 1980 in Lake Taihu, China, which has led to difficulty collecting clean drinking water. The effects of cyanobacterial scum-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) on microbial population variations and of algal-derived filtrate and algal [...] Read more.
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by phytoplankton Microcystis have occurred successively since 1980 in Lake Taihu, China, which has led to difficulty collecting clean drinking water. The effects of cyanobacterial scum-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) on microbial population variations and of algal-derived filtrate and algal residual exudative organic matter caused by the fraction procedure on nutrient mineralization are unclear. This study revealed the microbial-regulated transformation of DOM from a high-molecular-weight labile to a low-molecular-weight recalcitrant, which was characterized by three obvious stages. The bioavailability of DOM derived from cyanobacterial scum by lake microbes was investigated during 80-d dark degradation. Carbon substrates provided distinct growth strategy links to the free-living bacteria abundance variation, and this process was coupled with the regeneration of different forms of inorganic nutrients. The carryover effects of Microcystis cyanobacteria blooms can exist for a long time. We also found the transformation of different biological availability of DOM derived from two different cyanobacterial DOM fractions, which all coupled with the regeneration of different forms of inorganic nutrients. Our study provides new insights into the microbial degradation of cyanobacterial organic matter using a fractionation procedure, which suggests that the exudate and lysate from degradation products of cyanobacteria biomass have heterogeneous impacts on DOM cycling in aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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19 pages, 5228 KiB  
Article
Use of the Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Satellites for Water Quality Monitoring: An Early Warning Tool in the Mar Menor Coastal Lagoon
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122744 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5203
Abstract
During recent years, several eutrophication processes and subsequent environmental crises have occurred in Mar Menor, the largest hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Western Mediterranean Sea. In this study, the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellites are jointly used to examine the evolution of the main [...] Read more.
During recent years, several eutrophication processes and subsequent environmental crises have occurred in Mar Menor, the largest hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Western Mediterranean Sea. In this study, the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellites are jointly used to examine the evolution of the main water quality descriptors during the latest ecological crisis in 2021, resulting in an important loss of benthic vegetation and unusual mortality events affecting different aquatic species. Several field campaigns were carried out in March, July, August, and November 2021 to measure water quality variables over 10 control points. The validation of satellite biogeochemical variables against on-site measurements indicates precise results of the water quality algorithms with median errors of 0.41 mg/m3 and 2.04 FNU for chlorophyll-a and turbidity, respectively. The satellite preprocessing scheme shows consistent performance for both satellites; therefore, using them in tandem can improve mapping strategies. The findings demonstrate the suitability of the methodology to capture the spatiotemporal distribution of turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration at 10–30 m spatial resolution on a systematic basis and in a cost-effective way. The multitemporal products allow the identification of the main critical areas close to the mouth of the Albujon watercourse and the beginning of the eutrophication process with chlorophyll-a concentration above 3 mg/m3. These innovative tools can support decision makers in improving current monitoring strategies as early warning systems for timely assistance during these ecological disasters, thus preventing detrimental conditions in the lagoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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16 pages, 6778 KiB  
Article
Mixed-Unit-Model-Based and Quantitative Studies on Groundwater Recharging and Discharging between Aquifers of Aksu River
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6936; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116936 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
The confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin is the main aquifer for drinking water within the area. In this study, the unconfined aquifer and the confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin were divided into different water circulation units through analysis of [...] Read more.
The confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin is the main aquifer for drinking water within the area. In this study, the unconfined aquifer and the confined aquifer in the Aksu River Basin were divided into different water circulation units through analysis of their flow field. After the hydrochemistry and isotope characteristics of each unit were analyzed, these data were used as water volume quantitative information of the aquifer according to the mixed-unit model. With this quantitative information, the transformation relationship between the unconfined aquifer and the confined aquifer, the recharging source, recharging amount, recharging proportion, and discharging amount of the confined aquifer were revealed. The results showed that the confined aquifer receives a recharge of 21.48 × 106 m3/a from the unconfined aquifer. The recharging sources of the confined aquifer in the middle and upper stream of the Aksu River mainly included side recharging and leakage recharging from the unconfined aquifer, while the confined aquifer received little recharging from unconfined aquifer downstream of the Aksu River and did not receive recharging from the unconfined aquifer in the southeast of the basin. Additionally, drainage methods of the confined aquifer were mainly lateral flowing and artificial well-group pumping. The side discharging volume through the whole area was 15.67 × 106 m3/a, and the artificial pumping volume was 21.20 × 106 m3/a. The confined aquifer was in a negative balance state from the middle-upper stream to the downstream. The downstream confined aquifer and its unconfined aquifer had a plane laminar flow movement, and the unconfined aquifer provided very little recharging to the confined one, which was further enhanced by the artificial well pumping and caused an accumulating negative balance state of the downstream aquifer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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20 pages, 85180 KiB  
Article
Estimating Canopy-Scale Evapotranspiration from Localized Sap Flow Measurements
Water 2022, 14(11), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111812 - 04 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
The results reported in this work are based in part on measurements of sap flow in a few select trees on a representative riparian forest plot coupled with a forest-wide randomized sampling of tree sapwood area in a watershed located along the Pacific [...] Read more.
The results reported in this work are based in part on measurements of sap flow in a few select trees on a representative riparian forest plot coupled with a forest-wide randomized sampling of tree sapwood area in a watershed located along the Pacific coast in Santa Cruz County, California. These measurements were upscaled to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) across the forest and to quantify groundwater usage by dominant phreatophyte vegetation. Canopy cover in the study area is dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra) and arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis), deciduous phreatophyte trees from which a small sample was selected for instrumentation with sap flow sensors on a single forest plot. These localized sap flow measurements were then upscaled to the entire riparian forest to estimate forest ET using data from a survey of sapwood area on six plots scattered randomly across the entire forest. The estimated canopy-scale ET was compared to reference ET and NDVI based estimates. The results show positive correlation between sap flow based estimates and those of the other two methods, though over the winter months, sap flow-based ET values were found to significantly underestimate ET as predicted by the other two methods. The results illustrate the importance of ground-based measurements of sap flow for calibrating satellite based methods and for providing site-specific estimates and to better characterize the ET forcing in groundwater flow models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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25 pages, 8147 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Daily of Reference Evapotranspiration Using CLDAS Product in Different Climate Regions of China
Water 2022, 14(11), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111744 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Reference Crop evapotranspiration (ET0) datasets based on reanalysis products can make up for the time discontinuity and the spatial insufficiency of surface meteorological platform data, which is of great significance for water resources planning and irrigation system formulation. However, a [...] Read more.
Reference Crop evapotranspiration (ET0) datasets based on reanalysis products can make up for the time discontinuity and the spatial insufficiency of surface meteorological platform data, which is of great significance for water resources planning and irrigation system formulation. However, a rigorous evaluation must be conducted to verify if reanalysis products have application values. This study first evaluated the ability of the second-generation China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) dataset for officially estimating ET0 (the local meteorological station data is used as the reference dataset). The results suggest that the temperature data of CLDAS have high accuracy in all regions except the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (QTP) region. In contrast, the global solar radiation data accuracy is fair, and the relative humidity and wind speed data quality are poor. The overall accuracy of ET0 is acceptable other than QTP, but there are also less than 15% (103) of stations with significant errors. In terms of seasons, the error is largest in summer and smallest in winter. Additionally, there are inter-annual differences in the ET0 of this data set. Overall, the CLDAS dataset is expected to have good applicability in the Inner Mongolia Grassland area for estimating ET0, Northeast Taiwan, the Semi Northern Temperate zone, the Humid and Semi Humid warm Temperate zone, and the subtropical region. However, there are certain risks in other regions. In addition, of all seasons, summer and spring have the slightest bias, followed by autumn and winter. From 2017 to 2020, bias in 2019 and 2020 are the smallest, and the areas with large deviation are south of climate zone 3, the coastal area of climate zone 6, and the boundary area of climate zone 7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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12 pages, 1189 KiB  
Study Protocol
A Systematic Study Site Selection Protocol to Determine Environmental Flows in the Headwater Catchments of the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106259 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Developing nations will be worst hit by the impacts of climate change because limited resources hinder the spatial reach of climate studies, effort, and subsequent implementation to help with the improvement of livelihoods. Therefore, finding the best-case study is an essential undertaking in [...] Read more.
Developing nations will be worst hit by the impacts of climate change because limited resources hinder the spatial reach of climate studies, effort, and subsequent implementation to help with the improvement of livelihoods. Therefore, finding the best-case study is an essential undertaking in environmental assessments. This study explains one systematic approach to selecting a study site for an environmental assessment project. A desktop review of relevant literature, a simple factor scoring assessment process, reliance on expert opinion, and a field survey for ground-truthing were conducted. The desktop review showed the most critical factors to site selection. The scoring of these factors selected those that were crucial for the study. Experts validated the results and suggested the best study site among the ones identified. While the design is simplified, the proposed approach selects the most appropriate study site for environmental assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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34 pages, 8495 KiB  
Article
An Extended Watershed-Based AHP Model for Flood Hazard Estimation: Constraining Runoff Converging Indicators via MFD-Derived Sub-Watershed by Maximum Zonal Statistical Method
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102465 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Floods threaten the sustainable development of areas with a high probability of hazard. A typical analytic hierarchy process (pixel-based AHP) based flood hazard estimation method may ignore the similar threat caused by neighborhood cells at the sub-watershed scale. This study proposed an extended [...] Read more.
Floods threaten the sustainable development of areas with a high probability of hazard. A typical analytic hierarchy process (pixel-based AHP) based flood hazard estimation method may ignore the similar threat caused by neighborhood cells at the sub-watershed scale. This study proposed an extended watershed-based Zonal Statistical AHP for flood hazard estimation: Constraining converging related indicators by the sub-watersheds (WZSAHP-RC) model to improve this gap. Before calculating the flood hazard index, the proposed model uses the sub-watershed derived by the multiple flow direction method as a based unit to calculate the maximum zonal statistical value of runoff converging indicators. Moreover, taking the Chaohu basin of Anhui in China as the case study, the validation flooding ground-truthing was constructed from GF-3, and Landsat OLI images of the flood event from 20 July to 24 July 2020, which is the biggest flood recorded by the Zhongmiao station, which recorded a new water level, 0.82 m higher than the historical record. Compared with the validation, the results indicated the proposed method could improve the correct ratio by 38% (from 22% to 60%) and the fit ratio by 17% (from 18% to 35%) when considering the predicted flood hazard levels of “High” and “Very High” as flooded areas. Moreover, the flood hazard map derived by WZSAHP-RC demonstrated greater consistency in the flooded districts filtered by Baidu News than the pixel-based AHP. It revealed that considering two- or even multi-dimensional homogeneity may help to improve the accuracy of flood hazard maps on a catchment scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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15 pages, 936 KiB  
Article
Stormwater Utilities: A Sustainable Answer to Many Questions
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6179; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106179 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
One of the most complex and difficult questions to answer concerns how to organize and economically support public services of all kinds. In terms of services that involve a multiplicity of actors and objectives, as is the case with urban stormwater management, the [...] Read more.
One of the most complex and difficult questions to answer concerns how to organize and economically support public services of all kinds. In terms of services that involve a multiplicity of actors and objectives, as is the case with urban stormwater management, the difficulty is magnified and resources never seem to be sufficient. This paper reviews the successful approaches to stormwater management in a number of countries and concludes that it is both feasible and possible to successfully structure stormwater management in cities using a variety of models and incentives. With examples from cases practiced in the USA and Canada, based theoretically on the user-pays principle and on the fair distribution of impacts, the text innovates showing not only a technically and legally viable option, but an opportunity for users to become aware of the importance of reducing environmental impacts. By raising the possibility of delivering services out of the general public budget, reducing the taxation of all in exchange for charging only users and improving the performance, the discussion is directed, in an innovative way, to a very rarely questioned aspect and links the change in mentality from and economic way of thinking towards the new stormwater paradigm shift and SDGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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38 pages, 5333 KiB  
Article
A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Selenium in Drinking Water during the 1990–2021 Period: Treatment Options for Selenium Removal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 5834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105834 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
A bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database was carried out to summarize the global research related to selenium in drinking water from 1990 to 2021 and identify the quantitative characteristics of the research in this period. The results from the analysis revealed [...] Read more.
A bibliometric analysis based on the Scopus database was carried out to summarize the global research related to selenium in drinking water from 1990 to 2021 and identify the quantitative characteristics of the research in this period. The results from the analysis revealed that the number of accumulated publications followed a quadratic growth, which confirmed the relevance this research topic is gaining during the last years. High research efforts have been invested to define safe selenium content in drinking water, since the insufficient or excessive intake of selenium and the corresponding effects on human health are only separated by a narrow margin. Some important research features of the four main technologies most frequently used to remove selenium from drinking water (coagulation, flocculation and precipitation followed by filtration; adsorption and ion exchange; membrane-based processes and biological treatments) were compiled in this work. Although the search of technological options to remove selenium from drinking water is less intensive than the search of solutions to reduce and eliminate the presence of other pollutants, adsorption was the alternative that has received the most attention according to the research trends during the studied period, followed by membrane technologies, while biological methods require further research efforts to promote their implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 6793 KiB  
Review
A Review of On-Site Carwash Wastewater Treatment
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105764 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3105
Abstract
In recent years, people’s environmental awareness has increased. The high density of the urban population has caused a considerable increase in the demand for car washing services, which has created large quantities of car wash wastewater. The main pollutants in car wash wastewater [...] Read more.
In recent years, people’s environmental awareness has increased. The high density of the urban population has caused a considerable increase in the demand for car washing services, which has created large quantities of car wash wastewater. The main pollutants in car wash wastewater are detergents, dirt, oil, and grease. Untreated wastewater released into rainwater sewer systems or other water bodies may pollute the water and generate excessive bubble foams, which negatively affects urban appearance. Car washes are divided into mechanical car washes and manual or self-service car washes. In general, car washes have a small operation and scale, occupy limited land, and cannot afford wastewater treatment costs. Therefore, most car washes are not equipped with wastewater treatment facilities. Consequently, the discharge of wastewater from car washes negatively affects the water quality in the surrounding environment and results in wasteful use of water resources. This study reviewed 68 research papers on the quality, treatment techniques, treatment costs, and treatment effectiveness of car wash wastewater to provide a reference for car wash operators to contribute to the preservation of water resources. We found that there is a higher chance of recycling car wash wastewater when combing two different techniques for car wash wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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15 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Wheat and Maize Yields in the North China Plain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095707 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Climate change has significantly affected agricultural production. As one of China’s most important agricultural production regions, the North China Plain (NCP) is subject to climate change. This paper examines the influence of climate change on the wheat and maize yields at household and [...] Read more.
Climate change has significantly affected agricultural production. As one of China’s most important agricultural production regions, the North China Plain (NCP) is subject to climate change. This paper examines the influence of climate change on the wheat and maize yields at household and village levels, using the multilevel model based on a large panel survey dataset in the NCP. The results show that: (i) Extreme weather events (drought and flood) would significantly reduce the wheat and maize yields. So, the governments should establish and improve the emergency service system of disaster warning and encourage farmers to mitigate the adverse effects of disasters. (ii) Over the past three decades, the NCP has experienced climate change that affects its grain production. Therefore, it is imperative to build the farmers’ adaptive capacity to climate change. (iii) Spatial variations in crop yield are significantly influenced by the household characteristics and the heterogeneity of village economic conditions. Therefore, in addition to promoting household production, it is necessary to strengthen and promote China’s development of the rural collective economy, especially the construction of rural irrigation and drainage infrastructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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15 pages, 3264 KiB  
Article
Local-Scale Groundwater Sustainability Assessment Based on the Response to Groundwater Mining (MGSI): A Case Study of Da’an City, Jilin Province, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5618; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095618 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
Sustainable groundwater utilization is important for social and economic development. There is a need for groundwater sustainability assessment in small-scale areas lacking detailed mining data. Here, exploiting water level data series, we propose an indicator of groundwater sustainability based on the response to [...] Read more.
Sustainable groundwater utilization is important for social and economic development. There is a need for groundwater sustainability assessment in small-scale areas lacking detailed mining data. Here, exploiting water level data series, we propose an indicator of groundwater sustainability based on the response to mining (MGSI) for better evaluation; it integrates groundwater data and spatio-temporal variability at a local scale. A decomposition coefficient was applied to decompose the pressure exerted by groundwater mining on the groundwater system for each monitoring well. It correlated with the groundwater response state. In Da’an City, Jilin Province, China, the appraised results revealed that the aquifer type exhibiting the greatest risk to groundwater sustainability changed from phreatic to confined during 2008–2017. The spatio-temporal distribution of different sustainability levels between and within the aquifers indicated that adjustment of the groundwater mining layout should be the focus of groundwater management in Da’an City. Additionally, the Mann–Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope trend analysis effectively explained the sustainable evolution of groundwater in Da’an City and confirmed the reliability of the MGSI method. The proposed method highlights the effects of groundwater mining on sustainability and helps us better understand the interaction between anthropogenic activities and groundwater resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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26 pages, 11799 KiB  
Article
A Flood Risk Management Model to Identify Optimal Defence Policies in Coastal Areas Considering Uncertainties in Climate Projections
Water 2022, 14(9), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091481 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
Coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to flooding from heavy rainfall, sea storm surge, or a combination of the two. Recent studies project higher intensity and frequency of heavy rains, and progressive sea level rise continuing over the next decades. Pre-emptive and optimal flood [...] Read more.
Coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to flooding from heavy rainfall, sea storm surge, or a combination of the two. Recent studies project higher intensity and frequency of heavy rains, and progressive sea level rise continuing over the next decades. Pre-emptive and optimal flood defense policies that adaptively address climate change are needed. However, future climate projections have significant uncertainty due to multiple factors: (a) future CO2 emission scenarios; (b) uncertainties in climate modelling; (c) discount factor changes due to market fluctuations; (d) uncertain migration and population growth dynamics. Here, a methodology is proposed to identify the optimal design and timing of flood defense structures in which uncertainties in 21st century climate projections are explicitly considered probabilistically. A multi-objective optimization model is developed to minimize both the cost of the flood defence infrastructure system and the flooding hydraulic risk expressed by Expected Annual Damage (EAD). The decision variables of the multi-objective optimization problem are the size of defence system and the timing of implementation. The model accounts for the joint probability density functions of extreme rainfall, storm surge and sea level rise, as well as the damages, which are determined dynamically by the defence system state considering the probability and consequences of system failure, using a water depth–damage curve related to the land use (Corine Land Cover); water depth due to flooding are calculated by hydraulic model. A new dominant sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII) is used to solve the multi-objective problem optimization. A case study is presented for the Pontina Plain (Lazio Italy), a coastal region, originally a swamp reclaimed about a hundred years ago, that is rich in urban centers and farms. A set of optimal adaptation policies, quantifying size and timing of flood defence constructions for different climate scenarios and belonging to the Pareto curve obtained by the NSGAII are identified for such a case study to mitigate the risk of flooding and to aid decision makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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20 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Benefit Analysis of Economic and Social Water Supply in Xi’an Based on the Emergy Method
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5001; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095001 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
In order to manage regional water resources efficiently and sustainably and promote the rational utilization of water resources, it is necessary to evaluate the water-supply benefit reasonably. On the basis of emergy theory, this paper constructs the water-supply-benefit model of economic (industry, agriculture, [...] Read more.
In order to manage regional water resources efficiently and sustainably and promote the rational utilization of water resources, it is necessary to evaluate the water-supply benefit reasonably. On the basis of emergy theory, this paper constructs the water-supply-benefit model of economic (industry, agriculture, and the tertiary industry) and social (domestic, employment security, entertainment, scientific research) systems. Taking Xi’an from 2014 to 2020 as an example, by analyzing the energy flow of each system and the multisource water transformities, the water contribution rate, the water-supply benefit, and the unit-water-resource value in each system are calculated. For the water-supply benefits: Industry > Agriculture > Domestic > Tertiary industry > Employment Security > Entertainment > Scientific research. For the unit-water-resource values: Industry > Tertiary industry > Agriculture > Domestic > Entertainment > Employment security > Scientific research. In the economic system, the water-supply benefit and the unit-water value of industry were always the largest, followed by agriculture and the tertiary industry. However, the Pearson correlation coefficient between the water contribution rate and the output of the industrial system was only 0.52, which was less than that of other production industries, which indicates that there might be a waste of water and that industrial water conservation needs to be further strengthened. In the social system, the domestic-water-supply benefits and the water-resource value were the largest. This is because water resources, as a basic resource, always affect people’s health and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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22 pages, 6234 KiB  
Article
Runoff Reduction Effects at Installation of LID Facilities under Different Climate Change Scenarios
Water 2022, 14(8), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081301 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
In order to prepare for floods and droughts that occur as a result of climate change, various studies in water-related fields are being carried out in various countries around the world. Among them, special attention is being paid to the low-impact development (LID) [...] Read more.
In order to prepare for floods and droughts that occur as a result of climate change, various studies in water-related fields are being carried out in various countries around the world. Among them, special attention is being paid to the low-impact development (LID) technique. This study measured the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 2019 to 2100 by climate change scenario, which is the annual maximum daily rainfall series observed for rainfall stations, and tested the hydrological data using statistical analysis. After determining whether the data could be analyzed, the probability distribution was selected, and the parameters of the selected probability distribution were calculated using the L-moment method for each rainfall station. The probabilities of rainfall data were derived using GEV distribution, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), a runoff simulation program, was used to compare and analyze the runoff reduction rate before and after the installation of a permeable pavement as an LID facility. The results of the analysis showed that representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 had the effect of reducing the runoff for more than 100 years at a 30% reduction rate compared with before installation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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27 pages, 16401 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Multispectral Drought Indices in Central Tunisia
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(8), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14081813 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Surface water stress remote sensing indices can be very helpful to monitor the impact of drought on agro-ecosystems, and serve as early warning indicators to avoid further damages to the crop productivity. In this study, we compare indices from three different spectral domains: [...] Read more.
Surface water stress remote sensing indices can be very helpful to monitor the impact of drought on agro-ecosystems, and serve as early warning indicators to avoid further damages to the crop productivity. In this study, we compare indices from three different spectral domains: the plant water use derived from evapotranspiration retrieved using data from the thermal infrared domain, the root zone soil moisture at low resolution derived from the microwave domain using the Soil Water Index (SWI), and the active vegetation fraction cover deduced from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series. The thermal stress index is computed from a dual-source model Soil Plant Atmosphere and Remote Evapotranspiration (SPARSE) that relies on meteorological variables and remote sensing data. In order to extend in time the available meteorological series, we compare the use of a statistical downscaling method applied to reanalysis data with the use of the unprocessed reanalysis data. Our study shows that thermal indices show comparable performance overall compared to the SWI at better resolution. However, thermal indices are more sensitive for a drought period and tend to react quickly to water stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 2330 KiB  
Hypothesis
Water Footprint Assessment of Rainfed Crops with Critical Irrigation under Different Climate Change Scenarios in SAT Regions
Water 2022, 14(8), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081206 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Semi-Arid Tropical (SAT) regions are influenced by climate change impacts affecting the rainfed crops in their productivity and production. Water Footprint (WF) assessment for rainfed crops on watershed scale is critical for water resource planning, development, efficient crop planning, and, better water use [...] Read more.
Semi-Arid Tropical (SAT) regions are influenced by climate change impacts affecting the rainfed crops in their productivity and production. Water Footprint (WF) assessment for rainfed crops on watershed scale is critical for water resource planning, development, efficient crop planning, and, better water use efficiency. A semi-arid tropical watershed was selected in lower Krishna river basin having a 4700 ha area in Telangana, India. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate the water balance components of watershed like runoff, potential evapotranspiration, percolation, and effective rainfall for base period (1994 to 2013) and different climate change scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 for the time periods of 2020, 2050 and 2080. Green and blue WF of rainfed crops viz., maize, sorghum, groundnut, redgram and cotton were performed by considering rainfed, and two critical irrigations (CI) of 30mm and 50mm. It indicated that the effective rainfall (ER) is less than crop evapo-transpiration (ET) during crop growing period under different RCPs, time periods, and base period. The green WF under rainfed condition over different RCPs and time periods had decreasing trend for all crops. The study suggested that in the rainfed agro-ecosystems, the blue WF can significantly reduce the total WF by enhancing the productivity through critical irrigation management using on farm water resources developed through rainwater harvesting structures. The maximum significant reduction in WF over the base period was observed 13–16% under rainfed, 30–32% with 30 mm CI and 40–42% with 50 mm CI by 2080. Development of crop varieties particularly in oilseeds and pulses which have less WF and higher yields for unit of water consumed could be a solution for improving overall WF in the watersheds of SAT regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 21210 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Variation of Groundwater Extraction Intensity Based on Geostatistics—Set Pair Analysis in Daxing District of Beijing, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074341 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
In this paper, the authors studied the impact of human activities on the groundwater environment to reduce the impacts such activities for sustainable groundwater use. The authors took the monthly water table depth data of 32 long-term observation wells in the Daxing District [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors studied the impact of human activities on the groundwater environment to reduce the impacts such activities for sustainable groundwater use. The authors took the monthly water table depth data of 32 long-term observation wells in the Daxing District of Beijing from 1986 to 2016 as samples. The authors used seven interpolation methods in the statistics module of ArcGIS by comparing the average error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the measured and predicted values so that the authors can select the best interpolation method. Using the geostatistical variogram model variation, the authors analyzed the nugget effect through time in the study area. On the basis of the set pair analysis, the main factors causing the increase in groundwater exploitation intensity were quantitatively evaluated and identified. The results were as follows. (1) After comparing the simulation accuracy of the seven interpolation methods for water table depth, ordinary Kriging interpolation was selected as the best interpolation model for the study area. (2) The spatial correlation of the water table depth gradually weakened, and the nugget effect from 2006 to 2016 was 25.92% (>25%). The data indicated that human groundwater exploitation activities from 2006 to 2016 greatly influenced the spatial correlation of the water table depth. (3) The average mining intensity of groundwater from 2006 to 2016 was medium (Level II), and a bleak gradual deterioration trend was observed. The evaluation results of the subtraction set pair potentials in 2010 and 2013, the years of key regulation of groundwater exploitation intensity, are partial negative potential and negative potential, respectively. In 2010, three indicators had partial negative potential: industrial product, tertiary industry product, and irrigated field area. In 2013, five indicators were in negative potential: irrigated area, vegetable area, facility agricultural area, fruit tree area, and the number of wells. Herein, the spatial and temporal variations in the water table depth of the study area are analyzed using a geostatistical method. Moreover, the influence of each water part on the groundwater exploitation intensity is further diagnosed and evaluated based on set pair analysis. The obtained results can provide a theoretical and methodological reference for the sustainable utilization of groundwater in regions where groundwater is the main water supply source, providing a basis for industrial regulation policies in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 3258 KiB  
Article
Assessment of BMPs by Estimating Hydrologic and Water Quality Outputs Using SWAT in Yazoo River Watershed
Agriculture 2022, 12(4), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12040477 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
Water quality is a global concern; it is due to point and non-point source pollution. Non-point sources for pollution are mainly runoff from Agricultural and forest. To decrease nutrient inputs, management practices are implemented. Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool, water quality parameters [...] Read more.
Water quality is a global concern; it is due to point and non-point source pollution. Non-point sources for pollution are mainly runoff from Agricultural and forest. To decrease nutrient inputs, management practices are implemented. Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool, water quality parameters can be quantified. Yazoo River Watershed is the largest watershed in Mississippi, which have impact on surface water quality due to large scale agriculture and forest lands. Model has been calibrated and validated for streamflow, sediment, Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP) for the USGS gauge stations in the watershed. Model efficiency was assessed with Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index (NSE). Best Management Practices (BMPs) were implemented throughout the watershed to simulate the impact of BMPs on streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yields. Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS), Riparian Buffer, combination of VFS and Riparian buffer and Cover Crops (CC) were tested for assessing the effective BMP in improving water quality. VFS, Riparian buffer and both (VFS + riparian) have no effect on streamflow, but they were able to decrease sediment, TN, and TP yields. Scenario with both VFS and Riparian buffer had the highest reduction capability as per varying width (5, 10, 15, and 20 m). For CC, Rye grass, Winter Barley and Winter Wheat (WW) were used, of which Rye grass had highest, 5.3% reduction in streamflow. WW has the highest Total Nitrogen reduction that is of 25.4%. CC also has significant reduction ranged between 10% to 11% for TP. This research would assist the Agricultural community to apply appropriate Management practices to improve water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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13 pages, 16866 KiB  
Technical Note
QDA-System: A Cloud-Based System for Monitoring Water Quality in Brazilian Hydroelectric Reservoirs from Space
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071541 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
This article presents the QDA-System (Sistema Qualidade da Água, from Portuguese), a system developed to monitor the quality of surface waters in Brazilian hydroelectric reservoirs using satellite images and cloud computing services. The development requirements of the QDA-System considered its use [...] Read more.
This article presents the QDA-System (Sistema Qualidade da Água, from Portuguese), a system developed to monitor the quality of surface waters in Brazilian hydroelectric reservoirs using satellite images and cloud computing services. The development requirements of the QDA-System considered its use for operational monitoring purposes, with all processing steps automated, and a user-friendly interface to access and query the data generated automatically by the system. A pilot application of the QDA-System was customized and implemented for monitoring the Foz do Chapecó hydroelectric reservoir located in southern Brazil. For the pilot application, the QDA-System was customized to estimate nine water quality parameters,: five were estimated directly from Sentinel-2 multispectral images and four were estimated indirectly. We expect that in the near future the QDA-System can be replicated to monitor other Brazilian reservoirs, bringing benefits and cost reduction related to water quality monitoring, not only for the sector of hydroelectric generation but for other sectors that also need similar monitoring, such as sanitation and aquaculture production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Changes in Wetland in Dongting Lake Basin of China under Long Time Series from 1990 to 2020
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3620; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063620 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Wetland plays a pivotal role in sustaining ecosystems and adapting to climate change. This paper used remote sensing images from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 to investigate the changes in wetland in the Dongting Lake Basin (DLB) and their possible causes. The land-use [...] Read more.
Wetland plays a pivotal role in sustaining ecosystems and adapting to climate change. This paper used remote sensing images from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 to investigate the changes in wetland in the Dongting Lake Basin (DLB) and their possible causes. The land-use conversion matrix and contribution rate were calculated in 1990–2000, 2000–2010, and 2010–2020, and results showed that the total wetland area displayed an increasing trend, especially the reservoir ponds and channels across DLB from 1990 to 2020. Forest and agricultural land conversion into wetland accounted for the main proportion, with the greatest contribution rate (234.13%) of forest land and the smallest rate (−117.46%) of agricultural land between 1990 and 2000. On the contrary, agricultural land had the highest contribution rate (47.96%) for wetlands compared to other land-cover types from 2000 to 2010, followed by forest land (39.03%). The contribution rates of forest and agricultural lands to wetlands were 60.17% and 39.02% from 2010 to 2020, respectively. Wetlands showed a more significant net gain (a total of 259 km2) in Central and Southern Hunan Province. More specifically, the wetlands area in North Hunan Province decreased by 45 km2 from 1990 to 2000. It increased over the next two decades (155 km2 and 22 km2, respectively). Southern Hunan Province continued increasing from 1990 to 2010 (a total of 149 km2) while decreasing from 2010 to 2020 (a total of −297 km2). Forestation was the principal driving force promoting the continuous increase in wetlands. In addition, agricultural land was mainly related to wetland change in this region, characterized by reclaiming land from lakes in the earlier period and returning agricultural land to wetland in the later period. Built-up land occupied a small area of wetlands over the study period. The study is beneficial to understanding the wetlands’ dynamic changes in the past and present, as well as being useful for wetland management, consistent with sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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33 pages, 9407 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Hydrology of an Upland Catchment of Bystra River in 2050 Climate Using RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 Emission Scenario Forecasts
Agriculture 2022, 12(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12030403 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
This article presents selected flow modeling indices of the Bystra River catchment area (east Poland) obtained using the SWAT model simulations for three regional climate models driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model for 2021–2050 and both RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The [...] Read more.
This article presents selected flow modeling indices of the Bystra River catchment area (east Poland) obtained using the SWAT model simulations for three regional climate models driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model for 2021–2050 and both RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The research area was selected due to the large relief of the terrain, the predominance of soils made of loess and the agricultural nature of the Bystra River catchment area, which is very sensitive to climate change, has very valuable soils, and can be used as a test area for modeling land use-based adaptation measures to climate change. The calibration and validation using the SUFI-2 algorithm in the SWAT CUP program was carried out in order to determine the water balance. After obtaining satisfactory results, the SWAT-CUP program simulated the best parameter values for climate change projections. In analyzed climate projections, the monthly mean sums of actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration will be higher compared to the simulation period of the 2010–2017 model. The exception is the month of June, where actual evapotranspiration in most climate projections is lower compared to the years 2010–2017. The average monthly total runoff for the Bystra River basin will be lower in most of the 2021–2030 climate change projections for most months compared to the reference period. Also, in the 2031–2040 and 2041–2050 periods, the average monthly total runoff will be lower for the RCP 4.5 scenarios (except for one RCP 4.5 scenario in 2031–2040). Additionally, in the case of the RCP 8.5 for the two scenarios in 2041–2050, the average monthly total runoff will be higher compared to the reference years. We determine that the analysis impact of climate change will result in 31 recognized and different small sub-catchments of the Bystra River, which result from higher precipitation and less evapotranspiration for RCP 8.5 in 2041–2050. All of the above changes in the individual components of the water balance may have a negative impact on the vegetation in the coming decades. The temperature increase and the variable amount of precipitation in individual months may lead to an increased number of extreme phenomena. Increased mean monthly sum of actual and potential evapotranspiration, as well as changes in monthly sums of total runoff, may disturb the vegetation in the studied area at every stage of growth. The above components may also influence changes in the amount of water in the soil (especially during the growing season). Counteracting the effects of future climate change requires various adaptation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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15 pages, 6294 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Freshwater Ecosystem Service Flows under Land-Use Change: A Case Study of Lianshui River Basin, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3270; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063270 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
The service function of freshwater ecosystem is of great significance for ensuring the water security and the sustainable development of the social economy. However, it is vague how land-use change can influence freshwater ecosystem service flows. In this paper, we analyzed the land-use [...] Read more.
The service function of freshwater ecosystem is of great significance for ensuring the water security and the sustainable development of the social economy. However, it is vague how land-use change can influence freshwater ecosystem service flows. In this paper, we analyzed the land-use changes in the Lianshui River Basin from 2000 to 2018, built an ecosystem service flow model, and quantified the supply, demand, and flow of freshwater ecosystems under land-use change. The most intensified shifts of land-use change were the transfer of woodland to arable land and the transfer of arable land to built-up land. Urbanization and deforestation have increased water output by 0.06 billion m3, but water demand has increased by 2.42 billion m3, resulting in a 6% reduction in the flow of freshwater ecosystem services. Our study provides detailed information on freshwater ecosystem services flow from providers to beneficiaries within a watershed, showing how land-use change and ecosystem service flows can be integrated at the watershed scale to provide information for land-use management and the availability of freshwater ecosystems. Sustained development provides a scientific basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 3771 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Prediction of the Impact of Climate Change Scenarios on Runoff of Typical Watersheds in Changbai Mountains, China
Water 2022, 14(5), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050792 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
Simulating the hydrological process of a river basin helps to understand the evolution of water resources in the region and provides scientific guidance for water resources allocation policies between different river basins and water resources management within the river basin. This paper provides [...] Read more.
Simulating the hydrological process of a river basin helps to understand the evolution of water resources in the region and provides scientific guidance for water resources allocation policies between different river basins and water resources management within the river basin. This paper provides a scientific basis for the sustainable development of regional water resources and an accurate grasp of the future change trend of runoff by analyzing the hydrological process response of runoff in typical watersheds in Changbai Mountains, China, to climate change. The applicability of the HEC-HMS (The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s-Hydrologic Modeling System) hydrological model in the watershed is verified by calibrating and verifying the daily rainfall-runoff process in the watershed during the wet season from 2006 to 2017. The daily rainfall data of the two scenarios SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 under the BCC-CSM2-MR model in the 2021–2050 CMIP6 plan were downscaled and interpolated to in-basin stations to generate future daily precipitation series to predict runoff response to future climate change. The daily rainfall data of the two scenarios were downscaled and interpolated to the stations in the basin to generate future daily rainfall series to predict the runoff response under future climate changes. The average certainty coefficient of the HEC-HMS model for daily runoff simulation reached 0.705; the rainfall in the basin under the two climate scenarios of SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 in the next 30 years (2021–2050) will generally increase, and rainfall will be more evenly distributed in the future; the outlet flow of the basin will increase during the wet season (June–September) in the next 30 years, but it is lower than the historically measured value; the peak flow of the future will appear at most in August and September. The peak flow current time mostly appears in July and August. The time of peak occurrence has been delayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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10 pages, 2624 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effects of PDO and IOD on Water Vapor Transport in the Preflood Season over South China
Water 2022, 14(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050722 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
It is urgent to improve the prediction accuracy of precipitation in the preflood season (PFS) over South China (SC) under the background of global warming, and thus the research of water vapor conditions is the key. For the period of 1960–2012, using the [...] Read more.
It is urgent to improve the prediction accuracy of precipitation in the preflood season (PFS) over South China (SC) under the background of global warming, and thus the research of water vapor conditions is the key. For the period of 1960–2012, using the daily precipitation data from 60 meteorology stations in SC and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, the synergistic effect of PDO (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) &IOD (the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode) on water vapor transport process to frontal/monsoon precipitation is revealed, based on the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT_4.9). For the frontal precipitation, the positive PDO phase (PDO+) compared with the negative PDO phase (PDO−), there is more water vapor over the West Pacific (WP), the northern South China Sea (SCS), and the Bay of Bengal (BOB). Water vapor for frontal precipitation mainly comes from WP and SCS. When PDO and IOD are in phase resonance, the water vapor transport tracks from the SCS, WP are shorter and westward, so more water vapor is transported to SC, the precipitation efficiency of water vapor to PFS precipitation is higher too. For the summer monsoon precipitation, the tropical Indian Ocean (IO)-BOB is rich in water vapor, especially for PDO−& IOD+. The main water vapor transport tracks are the cross-equatorial flows in the IO, BOB and SCS. The precipitation efficiency of water vapor from the IO-BOB is higher for the positive IOD phase (IOD+) than that for the negative IOD phase (IOD−); however, the precipitation efficiency of water vapor from SCS is higher for the IOD− than that for IOD+. Compared with frontal precipitation, the strong westerly anomaly in the northern IO increases the water vapor transport from the north IO, BOB to SC during monsoon precipitation. For the PDO+&IOD+, the stronger Indian Low and cyclonic anomaly in the WP increases the water vapor transported from the IO-BOB to SC, improving the precipitation efficiency of water vapor. Understanding the synergistic effect of the PDO and IOD on water vapor transport will help to improve the accuracy of precipitation prediction, and reduce the negative impact of drought and flood disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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18 pages, 3140 KiB  
Article
Optimal Process Network for Integrated Solid Waste Management in Davao City, Philippines
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042419 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 11189
Abstract
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems in developing countries adopt practices from developed countries to reduce their environmental burdens. However, several complex issues specific to developing countries hinder the full implementation of these practices. The future of MSWM in Davao City, Philippines, is [...] Read more.
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems in developing countries adopt practices from developed countries to reduce their environmental burdens. However, several complex issues specific to developing countries hinder the full implementation of these practices. The future of MSWM in Davao City, Philippines, is envisaged as a notable example of the combination of new infrastructure and local MSWM practices. A linear programming model was developed, following material flow analysis and life cycle assessment, to design an optimal system for Davao City. The performance of the system was evaluated in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy and revenue generated, and the amount of landfill waste. The results show that the proposed system positively affects the environment compared to the current system, due to additional treatment options. However, the main allocation concern transitions from organic waste in the current system to plastic waste in future scenarios. Furthermore, the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the extension of landfill life will be heavily influenced by trade-offs between sorting operations and the management of incinerated wastes with high calorific values. Therefore, plastic-waste-specific treatment options will be critical for future MSWM systems. The results herein underscore the need for sustainable MSWM in the study area, considering the region-specific conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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22 pages, 4424 KiB  
Article
Attribution Assessment and Prediction of Runoff Change in the Han River Basin, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042393 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
The ecological environment and water resources of the Han River Basin (HRB) are incredibly susceptible to global warming. Naturally, the analysis of future runoff in HRB is believed to offer a theoretical basis for water resources management and ecological protection in HRB. The [...] Read more.
The ecological environment and water resources of the Han River Basin (HRB) are incredibly susceptible to global warming. Naturally, the analysis of future runoff in HRB is believed to offer a theoretical basis for water resources management and ecological protection in HRB. The purpose of this study is to investigate and forecast the effects of climate change and land use change on runoff in the HRB. This study uses CMIP6 data to simulate three future climate change scenarios (SSP126, SSP245 and SSP585) for changes in precipitation and temperature, a CA-Markov model to simulate future land use change scenarios, and the Budyko framework to predict future runoff changes. The results show that: (1) Between 1974 and 2014, annual runoff (R) and annual precipitation (P) in the HRB decline not so significantly with a rate of 1.3673 mm/a and 1.2709 mm/a, while maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) and potential evapotranspiration (E0) show a non-significantly increasing trend with 0.0296 °C/a, 0.0204 °C/a and 1.3313 mm/a, respectively. Precipitation is considered as main contributor to the decline in Han River runoff, accounting for 54.1%. (2) In the HRB, overall precipitation and temperature are estimated to rise in the coming years, with all other hydrological variables. The comparison of precipitation rise under each scenario is as follows: SSP126 scenario > SSP585 scenario > SSP245 scenario. The comparison of the temperature increase under each scenario is as follows: SSP585 scenario > SSP245 scenario > SSP126 scenario. (3) In the HRB, farmland and grassland land will continue to decline in the future. The amount of forest acreage is projected to decline but not so significantly. (4) The future runoff of the HRB shows an increasing trend, and the future runoff varies in different scenarios and periods. Under the land use scenarios of maintaining LUCC1992–2014 and LUCC2040 and LUCC2060, the R change rates in 2015–2040 are 8.27–25.47% and −8.04–19.35%, respectively, and the R in 2040–2060 are 2.09–13.66% and 19.35–31.52%. At the same time, it is very likely to overestimate the future runoff of the HRB without considering the changes in the land use data of the underlying surface in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 2496 KiB  
Article
Systematic Application of Sponge City Facilities at Community Scale Based on SWMM
Water 2022, 14(4), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040591 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3732
Abstract
In the context of global climate change, many countries have taken corresponding measures to cope with the stormwater problems in urbanization. The Chinese government introduced the concept of Sponge City to improve the urban water ecological security, which is a systematic project. Taking [...] Read more.
In the context of global climate change, many countries have taken corresponding measures to cope with the stormwater problems in urbanization. The Chinese government introduced the concept of Sponge City to improve the urban water ecological security, which is a systematic project. Taking the urban community as our research object, we studied the combination application of LID (low-impact development) measures and retention ponds in the community and then discussed the practicability of the systematic application of Sponge City facilities in the construction of community drainage systems. There are four simulation scenarios in SWMM (stormwater management model): traditional drainage scenario, LID scenario, retention pond scenario, and LID-retention pond scenario. By comparing the effects of different facilities on runoff and outflow under the six return periods of 1a, 2a, 5a, 10a, 20a, and 50a, we find that LID measures have evident effects on runoff and outflow reduction. Still, they are greatly affected by the return period. The retention pond has no noticeable impact on runoff, but it reduces the peak value of outflow and is less affected by the return period. The combination of LID and retention pond can combine their advantages, reduce the peak flow rate of the site stably and relieve the pressure of the urban drainage system. This study provides a basis for the graded implementation of Sponge City, especially for community-scale rainwater regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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16 pages, 2852 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Sowing Methods on Water Use Efficiency and Grain Yield of Wheat in the Loess Plateau, China
Water 2022, 14(4), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040577 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Research has revealed that summer fallow sowing improves the water use efficiency (WUE) and grain yield of winter wheat. However, wheat yields differ yearly with crop management. A field experiment over 8 years was established in the Loess Plateau to determine the role [...] Read more.
Research has revealed that summer fallow sowing improves the water use efficiency (WUE) and grain yield of winter wheat. However, wheat yields differ yearly with crop management. A field experiment over 8 years was established in the Loess Plateau to determine the role of precipitation and soil water storage in wheat yield formation under conservation tillage. The average WUE values were 7.8, 11.0, and 12.6 t·ha−1, while the average evapotranspiration (ET) values were 334.7, 365.5, and 410 mm when the yields were 3.0, 3.0–4.5, and over 4.5 t·ha−1, respectively. Compared to drill sowing (DS), high water consumption during early growth increased the spike number, grain number, and yield. In years of intermediate or low yields, wide-space sowing (WS) and furrow sowing (FS) improved the ET, WUE, spike number, grain number, and yield of wheat compared to (DS) drill sowing. When the wheat yield was 3.0–4.5 t·ha−1, higher soil water intake during jointing, anthesis, and anthesis–maturity increased the tiller number, 1000-grain weight, and yield, related to the use of suitable tillers. Synchronous increases in grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight were observed with increased soil water content at jointing, maturity, and anthesis, as well as consumption of soil water in the latter part during the growing season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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13 pages, 2509 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Methane Emissions from Reservoirs Based on Country-Specific Trophic State Assessment in Korea
Water 2022, 14(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040562 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1735
Abstract
It has been reported that significant quantities of greenhouse gases are emitted from wetlands, from which emissions and their contributions to global warming have received much less attentions. Thus, a refinement to the previous published guidelines has recently been made to provide an [...] Read more.
It has been reported that significant quantities of greenhouse gases are emitted from wetlands, from which emissions and their contributions to global warming have received much less attentions. Thus, a refinement to the previous published guidelines has recently been made to provide an updated and sound scientific basis for the purpose of supporting the preparation of national inventories. This study is aimed at demonstrating the applicability of the refinement for estimating methane emissions from reservoirs in the Republic of Korea. It is desirable to take the direct measurement of total methane fluxes across the reservoir surface, which may require a substantial amount of research efforts though. Alternatively, methane emissions from individual reservoirs may be estimated with relevant parameters accounting for the regional environmental characteristics. The assessment of trophic state has been employed to better represent the emissions behavior of reservoirs, based on which the methane emissions from local reservoirs in Korea are estimated. It is noted that the country has developed its own water quality index with the consideration of environmental characteristics. The seasonal variations in methane emissions are tested for their statistical significance and it is proposed that the emission estimates can be predicted from the trophic state assessment with the application of regression analysis. Following the guidelines prescribed by the refinement and procedures outlined in this study, the results from emissions estimation and prediction can be effectively used for the improvement of national inventories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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24 pages, 4918 KiB  
Article
Ecological and Health Risk Assessment of Potential Toxic Elements from a Mining Area (Water and Sediments): The San Juan-Taxco River System, Guerrero, Mexico
Water 2022, 14(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14040518 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2832
Abstract
The San Juan-Taxco River system is situated in the Taxco mining district, which is a well-known international producer of silver, jewelry and precious metal handicrafts. The population and biota in the area have been affected by inappropriate disposal of anthropogenic activities that pollute [...] Read more.
The San Juan-Taxco River system is situated in the Taxco mining district, which is a well-known international producer of silver, jewelry and precious metal handicrafts. The population and biota in the area have been affected by inappropriate disposal of anthropogenic activities that pollute the hydric resources and threaten their health and sustainability, since the inhabitants use the groundwater and river water for human consumption, domestic water supply and irrigation. This study was conducted to assess the pollution in the river system, human health implications and ecological risk in the aquatic environment (groundwater, surface water and superficial sediment). This evaluation was done on the base of hydrochemical, textural, mineralogical and geochemical analysis supported by calculation of human health risk using chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) with environmental and geochemical indices for ecological risk evaluation. The health risk assessment indicated increasing non-health carcinogenic risk to the exposed population to the river water and dug wells (HI > 1), and thus, these resources are not recommended for human consumption, domestic activities and prolonged ingestion. The results demonstrated a high degree of pollution due to toxic elements and geochemical indices. The Pollution Load Index indicated potential risk that will cause harmful biological effects in the riverine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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10 pages, 1098 KiB  
Article
Resilience of a Complex Watershed under Water Variability: A Modeling Study
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14041948 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Understanding how socio-ecological systems respond to environmental variability is an important step in promoting system resilience. In this paper, we asked: How do the frequency and amplitude of water availability variation affect both the social-ecological regimes present and how the system transitions between [...] Read more.
Understanding how socio-ecological systems respond to environmental variability is an important step in promoting system resilience. In this paper, we asked: How do the frequency and amplitude of water availability variation affect both the social-ecological regimes present and how the system transitions between them? How do these transitions differ under flood-prone and drought-prone conditions? We modified a dynamical systems model of a complex watershed to directly link environmental variability to system-level outcomes, specifically the livelihoods present in the system. The model results suggest that flood-prone systems exhibit more drastic regime shift behavior than drought-prone systems, with abrupt shifts from the complete participation to complete abandonment of livelihood sectors. Drought-prone systems appeared to be more sensitive to the amplitude of water variability, whereas flood-prone systems exhibited more complex relationships with amplitude and frequency, with frequency playing a bigger role compared to drought-prone systems. Lower frequency variations with sufficient amplitudes exposed the system to extended periods of environmental hardship, reducing the system’s ability to recover. Our analysis also highlighted the importance of environmental stochasticity: the deterministic version of the model that assumed no stochasticity overestimated system resilience. The model and analysis offer a more systematic framework to investigate the linkages between sustainability of social-ecological systems and environmental variability. This lays the groundwork for future research in systems with significant current or predicted environmental variability due to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 2119 KiB  
Article
Characteristic and Attribution of Runoff Variation in the Yanhe River Basin, Loess Plateau, Based on the Budyko Hypothesis
Water 2022, 14(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030495 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
The ecological restoration projects in the Loess Plateau (LP) has significantly altered the underlying surface conditions, coupled with a warming–wetting climate, which has profoundly affected the regional water cycle. Evaluating the response of runoff to external environmental change and quantitatively identifying the contribution [...] Read more.
The ecological restoration projects in the Loess Plateau (LP) has significantly altered the underlying surface conditions, coupled with a warming–wetting climate, which has profoundly affected the regional water cycle. Evaluating the response of runoff to external environmental change and quantitatively identifying the contribution of anthropogenic interference and climate change are prerequisites for efficient utilization of water resources in arid/semi-arid regions. Daily recorded data of hydrological and meteorological elements between 1969 and 2019 and the elasticity coefficient method based on Budyko hypothesis were used for attribution analysis of runoff change in the Yanhe River basin. The results show the following: (1) the measured runoff decreased significantly (p < 0.05, –0.2845 mm year−1), and suggested substantial difference before and after 2000; (2) the area of woodland and grassland had a sharp increase from 2000, while the elasticity of runoff to precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ET0), and vegetation all decreased; (3) the improvement of underlying surface conditions has become the leading factor of runoff reduction with a contribution of 96.78%; (4) the impact of vegetation restoration on runoff reduction is effective within a certain threshold. We consider that more attention should be paid to the afforestation scale and its possible negative eco-hydrological effects in future ecological restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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17 pages, 25181 KiB  
Article
Delineating MAR Sites Using GIS-MCDA for Nuweiba Alluvial Fan Aquifer, Sinai, Egypt
Water 2022, 14(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030475 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
In the last few decades, groundwater has been the main water supply to the Nuweiba alluvial fan. However, currently, the main water supply is a desalination plant. The desalination plant might be vulnerable to malfunctions resulting in a severe drought. In addition, the [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, groundwater has been the main water supply to the Nuweiba alluvial fan. However, currently, the main water supply is a desalination plant. The desalination plant might be vulnerable to malfunctions resulting in a severe drought. In addition, the aquifer type in the fan is coastal. Hence, replenishing the groundwater is necessary on a long-term basis to overcome drought events in the case of emergency. To replenish the groundwater using flash-flood water, a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) system could be installed. This study applies the Geo-Information System–Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (GIS-MCDA) method to delineate the feasible locations for installing a MAR system. To delineate the feasible MAR sites via a potential map, four steps were performed: problem definition, constraint mapping, suitability mapping, and sensitivity analysis. The results show that nearly 52% of the study area is suitable for installing MAR. Additionally, around 6% of the study area shows high potential for installing MAR, whereas nearly 20% falls under the moderate potential class. The potential map shows that the high-potential MAR sites are located at the western portion of the study area, near the ephemeral stream outlet. The map could be utilized as a tool for decision-makers to plan a future sustainable development strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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20 pages, 1492 KiB  
Review
Water Benchmarking in Buildings: A Systematic Review on Methods and Benchmarks for Water Conservation
Water 2022, 14(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030473 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4979
Abstract
Water conservation is essential to sustainable development, and among human activities, buildings are responsible for a significant portion of total water consumption. Therefore, we present a systematic review that aims to search for valuable contributions from benchmarking and their potential significance to water [...] Read more.
Water conservation is essential to sustainable development, and among human activities, buildings are responsible for a significant portion of total water consumption. Therefore, we present a systematic review that aims to search for valuable contributions from benchmarking and their potential significance to water conservation. The relevance of performing such a review is to support the research in the field, organise information, and highlight both the lack of data and valuable results in specific building types. Benchmarking highlights best performance buildings, while it also classifies performances, which allows developing interventions for different buildings. Seventy-two documents on the environmental performance of buildings were reviewed, and a variety of methods, metering procedures, and indicators were found as valuable data for water-saving initiatives. In addition to a systematic search in SCOPUS, searches were made in Science Direct and Google Scholar databases. Although the main challenge in this matter lies in the lack of procedures standardisation, it was found that performing benchmarking is relevant for accurately developing water conservation initiatives. Gains of over five million m3 per year in a set of buildings or above 151 thousand m3 per year in a single factory were found, which indicate the existing potential for water conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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19 pages, 33209 KiB  
Article
Hydrological Effects of Agricultural Water Supplies on Paddy Fields using Surface–Groundwater Integrated Model
Water 2022, 14(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030460 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Agricultural water demands are mainly dependent on the supply from groundwater withdrawals and the supply from agricultural reservoirs. To understand the water cycle of the agricultural catchment, it is necessary to consider the actual situation of the water cycle of paddy fields in [...] Read more.
Agricultural water demands are mainly dependent on the supply from groundwater withdrawals and the supply from agricultural reservoirs. To understand the water cycle of the agricultural catchment, it is necessary to consider the actual situation of the water cycle of paddy fields in catchments through accurate hydrological modeling. In this study, streamflow simulations were implemented in consideration of the levee height of paddy fields and the irrigation period for one sub-catchment of the Boryeong Dam catchment using the integrated surface–groundwater model, CAT (Catchment Hydrologic Cycle Assessment Tool). To consider the agricultural reservoirs in modeling, the catchment was divided into the reservoir sub-catchments, upstream sub-catchments, downstream sub-catchments, and irrigated districts of each sub-catchment. This study aims to analyze the hydrological effects of agricultural reservoirs and groundwater pumping on the hydrological cycle of the catchment and on the soil moisture and groundwater level. As a result of the simulations, we found that the direct flow, baseflow, and groundwater recharge of the catchment increased with the agricultural reservoir supply water. In addition, the effect of drought on soil moisture content and groundwater level in the irrigated paddy fields from agricultural reservoirs was evaluated. The soil moisture increased by about 10% according to the water supply of agricultural reservoirs. The groundwater level rapidly decreased due to the groundwater abstraction during the irrigation period; however, it was analyzed that the water supply from agricultural reservoirs is significantly effective in preventing the decrease in the groundwater level in the irrigation season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 1854 KiB  
Review
Analysis of River Basin Management in Madagascar and Lessons Learned from Japan
Water 2022, 14(3), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030449 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4218
Abstract
River basins in Madagascar are prone to water scarcity and conflicts of use, which are projected to worsen due to climate change. Therefore, effective integrated water resources management (IWRM) is key. This review examines the current condition of IWRM in Madagascar, evaluates its [...] Read more.
River basins in Madagascar are prone to water scarcity and conflicts of use, which are projected to worsen due to climate change. Therefore, effective integrated water resources management (IWRM) is key. This review examines the current condition of IWRM in Madagascar, evaluates its sustainability, and compares it with the one in Japan. The effects of climate change were analyzed using Aqueduct data. Madagascar has established an IWRM legal framework aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals; however, its application remains limited. For Japan, it was useful to establish IWRM for floods, water utilization, and environmental conservation. This study analyzes the future projections of water availability and demand for the 12 major river basins of Madagascar. Climate change will reduce water availability; the West and the East will experience water stress; the demand will be higher in the highlands, with less water available in the south. The proposed framework and Japan’s experience in river basin management can contribute to solving those problems. The findings of this study serve to enhance the knowledge on IWRM and the impact of climate change in Madagascar; they also suggest actions to be taken by the Malagasy government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
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14 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Food Consumption Water Footprint in the MENA Region: The Case of Tunisia
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031539 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Tunisia, like most countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, has limited renewable water resources and is classified as a water stress country. The effects of climate change are exacerbating the situation. The agricultural sector is the main consumer (80%) [...] Read more.
Tunisia, like most countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, has limited renewable water resources and is classified as a water stress country. The effects of climate change are exacerbating the situation. The agricultural sector is the main consumer (80%) of blue water reserves. In this study, to better understand the factors that influence the food water footprint of Tunisian consumers, we used a multiple linear regression model (MLR) to analyze data from 4853 households. The innovation in this paper consists of integrating effects of socio-economic, demographic, and geographic trends on the food consumption water footprint into the assessment of water and food security. The model results showed that regional variations in food choices meant large differences in water footprints, as hypothesized. Residents of big cities are more likely to have a large water footprint. Significant variability in water footprints, due to different food consumption patterns and socio-demographic characteristics, was also noted. Food waste is also one of the determining factors of households with a high water footprint. This study provides a new perspective on the water footprint of food consumption using “household” level data. These dietary water footprint estimates can be used to assess potential water demand scenarios as food consumption patterns change. Analysis at the geographic and socio-demographic levels helps to inform policy makers by identifying realistic dietary changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Water Management in the Era of Climatic Change)
19 pages, 1893 KiB  
Article
Transboundary Water Cooperation in the Post-Cold War Era: Spatial Patterns and the Role of Proximity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031503 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Transboundary water cooperation (TWC) is an important theme of international cooperation. We conducted macro-level research on TWC from the perspective of inter-country relations and constructed a theoretical framework in which multidimensional proximity influences the formation of global TWC. We explained how multidimensional proximity [...] Read more.
Transboundary water cooperation (TWC) is an important theme of international cooperation. We conducted macro-level research on TWC from the perspective of inter-country relations and constructed a theoretical framework in which multidimensional proximity influences the formation of global TWC. We explained how multidimensional proximity and the constituent elements comprehensively influence the cooperative willingness and ability of actors, which directly drive the generation of global TWC. During the empirical research phase, we constructed the TWC frequency and intensity networks based on historical TWC events data from 1992 to 2013. By using social network analysis and QAP regression analysis, the spatial structure and proximity effect of water cooperation linkages are examined. It can be found that: (1) the reconstruction of territorial space on the eve of the end of the Cold War led to the peak of water cooperation events in 1992. The overall scale of events in the Post-Cold War era was relatively high and fluctuated steadily. (2) Water cooperation linkages have