Topic Editors

Dr. Efthimios Bothos
1. Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens, Greece
2. Frontier Innovations, Apeipsiou 10, 11143 Athens, Greece
Dr. Panagiotis Georgakis
School of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
Dr. Babis Magoutas
1. Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens, Greece
2. Frontier Innovations, Apeipsiou 10, 11143 Athens, Greece
Dr. Michiel de Bok
Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands

Sustainable Transport Systems and New Mobility Services: Challenges and Solutions

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 June 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, more than ever before, the mobility of passengers and goods is undergoing unprecedented transformations. Socioeconomic changes and technological advances have resulted in a volatile state of transport where supply and demand are constantly transitioning. Innovative disruptive schemes for passengers (mobility as a service, ride-hailing, microtransit, carpooling, car clubs, etc.), sustainable last-mile logistics offerings (e-vehicles, crowdshipping, crowdsourcing, physical internet for logistics, etc.), and the advent of connected and autonomous vehicles constitute a powerful, but untested mix of transport supply. Conversely, the rise of urbanization, the transport usership aptitudes of generation Z, and same-day delivery for e-commerce paradigms are a few events that have resulted in unfamiliar patterns of transport demand. Furthermore, policies for low or zero emission zones are starting to become part of cities’ urban mobility and logistics plans whereas the recent pandemic has impacted working and consuming habits, whose long-standing effects are still unknown. As a result of the above, decision makers require tools that will allow them to effectively prognose short- and medium-term states of transport supply and demand, and assess the impact of different policies and strategies in better managing such states. In addition, the plethora of new mobility services has given rise to the need for integrated technological solutions which will harness the large amount of data being generated by the operation of such services and will allow their optimal configuration and deployment.

In this topic, we welcome papers that present innovative modelling and simulation approaches and tools that can support decision-makers in planning sustainable transport systems by considering different eventualities in the current ever-changing conditions and forestalling adverse transport impacts. In addition, we invite the submission of research works that propose integrated and data-driven technology solutions that can facilitate the rapid adoption and frictionless deployment of sustainable transport systems and innovative mobility services. Submitted papers may contain, but are not limited to, systematic reviews, conceptual designs of solutions, technological prototypes, outputs of live demonstrations, and observational studies. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Transport simulation tools
  • Modelling of transportation services
  • Integration of innovative mobility services, inc. autonomous vehicles and drones
  • Shared mobility and mobility as a service
  • Data-driven impact assessment methodologies
  • Urban and last-mile logistics services
  • Innovative traffic management applications
  • Big data analytics for transportation
  • Machine learning for transport applications
  • Smart city platforms integrating new mobility services
  • Digital twins for transport systems
  • Decarbonisation of urban freight transport

Dr. Efthimios Bothos
Dr. Panagiotis Georgakis
Dr. Babis Magoutas
Dr. Michiel de Bok
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • sustainable transport systems
  • transport modelling
  • new mobility services
  • transport simulation tools
  • modelling of transportation services
  • integration of innovative mobility services, inc. autonomous vehicles and drones
  • shared mobility and mobility as a service
  • data-driven impact assessment methodologies
  • urban and last-mile logistic services
  • innovative traffic management applications
  • big data analytics for transportation
  • machine learning for transport applications
  • smart city platforms integrating new mobility services
  • digital twins for transport systems
  • decarbonisation of urban freight transport

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Future Transportation
futuretransp
- - 2021 28.7 Days 1000 CHF
Logistics
logistics
- - 2017 18.7 Days 1200 CHF
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF
Urban Science
urbansci
- - 2017 14.4 Days 1200 CHF
Vehicles
vehicles
- - 2019 19.8 Days 1400 CHF

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Published Papers (61 papers)

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Review
The Compactness of Non-Compacted Urban Developments: A Critical Review on Sustainable Approaches to Automobility and Urban Sprawl
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11121; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811121 - 06 Sep 2022
Abstract
This paper challenges the fact that the absolute freedom for residents to locate themselves wherever they want can lead to sustainable cities. Urban sprawl is the corollary to this freedom. Urban sprawl has become a controversial issue. Lines of thought among academics, practitioners, [...] Read more.
This paper challenges the fact that the absolute freedom for residents to locate themselves wherever they want can lead to sustainable cities. Urban sprawl is the corollary to this freedom. Urban sprawl has become a controversial issue. Lines of thought among academics, practitioners, and local authorities have been diverse. Some academics advocate the compact city as an antidote to urban sprawl, some scholars doubt the ability of conventional notions of containments to create sustainability, and others are fascinated by urban technologies and believe in the feasibility of these technologies, whereas local authorities impose policies, one after the other, without effective results. The problematic point is the absence of a comprehensive approach to undermining the urban sprawl sustainably. On the other hand, the physical urban compactness alone cannot meet containment aims. The study therefore study poses a question: Is there a theory or policy that can accommodate all of these ideas? This study attempts to find a sustainable compromise through a critical review of the impact of auto-mobility on urban affairs and to solve the dialectical contradictions between the protagonists of compactness and their counterparts who advocate urban sprawl. The review ends with a comparison between urban initiatives and theories related to auto-mobilities, and highlights the approaches to sustainable urbanism. The conclusion is that all classic planning theories have neglected the sociocultural impact on the urban realm, and that the current initiatives and mutual debates consider the resident just as a physical object who cannot contribute effectively to sustainable urban syntax. The study concludes that urban sprawl can also be a compacted zone if authorities ensure the equity of loci-services. Then, the preference for housing locations will not be a challenge to urban residents’ movements to settle closer to their work. In the end, the inhabitants will share in making an integrated and real urban containment. Full article
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Article
The Multi-Depot Traveling Purchaser Problem with Shared Resources
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10190; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610190 - 17 Aug 2022
Abstract
Using shared resources has created better opportunities in the field of sustainable logistics and procurement. The Multi-Depot Traveling Purchaser Problem under Shared Resources (MDTPPSR) is a new variant of the Traveling Purchaser Problem (TPP) in sustainable inbound logistics. In this problem, each depot [...] Read more.
Using shared resources has created better opportunities in the field of sustainable logistics and procurement. The Multi-Depot Traveling Purchaser Problem under Shared Resources (MDTPPSR) is a new variant of the Traveling Purchaser Problem (TPP) in sustainable inbound logistics. In this problem, each depot can purchase its products using the shared resources of other depots, and vehicles do not have to return to their starting depots. The routing of this problem is a Multi-Trip, Open Vehicle Routing Problem. A tailored integer programming model is formulated to minimize the total purchasers’ costs. Considering the complexity of the model, we have presented a decomposition-based algorithm that breaks down the problem into two phases. In the first phase, tactical decisions regarding supplier selection and the type of collaboration are made. In the second phase, the sequence of visiting is determined. To amend the decisions made in these phases, two heuristic algorithms based on the removing and insertion of operators are also proposed. The experimental results show that not only can purchasing under shared resources reduce the total cost by up to 29.11%, but it also decreases the number of dispatched vehicles in most instances. Full article
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Article
A Novel Green Logistics Technique for Planning Merchandise Deliveries: A Case Study
Logistics 2022, 6(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics6030059 - 15 Aug 2022
Abstract
Background: The health crisis due to COVID-19 has changed the habits of social coexistence and therefore has had a significant impact on several economic sectors, including logistics. Nowadays, this sector faces one of the most difficult challenges in history and hence has carried [...] Read more.
Background: The health crisis due to COVID-19 has changed the habits of social coexistence and therefore has had a significant impact on several economic sectors, including logistics. Nowadays, this sector faces one of the most difficult challenges in history and hence has carried out innovative strategies to adjust to the new normal and guarantee the permanence of the supply chain. In this paper, a novel green logistics technique for planning merchandise deliveries is introduced herein. Methods: This technique is based on a modified version of the Resistive Grid Path Planning Methodology (RGPPM) to establish a path through georeferential locations for delivering merchandise to customers. To do this, multi-connected resistive grids are based at customer locations for searching the path connecting the positions through electronic circuit analysis techniques. Results: Experimental results reveal that the proposed method can find a minimum spanning tree that connects all hand-over points by a continuous path. This finding has represented a reduction of around 45% in the length of the path with respect to the longest path. Conclusions: Finally, this technique is capable of addressing different optimization strategies, locating a merchandise distribution center and exploring environmental standards to reduce fuel consumption. Full article
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Article
Scheduling Optimization of Offshore Oil Spill Cleaning Materials Considering Multiple Accident Sites and Multiple Oil Types
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610047 - 13 Aug 2022
Abstract
Coastal governments have been preventing and controlling pollution in the marine environment by enhancing the construction of hardware and software facilities. The dispatch of offshore oil spill cleaning materials must be upgraded and optimized to cope with repeated offshore oil leak incidents while [...] Read more.
Coastal governments have been preventing and controlling pollution in the marine environment by enhancing the construction of hardware and software facilities. The dispatch of offshore oil spill cleaning materials must be upgraded and optimized to cope with repeated offshore oil leak incidents while simultaneously improving cleaning efficiency and the ability to resist oil spill hazards. Accordingly, we set up a multiobjective optimization model with time window constraints to solve the scheduling optimization problem of offshore oil spill accidents with multiple locations and oil types. This model integrates the minimal sum of fixed costs, fuel consumption costs, maximum load violation costs, and time window penalty costs to solve the scheduling optimization problem of an offshore oil spill accident. An improved genetic algorithm is designed to solve the proposed mathematical model effectively and to make a scientific decontaminated decision-scheduling scheme. The practicality of the model and algorithm is validated by using a specific instance, demonstrating that the suggested method can effectively solve the schedule optimization problem for cleaning materials. Full article
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Article
An Optimization-Based Approach to Evaluate the Operational and Environmental Impacts of Pick-Up Points on E-Commerce Urban Last-Mile Distribution: A Case Study in São Paulo, Brazil
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8521; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148521 - 12 Jul 2022
Abstract
Online sales have steadily increased in recent years. Unlike the traditional retail shopping model, e-commerce must deliver custom orders to highly dispersed locations. Consequently, negative effects have been observed in large urban and densely populated areas, such as congestion and pollution. Pick-up points [...] Read more.
Online sales have steadily increased in recent years. Unlike the traditional retail shopping model, e-commerce must deliver custom orders to highly dispersed locations. Consequently, negative effects have been observed in large urban and densely populated areas, such as congestion and pollution. Pick-up points (PPs) are fast-growing solutions that provide parcel delivery and picking services at diverse locations throughout major city centers. This paper describes an optimization-based approach aimed to investigate the conditions in which a network of pick-up points can be more efficient than home deliveries from operational and environmental points of view in urban last-mile distribution. Differently from the related literature, in which analytical models were employed, we use optimization and algorithms to determine the economic and environmental benefits of packages destined for pick-up points instead of home deliveries. The framework was applied to the city of São Paulo, in Brazil. Several scenarios were evaluated, comprising different densities and percentages of deliveries destined for PPs. The results show that PPs can be a promising alternative for reducing the environmental externalities, as fleet and vehicle mileage can be reduced by more than 50%. Full article
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Review
Challenges of Electric Vehicles and Their Prospects in Malaysia: A Comprehensive Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8320; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148320 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) in Malaysia are gaining more attention and interest from the public. However, the electric vehicle’s exposure, awareness, and sales are still low compared to other countries. In this review, the challenges associated with implementing the electric vehicle culture in Malaysia [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) in Malaysia are gaining more attention and interest from the public. However, the electric vehicle’s exposure, awareness, and sales are still low compared to other countries. In this review, the challenges associated with implementing the electric vehicle culture in Malaysia are thoroughly reviewed, including the obstacles that the Malaysian government, policymakers, EV manufacturers, and EV users face in terms of EV cost, travel demand, charging station availability, impact on the power grid, and battery capacity. Then, all the identified challenges have been addressed by considering the user behavior, travel demand, socio-economical culture of Malaysia, current policies taken by the government of Malaysia, and the psychological outlook of Malaysians towards EV adoption. Moreover, potential suggestions have been proposed that the government of Malaysia may adopt during policy planning and when seeking to provide incentives to the users. Finally, a concrete conclusion has been drawn by disseminating the vision about the future of EVs in Malaysia. The proposed review of the technologies, challenges, prospects, and potential solutions associated with EV adoption in Malaysia can provide a base for proper strategic policy and help policymakers frame strategies to achieve the targets. This review could help achieve sustainable EV transport, and the successful implementation of Malaysian National Automotive Plan 2020, with the goal of adopting next-generation green vehicles. Full article
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Systematic Review
Service Quality of Bus Performance in Asia: A Systematic Literature Review and Conceptual Framework
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7998; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137998 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bus services have played a significant role in public transportation, especially in urban areas throughout the years. Since bus services compete greatly with other types of public transportation, such as e-hailing services and private vehicles, they have recently attracted scholars to conduct many [...] Read more.
Bus services have played a significant role in public transportation, especially in urban areas throughout the years. Since bus services compete greatly with other types of public transportation, such as e-hailing services and private vehicles, they have recently attracted scholars to conduct many relevant studies. However, research in assessing public transport networks in urban areas by researchers by using systematic literature review is lacking. There are definitive gaps between quality standards set by the transportation regulatory authority and what bus operators can provide based on their obligations. Therefore, the present study had concentrated on the service quality of bus services in Asia by using the systematic literature review of articles. This study was based on previous studies, specifically on service quality of performance. Several previous studies were selected by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRIMSA) approach. SCOPUS and Science Direct were chosen as the main journal database. Through this approach, 41 articles were selected for further analysis. This study was focused on three primary themes: study approach, stakeholders, and service quality attributes. An advanced analysis on these primary themes was used to formulate another 18 sub-themes. All themes and sub-themes which reflected the significant impacts of service quality towards bus services were discussed in detail. This study addressed several qualities of bus services and bus performance in regard to the improvement of urban transportation polices. Several recommendations that can provide necessary knowledge and information for future research were also presented. Full article
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Article
Impact of Urban Spatial Transformation on the Mobility of Commuters with Different Transportation Modes in China: Evidence from Kunming 2011–2016
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7672; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137672 - 23 Jun 2022
Abstract
Many emerging economies, including China, are undergoing rapid and large-scale urban spatial transformation. Thus, the daily mobility of transportation-disadvantaged groups, especially non-car users, has received increased attention, as these people may experience significant restrictions in their daily activities. Such restrictions raise issues with [...] Read more.
Many emerging economies, including China, are undergoing rapid and large-scale urban spatial transformation. Thus, the daily mobility of transportation-disadvantaged groups, especially non-car users, has received increased attention, as these people may experience significant restrictions in their daily activities. Such restrictions raise issues with respect to transport-related social exclusion, which are detrimental to the sustainability of urban transportation systems. Activity participation and time use have been used to measure the spatial barriers and inequalities that travelers face in their daily lives. However, limited research has been conducted on how the daily mobility of different transportation modes has evolved over a longer period relative to urban development. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the activity participation and time use of car travelers in comparison with other transportation mode groups in Kunming from 2011 to 2016, a period of rapid growth in motorization. A three-layer activity structure was used to characterize the hierarchy of activity requirements. Propensity score matching was used to compare the mobility of commuters across different urban periods and transportation modes while controlling several confounding factors. Three conclusions were drawn from the results of the study: First, changes in urban form and transportation system cause residential suburbanization and a considerable increase in private-car and public transportation at the expense of non-motorized transportation modes. Second, the degree of impact of urban space transformation on personal mobility is ranked in descending order of public transit, cycling and walking, e-bike, and cars. Third, the traffic disadvantage of non-car users is obvious, and the mobility gap of commuters with different travel modes tends to widen over time. We discuss the consequences of transport-related social exclusion and highlight directions for future sustainable transportation planning research. Full article
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Article
Production Decisions of Automakers Considering the Impact of Anticipated Regret under the Dual-Credit Policy
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6598; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116598 - 27 May 2022
Abstract
The anticipation of consumer regret under dual-credit policies significantly impacts automakers’ production decisions. This article focuses on the automakers that produce both new energy vehicles (NEV) and fuel vehicles (FV). Given the dual-credit policy, this study introduces the concept of anticipated regret to [...] Read more.
The anticipation of consumer regret under dual-credit policies significantly impacts automakers’ production decisions. This article focuses on the automakers that produce both new energy vehicles (NEV) and fuel vehicles (FV). Given the dual-credit policy, this study introduces the concept of anticipated regret to characterize consumers’ evaluation of product utility, and then analyzes the impact of this behavior on the volume of vehicles produced by automakers. The study found the following: when in independent decision-making mode, as the government increases the requirements associated with the new energy vehicle credit ratio, automakers reduce the number of fuel vehicles and the number of new energy vehicles produced. In this independent decision-making mode, the influence of consumer anticipation of regret on automakers’ production decisions is uncertain. When the credit price is less than the threshold, the total profit of the automaker in a centralized decision-making mode is less than the profit in the independent decision-making mode. When the credit price exceeds the threshold, the total profit of the automaker is greater in the centralized decision-making mode compared with the independent decision-making mode. Full article
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Article
Railway Signaling Safety Factors Quantitative Analysis Using an Improved 5M Model
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6247; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106247 - 20 May 2022
Abstract
In order to improve the sustainability of modern cities, the safe operation of rail transportation is critical. Meanwhile, rail signaling safety is also fundamental for rail transportation, and quantitative analysis of railway signaling safety factors can guarantee this basis. To achieve this, this [...] Read more.
In order to improve the sustainability of modern cities, the safe operation of rail transportation is critical. Meanwhile, rail signaling safety is also fundamental for rail transportation, and quantitative analysis of railway signaling safety factors can guarantee this basis. To achieve this, this research proposes an improved rail signaling 5M (Management-Machine-Man-Media-Mission) accident cause hierarchical model, which can make up for the previous lack of objectivity and statistics. According to the demands of rail signaling accident analysis, this research collects and classifies the rail signaling accident data from 2000 to 2017. Then, the hierarchical association rule method is used to calculate the relationships between the 5M factors, and the factor analysis method is applied to measure the weights of the 5M subfactors. Therefore, the safety evaluation index system for railway signaling system is established. The results show that the Management element is the most important factor in rail signaling accidents, while the Mission element is dispensable. Moreover, the subfactors, such as the equipment material, safety management, external humans affected, and hidden danger should also not be ignored. Eventually, the rail signaling accidents analysis is conducted between the 5M model and the improved 5M model; the comparison shows that the improved 5M can not only improve the safety factors influence rate by more than 84.64%, but it can also improve the railway signaling safety, which can provide strong support for the safe operation of rail transportation and sustainable development of a modern city. Full article
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Article
Impact of Car-Sharing and Ridesourcing on Public Transport Use: Attitudes, Preferences, and Future Intentions Regarding Sustainable Urban Mobility in the Post-Soviet City
Urban Sci. 2022, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci6020033 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The impacts of ICT-based mobility services vary in different cities, depending on socioeconomic, urban form, and cultural parameters. The impacts of car-sharing and ridesourcing on public transport have not been investigated appropriately in post-Soviet Union cities. This study presents exploratory evidence on how [...] Read more.
The impacts of ICT-based mobility services vary in different cities, depending on socioeconomic, urban form, and cultural parameters. The impacts of car-sharing and ridesourcing on public transport have not been investigated appropriately in post-Soviet Union cities. This study presents exploratory evidence on how ridesourcing and car-sharing affect public transport usage in Moscow. Additionally, it studies how demographics, spatial parameters, attitudes, and travel preferences influence the frequency of use of ridesourcing and car-sharing in Moscow. An online mobility survey was conducted at the beginning of 2020 among respondents (sample size is 777) in the Moscow agglomeration. Overall, 66% of ridesourcing users shifted from public transport to these mobility services, which shows the substitutional impact of ridesourcing on public transport. Additionally, the logit model indicates that the regular use of ridesourcing negatively correlates with the regular use of buses/trams/trolleybuses in Moscow. The impact of car-sharing on public transport seems less substitutional and more complementary than the impact of ridesourcing. Overall, 40% of car-sharing users would replace their last car-sharing trip with public transport if car-sharing was unavailable. Moreover, the logit model indicates a positive association between the regular use of car-sharing and the use of buses/trams/trolleybuses. Moreover, the modal split analysis shows a bigger share of public transport use and walking than car use among citizens’ urban journeys in Moscow. Full article
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Article
Cost Efficiency and CO2 Emission Reduction in Short Sea Shipping: Evidence from Ciwandan Port–Panjang Port Routes, Indonesia
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6016; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106016 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Merak Port of Java and Bakauheni Port of Sumatera are connected by ferry lines. However, the number of ferry ships and facilities of the two ports are not able to accommodate the number of vehicles that cross. Queues of vehicles often occur and [...] Read more.
Merak Port of Java and Bakauheni Port of Sumatera are connected by ferry lines. However, the number of ferry ships and facilities of the two ports are not able to accommodate the number of vehicles that cross. Queues of vehicles often occur and waiting times at the port are very high and have an impact on the accumulation of vehicles on the road to the port. Anticipating these conditions, it is possible to open a short sea shipping (SSS) route from Ciwandan port to Panjang port as an alternative route for shifting some of the vehicles served by those ferry ships. This research aims to analyze the efficiency of opening the Ciwandan–Panjang SSS route in terms of benefits for stakeholders, cost efficiency for vehicle users, and the potential for CO2 reduction from exhaust gases. We use a descriptive quantitative method. The analytical techniques used include port cost analysis, benefit analysis (for the government and ship operators), comparative analysis of transportation costs, and analysis of the impact of reducing CO2 emissions, which are valued monetarily. The results of the analysis show that the operation of the Ciwandan–Panjang SSS can reduce the total cost of vehicles compared to the Merak–Bakuheni route. Owners of cargo vehicles are able to save on logistics costs of IDR 332 billion per year. Estimated state revenue through non-tax state revenues (NTSI) and value-added tax (VAT) is increased. Losses due to CO2 emissions are estimated to be reduced, with a value of up to IDR 511 billion per year. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Transport Exclusion on the Local Development of Biała County
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5674; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095674 - 08 May 2022
Abstract
The issue of transport exclusion is an important social problem. It is of major interest to both central and local authorities. For the purposes of this study, a research questionnaire was conducted on the issue of transport exclusion. The area of the research [...] Read more.
The issue of transport exclusion is an important social problem. It is of major interest to both central and local authorities. For the purposes of this study, a research questionnaire was conducted on the issue of transport exclusion. The area of the research carried out was Biała County, composed of seventeen communes and two cities. The data were collected based on an electronic questionnaire, i.e., using the CAWI method (Computer Assisted Web Interview). In total, 473 inhabitants of the studied area took part in the survey. Logistic regression, Spearman’s rank correlation method, and Pearson’s chi-square test of independence were all used in the data analysis. The research shows that local communities emphasise the problem of an insufficient number of connections or point out the complete lack of connections with respect to particular localities. Transport exclusion affects, in particular, people living in small towns, the elderly, the disadvantaged, and the disabled. The lack of basic means of transport hinders access to the labour market, especially for people starting their vocational careers, as well as for education, health care, and other spheres of human life. The lack of collective transport forces the inhabitants to use their own cars. As a consequence, the environment suffers from it (more and more exhaust fumes are getting into the air), road infrastructure is excessively being used and the number of accidents is increasing. Additionally, there are traffic jams at the entrances to cities (congestion). Limited access to public transport or its total absence results in the depopulation of localities and halting the development of selected communes. Full article
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Article
Transit Quality of Service Assessment Using Smart Data
Future Transp. 2022, 2(2), 414-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2020023 - 02 May 2022
Abstract
In this paper we assess the transit quality of service (QoS) from a user’s standpoint, using smart data. A number of bus lines with different characteristics, operating in the Metropolitan Area of Athens, were chosen as a case study. The data used were [...] Read more.
In this paper we assess the transit quality of service (QoS) from a user’s standpoint, using smart data. A number of bus lines with different characteristics, operating in the Metropolitan Area of Athens, were chosen as a case study. The data used were gathered by an Automatic Passenger Counting (APC) system. APC technologies provide exact temporalized passenger counting along the line for each service, thus assisting to better understand causalities of delays and avoid operational problems. By employing archived APC data from buses running on crosstown routes between 15 January 2019 and 15 April 2019 we conducted a statistical analysis to explore occupancies and assess QoS, including under a social distancing scenario. The passenger distribution along the stops, the bus’s occupancy level, the stops that are maximum occupancy points and their rate of occurrence and, lastly, the passenger’s average trip length during the day and the week are examined. Full article
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Article
Transportation-Induced Carbon Emissions Jeopardize Healthcare Logistics Sustainability: Toward a Healthier Today and a Better Tomorrow
Logistics 2022, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics6020027 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Logistics operations are considered essential for transporting commodities from one location to another, helping to promote global economic activity. On the other hand, its negative impact eclipses its positive impact, namely the rise in healthcare expenditures due to its ecological footprint. Globally, [...] Read more.
Background: Logistics operations are considered essential for transporting commodities from one location to another, helping to promote global economic activity. On the other hand, its negative impact eclipses its positive impact, namely the rise in healthcare expenditures due to its ecological footprint. Globally, rising out-of-pocket health expenses result from logistic-induced carbon emissions, posing a danger to the long-term viability of healthcare. Methods: Based on this critical fact, this study examined the impact of logistics operations on healthcare costs by controlling for carbon emissions, fuel imports, and economic development across a large cross-section of 131 nations by using the Robust Least Squares Regression. Results: The findings demonstrate a U-shaped association between logistical operations and healthcare expenditures, i.e., if there is a 1% increase in logistics operations, healthcare expenditures decrease by −2.421% initially, while at later stages, healthcare costs would increase by 0.139%. On the other hand, increased fuel imports and economic growth due to logistics activities are increasing healthcare expenditures with an elasticity estimate of 0.087% and 0.147%, respectively. According to the forecasting predictions, logistics-induced carbon emissions, fuel imports, and economic expansion will increase healthcare expenses. Conclusions: A sustainable logistics operation is critical for strengthening healthcare infrastructure and meeting the global carbon neutrality goal. Full article
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Review
Blockchain-Enabled Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 3919; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14073919 - 25 Mar 2022
Abstract
This systematic literature review provides an extensive categorization of the blockchain-enabled applications across the domain of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Within the paradigm of distributed ledger technology (DLT), the communication models and practices for VANETs have been revolutionized. An analytical review and [...] Read more.
This systematic literature review provides an extensive categorization of the blockchain-enabled applications across the domain of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Within the paradigm of distributed ledger technology (DLT), the communication models and practices for VANETs have been revolutionized. An analytical review and a survey were conducted to explore the advancements of blockchain and VANETs. The techniques, limitations, and advantages of blockchain deployment in VANETs are discussed for the effective implementation of a decentralized network. To this end, 68 studies were selected on the basis of the procedural steps to provide a comprehensive overview of blockchain and the smart contracts in VANETs. In particular, a decentralized communication model is also proposed for the advanced implementation of blockchain in VANETs. Researchers and practitioners are being attracted to these technologies for applications for various industrial sectors. Therefore, this study also emphasizes the identification of any blockchain-related open issues for future prospects. The comprehension of blockchain applications for the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is also explored in order to fill the research gap on advanced communication networks across the Internet of Things. Full article
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Article
Fuzzy AHP-Based Design Performance Index for Evaluation of Ferries
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3680; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063680 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Within waterborne public transportation (WPT), one often observes a mismatch between the operational requirements and ferry characteristics. A method to holistically evaluate ferries with respect to local requirements could lead to tailored procurement and targeted refurbishment of existing fleet. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Within waterborne public transportation (WPT), one often observes a mismatch between the operational requirements and ferry characteristics. A method to holistically evaluate ferries with respect to local requirements could lead to tailored procurement and targeted refurbishment of existing fleet. In this study, we develop a structure for operational requirements and use it as a basis for a ferry evaluation methodology. The requirements’ structure follows a three-level hierarchy starting from broad vessel design to mandatory requirements to performance requirements. The performance requirements are based on the three pillars of sustainability, aided by commuter surveys carried out in Stockholm ferries, interviews with public transport providers (PTP) and previous literature. The evaluation of the ferry is performed using analytic hierarchic process (AHP) to convert the PTP’s subjective preferences and ferry performance into a single dimensionless index. Rules for quantification of performance metrics including social performance are proposed. The uncertainties associated with AHP are addressed by employing fuzzy AHP based on extent analysis and fuzzy AHP in combination with particle swarm optimization. Two applications including performance assessment of existing ferries and assembly of a modular ferry are discussed. The method can lead to objective decision making in ferry evaluation, potentially leading to a more efficient WPT. Full article
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Article
Probability Model of Riding Behavior Choice of Two-Wheelers under the Influence of the Subsidence Area of a Manhole Cover
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3532; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063532 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
To objectively evaluate the influence of the subsidence area of a manhole cover on the riding behavior of two-wheeler riders in urban bicycle lanes, a probability model of riding behavior of two-wheeler riders was established. The main factors influencing the probability of riding [...] Read more.
To objectively evaluate the influence of the subsidence area of a manhole cover on the riding behavior of two-wheeler riders in urban bicycle lanes, a probability model of riding behavior of two-wheeler riders was established. The main factors influencing the probability of riding behaviors under the condition of the subsidence area of a manhole cover are investigated. Based on the field data of 10 survey sections in Guilin, the regression models between the selected probability of independent riding behavior, combined riding behavior and the main influencing factors are respectively established by using the multiple regression analysis method. The results show that the selected probabilities of deceleration riding behavior and original-speed riding behavior have a linear regression relationship with the subsidence depth of the manhole cover and the lane integrity. The subsidence depth of manhole covers is positively correlated with the probability of deceleration riding behavior and negatively correlated with the probability of original-speed riding behavior; lane integrity is positively correlated with both the probability of deceleration riding behavior and the probability of original-speed riding behavior. The data goodness-of-fit value for the relevant influence factors in the two models is 0.941 and 0.900, respectively. The probability of acceleration riding behavior has a linear regression relationship with the lane integrity and section flow. Lane integrity is negatively correlated with the probability of acceleration riding behavior and positively correlated with section flow. The data goodness-of-fit value for the relevant influence factors is 0.821. The probabilities of straight riding behavior and detour riding behavior have a linear regression relationship with the subsidence depth of manhole covers and the minor width of the flat part. The subsidence depth of a manhole cover is negatively correlated with the probability of straight riding behavior and positively correlated with the probability of detour riding behavior. The minor width of flat part is negatively correlated with the probability of straight riding behavior and positively correlated with the probability of detour riding behavior. The data goodness-of-fit value for the relevant influence factors in the two models is 0.601 and 0.603, respectively. The results provide the theoretical basis for the evaluation of the severity and optimization design of the subsidence of manhole covers in urban bicycle lanes. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Urban Mobility via a Pressure-State-Response (PSR) Model with the IVIF-AHP and FCE Methods: A Case Study of Beijing, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 3112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14053112 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 4
Abstract
Urban transportation issues continue to emerge and evolve as a result of rapid urbanization, and the systematic and scientific assessment of urban mobility is becoming increasingly essential. In this work, a Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model with 25 indicators was established to reflect the status [...] Read more.
Urban transportation issues continue to emerge and evolve as a result of rapid urbanization, and the systematic and scientific assessment of urban mobility is becoming increasingly essential. In this work, a Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model with 25 indicators was established to reflect the status of urban mobility. Then, the importance of indicators was determined with the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (IVIF-AHP) method, and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) method was applied to assess the overall status of urban mobility. The validity of the proposed model was demonstrated using the mobility system of Beijing as a case study, and the pressure, state, and response scores were calculated. The proposed assessment model can help to improve urban transportation monitoring and can also provide a scientific foundation for future urban transportation policymaking, planning, and traffic management, thereby further ensuring the sustainable development of urban transportation systems. Full article
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Article
An Evolutionary Descent Algorithm for Customer-Oriented Mobility-On-Demand Problems
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14053020 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper is addressing a new class of on-demand transport problems oriented toward customers. A mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed with new effective constraints that contribute to enhancing the quality of service. An exact resolution has been achieved, leading to lower bounds [...] Read more.
This paper is addressing a new class of on-demand transport problems oriented toward customers. A mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed with new effective constraints that contribute to enhancing the quality of service. An exact resolution has been achieved, leading to lower bounds of the solution space of real cases of on-demand transport problems. To overcome the exponential computational time of the exact resolution, an evolutionary descent method is developed. It relies on a new operator for perturbing the search. The comparative results between the new method and the branch and bound show low gaps for almost all the instances tested with lower execution times. The results of the evolutionary descent method are also compared with the results of two different heuristics, namely a Tabu Search and an Evolutionary Local Search. Our evolutionary method demonstrates its effectiveness through competitive and promising results. Full article
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Article
Identification of the Right Moment for Motor Vehicle Replacement—Life-Cycle Analysis in Serbia and Montenegro
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052744 - 25 Feb 2022
Abstract
This paper deals with the issue of planning the end-of-life phase of motor vehicle life cycles in Serbia and Montenegro. This topic is trending around sustainability issues, given the very unfavorable age structure of vehicles and the increasing import of used cars, which [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the issue of planning the end-of-life phase of motor vehicle life cycles in Serbia and Montenegro. This topic is trending around sustainability issues, given the very unfavorable age structure of vehicles and the increasing import of used cars, which intensifies the problem of the number of waste vehicles. On average, a motor vehicle is in active use for a period of 10 to 15 years. Individual phases of its life cycle are indicated differently, using multiple parameters. All phases are influenced by many factors, but this paper focuses on the phases of active use and the end of life of a motor vehicle. This paper investigates these two phases in terms of the influencing elements. The main aim of this study is to lay the foundations for making adequate decisions on how to handle end-of-life vehicles, from the perspective of their drivers. The study includes performing quantitative research analysis via the k-means clustering technique on a sample of 1240 drivers (private and commercial vehicles), in order to draw concrete conclusions through appropriate statistical analysis. The key findings suggest that different market, business, and environment indicators define the phases of active use and end of life, throughout the life cycle of a motor vehicle. Future research will expand the sample to surrounding countries. Full article
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Review
Sustainable Transportation in Practice: A Systematic Quantitative Review of Case Studies
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052617 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
After the COVID-19 pandemic and the spectrum of new climate change disruptions in the supply chain, a holistic approach towards sustainable transportation is needed. Sustainable transportation could benefit sustainable development from different angles; reduced traffic deaths, increased share of renewable energy, higher quality [...] Read more.
After the COVID-19 pandemic and the spectrum of new climate change disruptions in the supply chain, a holistic approach towards sustainable transportation is needed. Sustainable transportation could benefit sustainable development from different angles; reduced traffic deaths, increased share of renewable energy, higher quality of transport-related infrastructure, increased satisfaction with public transportation, increased responsible consumption and production, and reduced fossil fuel consumption. This study is an attempt to show whereon the scholars were focused previously and where the focus needs to be more on. This study has reviewed 358 case studies and categorized them into twenty groups based on the transportation mode and eleven groups based on the authors’ primary areas of concern. Keyword analysis followed by topics modeling showed three non-overlapping trends in the cohort. The results, with a corroboratory investigation on the benefits of the United States’ infrastructure bill, were discussed in four categories: in-vehicle improvements, built-environment elements, human factors, and planning and regulations. Full article
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Article
Simulation Analysis of Bus Passenger Boarding and Alighting Behavior Based on Cellular Automata
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042429 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
Bus passengers’ boarding and alighting behavior is important content when researching bus operation efficiency. This paper uses an improved cellular automata (CA) model and introduces four dynamic parameters to study individual behavioral characteristics of bus passengers’ boarding and alighting behavior. The research on [...] Read more.
Bus passengers’ boarding and alighting behavior is important content when researching bus operation efficiency. This paper uses an improved cellular automata (CA) model and introduces four dynamic parameters to study individual behavioral characteristics of bus passengers’ boarding and alighting behavior. The research on the relationship between the macro pedestrian flow formed by the interaction between the individual passengers and the stop time of the bus station was realized. Then it was modeled for different situations, and the general update rules of CA were set based on realistic situations. The passenger boarding and alighting behaviors of the No. 245 bus route in Nanchang, China were simulated, and the simulation results of four different door layouts and passenger boarding and alighting modes were compared. It was found that when the passenger loading rate in the bus reaches 65%, the passenger boarding rate has an obvious tendency to slow down; the width of the door has a direct relationship with the passenger alighting efficiency, and the bus stopping time can be reduced by adjusting the width of the alighting door; a strategy which allows passengers board on the bus via the alighting door may effectively reduce the bus stopping time when there are many passengers boarding on the bus. Using strategy four, simulation research found that Bus No. 245 can reduce the stopping time by 40–50% in some station scenarios. Research results show that the CA model has certain practical value and can provide a theoretical reference for public transportation control and management. Full article
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Article
Train Operations Organization in High-Speed Railway Station Considering Variable Configuration
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042365 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The train operation problem at the railway station is one of the basic scheduling problems for railway companies, and the decomposition and combination of trains in station platform tracks is an important trend in the railway operation, which further increase the complexity of [...] Read more.
The train operation problem at the railway station is one of the basic scheduling problems for railway companies, and the decomposition and combination of trains in station platform tracks is an important trend in the railway operation, which further increase the complexity of train routing problem in the high-speed railway station. A reasonable train routing plan is critical for ensuring the safety and efficiency of train operations within the stations. Considering the combination and decomposition process of trains at the station, a multi-objective model is constructed, which determines the receiving routes and departure routes of trains at the railway station with the limited infrastructure capacity, given the station yard layouts, train diagram and relevant technical operation time of the station. A solution framework based on the “constraint method” is designed, and software Gurobi is used to solve the problem. The Pareto optimal solution set is obtained. The results show that when making 1.9% concessions to the minimum route cost, the occupancy balance of platform tracks can be improved by 66.2%, which is taken as the comprehensive application scheme. Compared with the feasible scheme, the comprehensive operation scheme reduces the route cost by 1.9% and improves the occupation balance of platform tracks by 15.4%. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Relationship between Road Geometry and Automated Driving Safety for Automated Vehicle-Based Mobility Service
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042336 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Various mobility services have been proposed based on the integration of automated vehicle (AV) and road infrastructure. Service providers need to identify a set of road sections for ensuring the driving safety of an AV-based mobility service. The main objective of this research [...] Read more.
Various mobility services have been proposed based on the integration of automated vehicle (AV) and road infrastructure. Service providers need to identify a set of road sections for ensuring the driving safety of an AV-based mobility service. The main objective of this research is to analyze the safety performance of AVs on the road geometrical features present during this type of mobility service. To achieve the research goal, a mobility service is classified by a combination of six road types, including expressway, bus rapid transit (BRT) lane, principal arterial road, minor arterial road, collector road, and local road. With any given road type, a field test dataset is collected and analyzed to assess the safety performance of the AV-based mobility service with respect to road geometry. Furthermore, the safety performances of each road section are explored by using a historical dataset for human-driven vehicle-involved accident cases. The result reveals that most of the dangerous occurrences in both AV and human-driven vehicles show similar patterns. However, contrasting results are also observed in crest vertical curve sections, where the AV shows a lower risk of dangerous events than that of a human-driven vehicle. The findings can be used as primary data for optimizing the physical and digital infrastructure needed to implement efficient and safe AV-based mobility services in the future. Full article
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Article
Factors Impacting the Choice of Seatbelt Use, Accounting for Complexity of Travelers’ Behaviors
Future Transp. 2022, 2(1), 237-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2010012 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
Wyoming has one of the highest fatality rates, and a significantly lower rate of seatbelt use in the United States. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective to investigate contributory factors to the choice of drivers’ seatbelt use. Various environmental factors and [...] Read more.
Wyoming has one of the highest fatality rates, and a significantly lower rate of seatbelt use in the United States. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective to investigate contributory factors to the choice of drivers’ seatbelt use. Various environmental factors and drivers’ characteristics were considered as it is expected that they account for unseen factors that impact drivers’ choice of buckling up. Although the mixed model has been used extensively for studying the impacts of seatbelt use on the severity of crashes, not many studies have been conducted regarding factors contributing to the choice of seatbelt use itself. In this study, the standard logit model is extended to the mixed model to account for heterogeneity across drivers’ observations. In addition, the standard mixed model was extended to incorporate the random parameters’ heterogeneity in taste based on the means of other observed variables. The results highlighted that moving from the standard logit model to the mixed model, considering heterogeneity in tastes, results in a gain in the model fit, and also an adjustment for the model’s parameters’ estimates. The findings indicated that some of factors impacting the choice of wearing seatbelt include gender, road classification, weather condition, vehicle types, time of driving, vehicle registration and day of the week. Those factors are mainly related to unobserved factors impacting the drivers’ behaviors. For instance, drivers with particular characteristics are expected to own particular vehicle types or drive their vehicles under a particular weather condition. Full article
Article
Improving Efficiency in Congested Traffic Networks: Pareto-Improving Reservations through Agent-Based Timetabling
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042211 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In an urban transportation network, congestion occurs in the form of a queue behind a bottleneck. Many studies have considered a reservation-based optimization approach for queuing systems. To control the traffic density behind a bottleneck so that it does not exceed the link [...] Read more.
In an urban transportation network, congestion occurs in the form of a queue behind a bottleneck. Many studies have considered a reservation-based optimization approach for queuing systems. To control the traffic density behind a bottleneck so that it does not exceed the link capacity, and to reduce the emissions and improve the sustainability of cities, we propose a new mobility service system to offer a Pareto-improving schedule for both the portion of agents making reservations and others with fixed departure time schedules. This reservation system takes the agents’ (i.e., users or vehicles here) actual arrival and departure times from a conventional system without reservations as the preferred time windows at both the origins and destinations. Such a centralized mobility service system could maintain or improve the end-to-end traveling performance for all users. The proposed reservation and end-to-end timetabling problem is formulated as a multicommodity flow optimization problem in a discretized space–time network. We use a modified dynamic programming method for the reservation strategy on the space–time network and further adopt the alternative direction method of multiplier (ADMM) based on prime and dual theory to solve the large-scale instances. A comprehensive discussion is also provided regarding the technical challenges and potential solutions when operating such a system in a real-world setting. Full article
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Article
The One E-Ticket Customized Bus Service Mode for Passengers with Multiple Trips and the Routing Problem
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042124 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
To alleviate the problems of traffic congestion, excessive energy consumption, and the environmental pollution caused by private cars, it is essential to use public transportation (PT). However, passengers making multiple trips in a short time period must repeatedly make travel mode choices, purchase [...] Read more.
To alleviate the problems of traffic congestion, excessive energy consumption, and the environmental pollution caused by private cars, it is essential to use public transportation (PT). However, passengers making multiple trips in a short time period must repeatedly make travel mode choices, purchase tickets, and wait for buses for each trip, which may negatively affect their preference for PT. In order to improve the attractiveness of PT, especially for passengers requiring multiple trips in a short time period, this paper proposes the one e-ticket customized bus service mode for passengers with multiple trips (OECBSM-PMT) by customized buses (CBs). Besides, a CB-routing optimization model for the OECBSM-PMT is also developed in this paper, formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming based on a vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows (VRPPDTW). The model aims to maximize the profit and minimize the costs of operation with considering passengers with multi-trip requests, homogeneous CB fleets with pickup/delivery-time-window constraints, and mixed loads. A service effectiveness identification procedure based on genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to cope with the calculation considering the characteristics of passengers with multiple trips. Finally, the proposed model and algorithm are verified and analyzed using the case of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games. It can be found from the results that the method can provide an optimized CB route plan and timetable, and the algorithm GA-I obtains better solutions than other solving strategies in most instances. The proposed OECBSM-PMT and corresponding optimized method can better adapt to diverse travel demands, significantly improve the convenience for passengers, especially those making multiple trips in a short time period and will eventually promote a higher level of public transport service. Full article
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Article
Optimal Strategies for Elderly Public Transport Service Based on Impact-Asymmetry Analysis: A Case Study of Harbin
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031320 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The difficulty of travel for the elderly is a challenge for urban management. Quantifying the satisfaction of public transport services from the perspective of the elderly is a people-oriented scientific research method. Based on the survey data of 2019 and 2020 and by [...] Read more.
The difficulty of travel for the elderly is a challenge for urban management. Quantifying the satisfaction of public transport services from the perspective of the elderly is a people-oriented scientific research method. Based on the survey data of 2019 and 2020 and by selecting the interview data of people over retirement age before analyzing the non-linear relationship between bus service elements and elderly satisfaction by the impact-asymmetry analysis and gradient boosting decision trees, the optimization strategy of ground public transportation for the elderly in Harbin was obtained. The results show that the following five factors have the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, namely, site broadcasting, complaint handling, awning facilities, driver driving habits, and the punctuality of bus operation. Among them, “awning,” the “punctuality of bus operation,” and “drivers’ driving habits” should be given priority to improve. The conclusion of this study provides a theoretical basis for the accurate optimization of public transport services. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Risky Driving Behavior of Urban Electric Bicycle Drivers for Improving Safety
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031243 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this work, to clarify the impact of electric bicycle drivers’ risky driving behavior on driving safety, we used multiple regression analysis methods combined with a questionnaire survey of residents of the city of Guilin, China. We studied the impact of the two [...] Read more.
In this work, to clarify the impact of electric bicycle drivers’ risky driving behavior on driving safety, we used multiple regression analysis methods combined with a questionnaire survey of residents of the city of Guilin, China. We studied the impact of the two dimensions of safety knowledge and safety attitude on risky driving behavior, and identified the differences in the impact of these two dimensions from the perspective of personal characteristics. Through modeling analysis, we found that “responsible attitude” and “group behavior attitude” explain 62.4% of the variation in aggressive behavior; 48.5% of the variation in negligent behavior is caused by “age”, “safety knowledge” and “responsible attitude”; and 52% of the variation in violations is caused by “age”, “violation attitude” and “group behavior attitude”. The results show that “group behavior attitude” affects the occurrence of aggression; that safety knowledge has a significant negative impact on unintentional negligence but has no significant effect on deliberate violations and aggression; and that the difference in risky driving behavior is mainly manifested in “age”, “gender”, “violation” and “accident experience”. Full article
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Article
Pedestrian Safety in Compact and Mixed-Use Urban Environments: Evaluation of 5D Measures on Pedestrian Crashes
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020646 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study examined the impact of density, diversity, design, distance to transit, and destination accessibility, five measures, known as the 5Ds, that characterize the built environment, on pedestrian–vehicle crashes in Seoul, Korea. Using spatial analysis based on 500-m grid cells, this study employed [...] Read more.
This study examined the impact of density, diversity, design, distance to transit, and destination accessibility, five measures, known as the 5Ds, that characterize the built environment, on pedestrian–vehicle crashes in Seoul, Korea. Using spatial analysis based on 500-m grid cells, this study employed negative binomial regression models on the frequencies of three specific types of pedestrian–vehicle crashes: crashes causing death, major injury, and minor injury to pedestrians. Analysis shows that compact and mixed-use urban environments represented by 5D measures have mixed effects on pedestrian safety. Trade-off effects are found between a higher risk for all types of pedestrian crashes, and a lower risk for fatal pedestrian crashes in 5D urban environments. As a design variable, a higher number of intersections is more likely to increase some types of pedestrian crashes, including fatal crashes, a finding which warrants policy attention to promote pedestrian safety near intersection areas. This study also confirms an urgent need to secure the travel safety of pedestrians near public transit stations due to the higher risk of pedestrian crashes near such facilities. Various destinations, such as retail stores, traditional markets, and hospitals, are associated with pedestrian crashes. Pedestrian safety measures should be implemented to reduce the likelihood of pedestrian crashes near major destination facilities. Full article
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Article
Assessing the Impacts of Crowdshipping Using Public Transport: A Case Study in a Middle-Sized Greek City
Future Transp. 2022, 2(1), 55-83; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2010004 - 06 Jan 2022
Abstract
Crowdsourced deliveries or crowdshipping is identified in recent literature as an emerging urban freight transport solution, aiming at reducing delivery costs, congestion, and environmental impacts. By leveraging the pervasive use of mobile technology, crowdshipping is an emerging solution of the sharing economy in [...] Read more.
Crowdsourced deliveries or crowdshipping is identified in recent literature as an emerging urban freight transport solution, aiming at reducing delivery costs, congestion, and environmental impacts. By leveraging the pervasive use of mobile technology, crowdshipping is an emerging solution of the sharing economy in the transport domain, as parcels are delivered by commuters rather than corporations. The objective of this research is to evaluate the impacts of crowdshipping through alternative scenarios that consider various levels of demand and adoption by public transport users who act as crowdshippers, based on a case study example in the city of Volos, Greece. This is achieved through the establishment of a tailored evaluation framework and a city-scale urban freight traffic microsimulation model. Results show that crowdshipping has the potential to mitigate last-mile delivery impacts and effectively contribute to improving the system’s performance. Full article
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Article
Implementing Design and Operational Measures for Sustainable Mobility: Lessons from Zurich
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020625 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Increasing mobility and urbanization is important for economic prosperity but leads to higher urban traffic congestion, which is associated with many negative externalities. Therefore, cities are in need of integrative solutions that reduce their transportation network’s spatial and environmental footprint, while maintaining the [...] Read more.
Increasing mobility and urbanization is important for economic prosperity but leads to higher urban traffic congestion, which is associated with many negative externalities. Therefore, cities are in need of integrative solutions that reduce their transportation network’s spatial and environmental footprint, while maintaining the highest transportation efficiency possible. Focusing on a nontraditional and more sustainable cycle of urban transportation, this paper covers an integrated perspective by describing a combination of individual design and operational measures. To do so, a case study of the city of Zurich is presented, which consistently ranks highly across different indicators, from smart city to sustainability. This paper is therefore a qualitative review of different measures that the city has implemented to become more sustainable. The measures are compared with indicators from the existing literature and classify them into three clusters: (i) measures discouraging private motorized transport, (ii) measures encouraging public transport, and (iii) measures encouraging human-powered mobility. The discussion thereof allows us to integrate the different measures to define a sustainable transportation cycle, which potentially serves as a best-practice example. Full article
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Article
Investigating the Impact of Connected and Automated Vehicles on Signalized and Unsignalized Intersections Safety in Mixed Traffic
Future Transp. 2022, 2(1), 24-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2010002 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
Road traffic crashes are a major safety problem, with one of the leading factors in crashes being human error. Automated and connected vehicles (CAVs) that are equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are expected to reduce human error. In this paper, the [...] Read more.
Road traffic crashes are a major safety problem, with one of the leading factors in crashes being human error. Automated and connected vehicles (CAVs) that are equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are expected to reduce human error. In this paper, the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator is used to investigate how CAVs impact road safety. In order to define the longitudinal behavior of Human Drive Vehicles (HDVs) and CAVs, car-following models, including the Krauss, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM), and Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) car-following models were used to simulate CAVs. Surrogate safety measures were utilized to analyze CAVs’ safety impact using time-to-collision. Two case studies were evaluated: a signalized grid network that included nine intersections, and a second network consisting of an unsignalized intersection. The results demonstrate that CAVs could potentially reduce the number of conflicts based on each of the car following model simulations and the two case studies. A secondary finding of the research identified additional safety benefits of vehicles equipped with collision avoidance control, through the reduction in rear-end conflicts observed for the CACC car-following model. Full article
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Review
Key Elements of Mobility Apps for Improving Urban Travel Patterns: A Literature Review
Future Transp. 2022, 2(1), 1-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2010001 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
In recent decades cities have applied a number of policy measures aimed at reducing car use and increasing public transportation (PT) patronage. Persuasive strategies to change mobility behavior present notable limitations in economic and logistical terms and have only minor impacts. The smartphone [...] Read more.
In recent decades cities have applied a number of policy measures aimed at reducing car use and increasing public transportation (PT) patronage. Persuasive strategies to change mobility behavior present notable limitations in economic and logistical terms and have only minor impacts. The smartphone has emerged as a promising tool to overcome these challenges, as it can host persuasion strategies through mobility apps. Simultaneously, Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) schemes could open up new possibilities for addressing both sustainability goals and the needs of urban travelers. This paper carries out a literature review to identify the key elements of mobility apps that foster more sustainable travelers’ choices. The findings show that some persuasive strategies such as eco-feedback, rewards or social challenges are effective because they are well received by users. From the users’ point of view, the perceived barriers (e.g., usability, privacy) relate negatively to app adoption, and it is considered useful to include functional needs such as real-time information (e.g., to avoid congestion), cost savings (e.g., customized multimodal packages), comfort (e.g., crowding on public transport) or health (e.g., calories burned). We have found that a proper design of multimodal travel packages based on (i) financial incentives and (ii) environmental awareness, could help increase public transport patronage and reduce private car use. Full article
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Article
Multi-Depot Electric Bus Scheduling Considering Operational Constraint and Partial Charging: A Case Study in Shenzhen, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010255 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Electric buses (e-buses) demonstrate great potential in improving urban air quality thanks to zero tailpipe emissions and thus being increasingly introduced to the public transportation systems. In the transit operation planning, a common requirement is that long-distance non-service travel of the buses among [...] Read more.
Electric buses (e-buses) demonstrate great potential in improving urban air quality thanks to zero tailpipe emissions and thus being increasingly introduced to the public transportation systems. In the transit operation planning, a common requirement is that long-distance non-service travel of the buses among bus terminals should be avoided in the schedule as it is not cost-effective. In addition, e-buses should begin and end a day of operation at their base depots. Based on the unique route configurations in Shenzhen, the above two requirements add further constraint to the form of feasible schedules and make the e-bus scheduling problem more difficult. We call these two requirements the vehicle relocation constraint. This paper addresses a multi-depot e-bus scheduling problem considering the vehicle relocation constraint and partial charging. A mixed integer programming model is formulated with the aim to minimize the operational cost. A Large Neighborhood Search (LNS) heuristic is devised with novel destroy-and-repair operators to tackle the vehicle relocation constraint. Numerical experiments are conducted based on multi-route operation cases in Shenzhen to verify the model and effectiveness of the LNS heuristic. A few insights are derived on the decision of battery capacity, charging rate and deployment of the charging infrastructure. Full article
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Article
Robust Optimization Model for Single Line Dynamic Bus Dispatching
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010073 - 22 Dec 2021
Abstract
For effective bus operations, it is important to flexibly arrange the departure times of buses at the first station according to real-time passenger flows and traffic conditions. In dynamic bus dispatching research, existing optimization models are usually based on the prediction and simulation [...] Read more.
For effective bus operations, it is important to flexibly arrange the departure times of buses at the first station according to real-time passenger flows and traffic conditions. In dynamic bus dispatching research, existing optimization models are usually based on the prediction and simulation of passenger flow data. The bus departure schemes are formulated accordingly, and the passenger arrival rate uncertainty must be considered. Robust optimization is a common and effective method to handle such uncertainty problems. This paper introduces a robust optimization method for single-line dynamic bus scheduling. By setting three scenarios—the benchmark passenger flow, high passenger flow, and low passenger flow—the robust optimization model of dynamic bus departures is established with consideration of different passenger arrival rates in different scenarios. A genetic algorithm (GA) is improved for minimizing the total passenger waiting time. The results obtained by the proposed optimization method are compared with those from a stochastic programming method. The standard deviation of the relative regret value with stochastic optimization is 5.42%, whereas that of the relative regret value with robust optimization is 0.62%. The stability of robust optimization is better, and the fluctuation degree is greatly reduced. Full article
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Article
Research on the Impact of High-End Ev Sales Business Model on Brand Competitiveness
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 14045; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132414045 - 20 Dec 2021
Abstract
Electric vehicles have many advantages compared with traditional fuel vehicles, whereas the immaturity of technologies and high manufacturing cost make it difficult for EV brands to be promoted in traditional business models. Thus, auto-mobile companies started to establish high-end sales business model to [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles have many advantages compared with traditional fuel vehicles, whereas the immaturity of technologies and high manufacturing cost make it difficult for EV brands to be promoted in traditional business models. Thus, auto-mobile companies started to establish high-end sales business model to promote the brand. This paper studies the influential mechanism of high-end EV sales business model on brand competitiveness and the mediation effect between high-end EV sales business model and brand competitiveness. A total of 624 consumers’ survey data were collected and the structural equation model (SEM) was analyzed to test the hypotheses by using a scale made up of indicators referring to high-end EV sales business model, brand competitiveness and customer perceived value. This paper contributes to the sustainable innovation literature by exploring the psychological perception of customer perceived value in strengthening brand competitiveness. The results show that both the value proposition and value creation of high-end EV sales business model have significant positive impacts on brand competitiveness. Moreover, customer perceived value fully mediates the relationships between the value proposition of high-end EV sales business model and brand competitiveness and between the value creation and brand competitiveness. Customer perceived value cannot mediate the relationship between the value capture of high-end EV sales business model and brand competitiveness. Our insights contribute to the business model research area from a customer-centric perspective. Full article
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Article
Determination of Speed-Dependent Roadway Luminance for an Adequate Feeling of Safety at Nighttime Driving
Vehicles 2021, 3(4), 821-839; https://doi.org/10.3390/vehicles3040049 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to determine as a function of velocity the minimal roadway luminance that is required to be judged as being bright enough for a driver to perform a nighttime driving task with an adequate feeling of safety. In [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to determine as a function of velocity the minimal roadway luminance that is required to be judged as being bright enough for a driver to perform a nighttime driving task with an adequate feeling of safety. In this context, it shall also be evaluated which areas of the vehicle forefield are most crucial for the driver’s general brightness perception. A field study with 23 subjects and dimmable LED headlights was conducted, in which the subjects were given the task to assess their perceived brightness for different luminance levels caused by the headlights’ low-beam distribution in the vehicle’s forefield on a 5-step rating scale. The experiments were repeated for three different driving velocities of 0 km h−1 (static case), 30 km h−1, and 60 km h−1, respectively. Results for the static case indicate that, for the roadway to be perceived as bright enough by 50% of the subjects, an average roadway luminance of 0.88 cd m−2 is required in an area up to 32 m in front of the vehicle. Furthermore, a significant effect of driving speed is observed. For example, at 60 km h−1, the luminance must be increased to 1.54 cd m−2 to be still perceived as sufficiently bright by 50% of the subjects. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Passengers’ Perceived Social Responsibility Efforts on Their Satisfaction in Public-Private-Partnership Urban Rail Transit Projects
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13108; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313108 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the rapid development of public-private-partnership (PPP) urban rail transit (URT) projects in China, their social responsibility (SR) is considered to provide a useful way of guaranteeing passengers’ rights and to help urban sustainable development. However, what remains largely unknown is how passengers’ [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of public-private-partnership (PPP) urban rail transit (URT) projects in China, their social responsibility (SR) is considered to provide a useful way of guaranteeing passengers’ rights and to help urban sustainable development. However, what remains largely unknown is how passengers’ perceptions of the SR effort of such projects’ influences their satisfaction. To bridge this knowledge gap, the current study first proposes a conceptual model based on social responsibility and satisfaction theories. Hypotheses are then tested through bootstrapping analysis based on data drawn from a questionnaire survey of 436 residents from three typical PPP URT projects. The results show that the relationship between the passengers’ perceived SR effort and their satisfaction with PPP URT projects is sequentially and doubly mediated by perceived quality and perceived value. The findings contribute to the current body of knowledge in social responsibility and user satisfaction by introducing passenger-perceived SR effort as an antecedent factor, and offer valuable practical and managerial implications for the projects’ operation management to help promote urban sustainability. Full article
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Article
Design of Sustainable Senior-Friendly Community Transportation Services
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13078; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313078 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the increasingly serious aging problem, getting around in communities has become an important means of socializing for older adults. This study proposes a new community aging-friendly transportation service system from the perspective of service design, so as to help realize the sustainable [...] Read more.
With the increasingly serious aging problem, getting around in communities has become an important means of socializing for older adults. This study proposes a new community aging-friendly transportation service system from the perspective of service design, so as to help realize the sustainable development of community services. To achieve this objective, the pain points and demands of older adults while traveling in communities were collected through a questionnaire survey, focus group interview, and user journey map. In addition, the grounded theory was applied to encode the qualitative data obtained in the focus group interview, so as to explore the path composition and dimension connotation of designing community transportation services. Based on the research results, we found that service strategy, service foundation, service support, and service effect are the key factors influencing customized transportation services. The established model covers the design framework of the service system, customized traffic service process, design strategy of community stakeholders, and traffic service system diagram. These research results provide references for community managers, community service providers, and designers. Full article
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Article
Evaluating Sustainability of Mass Rapid Transit Stations in Dubai
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 12965; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132312965 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
A transport business that has reached financial sustainability is one that is providing a service at a price that not only covers its costs but also creates a profit for upcoming contingencies. A focus on rail infrastructure financial sustainability is of paramount importance [...] Read more.
A transport business that has reached financial sustainability is one that is providing a service at a price that not only covers its costs but also creates a profit for upcoming contingencies. A focus on rail infrastructure financial sustainability is of paramount importance to guarantee the availability of punctual rail transport to remote potential users. To evaluate the sustainability of mass rapid transit on the relation among hypothetical key aspects of sustainability—perception of property; willingness to pay for maintenance, repair, and operations; confidence in the Roads and Transport Authority; and citizen participation in the rail project—and railway service punctuality, the most important result variable, was studied according to the specialized literature on rail transport sustainability. Leading information was collected by means of personal questionnaires of more than 1000 railway users according to the Krejcie Morgan formula for the calculation of the sample size knowing the population size. Qualitative plus quantitative information was gathered from different ways (technical test of the rail system, discussions with users, focus-group discussions, and interviews with key informers).The outputs by means of the statistical analysis allowed understanding two key perceptions. Firstly, beyond a half decade after construction, during a system intervention, a smaller perception of public property for the railway system was related to better service punctuality. This idea contrasts with the vast majority of the publications, which highlight a regular, direct relationship between perception of property and sustainability of railway systems. Secondly, in spite of three-quarters of users accepting that they would contribute monetarily for maintenance, repair, and operations service, such payments were not imminent because of the lack of confidence in the Roads and Transport Authority. In this situation, more than one-third of the metro stations were identified as non-punctual, beyond a half decade after construction. Full article
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Article
Local Resident Attitudes to the Sustainable Development of Urban Public Transport System
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12391; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212391 - 10 Nov 2021
Abstract
This article presents a study of the attitude of metropolis residents to the environmental development of the urban public transport system. The authors set a goal to assess the influence of values on the assessment of environmental initiatives of city authorities in the [...] Read more.
This article presents a study of the attitude of metropolis residents to the environmental development of the urban public transport system. The authors set a goal to assess the influence of values on the assessment of environmental initiatives of city authorities in the field of public transport and their attitude to innovations in this sphere. In the course of the study, four clusters reflecting the values of the respondents were identified. The results showed support for innovations that do not require changes in the transport behavior of the individual. At the same time, we observe differences in the perception of initiatives by representatives of different clusters when the innovation affects their transportation behavior. Hypotheses were tested as an analysis result of empirical data by determining the synthetic indices of values using factor analysis, the classification of respondents based on the obtained indices to identify groups with similar values using cluster analysis, and an analysis of the relationship of the classification results by values using contingency tables and chi-square criterion. The scientific novelty of the study is to assess the impact of values of metropolis residents on the perception of environmental conditions and their change in the city. Full article
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Review
Literature Review of Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of High-Speed Rail in the World
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12231; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112231 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Countries considering high-speed rail (HSR) developments face enormous challenges because of their high deployment cost, environmental obstacles, political opposition, and their potentially adverse effects on society. Nevertheless, HSR services are importantly sustainable that can have positive and transformative effects on the economic growth [...] Read more.
Countries considering high-speed rail (HSR) developments face enormous challenges because of their high deployment cost, environmental obstacles, political opposition, and their potentially adverse effects on society. Nevertheless, HSR services are importantly sustainable that can have positive and transformative effects on the economic growth of a nation. This paper systematically reviews and classifies impact areas of HSR deployments around the world as well as the analytical methods used to evaluate those impacts. We have utilized the scholarly scientific database to find articles in HSR systems. By defining some rules, we select 116 articles between 1997 and March 2020. The approach revealed interesting patterns and trends in space, time, and sentiment of the analyzed impacts on society, the economy, and the environment. The findings can inform decision-making about HSR developments and deployments, and the gaps identified in the literature can propose new research opportunities for future studies. Full article
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Article
Structural Analysis in Transit System Using Network Theory Case of Guadalajara, Mexico
Urban Sci. 2021, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci5040087 - 04 Nov 2021
Abstract
Structural analysis in a transit network is a key aspect used to evaluate in a planning process. In this sense, the use of network science was applied in this work to generate a framework of the main structural features of a transport network. [...] Read more.
Structural analysis in a transit network is a key aspect used to evaluate in a planning process. In this sense, the use of network science was applied in this work to generate a framework of the main structural features of a transport network. In this case, an alternative transport network in Guadalajara, Mexico was taken as an example. The network properties selected were grade of accessibility, spatial friction, and vulnerability. In the case of the grade of accessibility, this propriety makes reference to the efficiency of the travel time that the network gives due to its structural features. The spatial friction measures how direct in terms of distance the trips that the network provides are, and the vulnerability relates to the ease with which the network can comprise its performance by affectations to their nodes or links. In this sense, this work presents a detailed methodology and a set of open-source tools that can be used to measure these key structural elements for decision making. Full article
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Review
Smart Integration of Electric Buses in Cities: A Technological Review
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112189 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art related to the implementation of battery electric buses (BEBs) in cities. In recent years, bus operators have started focusing on the electrification of their fleet to reduce the air pollutants in cities, which has [...] Read more.
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art related to the implementation of battery electric buses (BEBs) in cities. In recent years, bus operators have started focusing on the electrification of their fleet to reduce the air pollutants in cities, which has led to a growing interest from the scientific community. This paper presents an analysis of the BEB powertrain topology and the charging technology of BEBs, with a particular emphasis on the power electronics systems. Moreover, the different key technical requirements to facilitate the operation of BEBs are addressed. Accordingly, an in-depth review on vehicle scheduling, charger location optimization and charging management strategies is carried out. The main findings concerning these research fields are summarized and discussed. Furthermore, potential challenges and required further developments are determined. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that an accurate energy consumption assessment of their BEBs is a must for bus operators, that real-time, multi-objective smart charging management strategies with V2X features should be included when performing large bus fleet scheduling and that synchronized opportunity charging, smart green depot charging, and electric bus rapid transit can further reduce the impact on the grid. This review paper should help to enable a smarter and more efficient integration of BEBs in cities in the future. Full article
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Article
A Simulation-Based Evaluation of a Cargo-Hitching Service for E-Commerce Using Mobility-on-Demand Vehicles
Future Transp. 2021, 1(3), 639-656; https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp1030034 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Time-sensitive parcel deliveries—shipments requested for delivery in a day or less—are an increasingly important aspect of urban logistics. It is challenging to deal with these deliveries from a carrier perspective. These require additional planning constraints, preventing the efficient consolidation of deliveries that is [...] Read more.
Time-sensitive parcel deliveries—shipments requested for delivery in a day or less—are an increasingly important aspect of urban logistics. It is challenging to deal with these deliveries from a carrier perspective. These require additional planning constraints, preventing the efficient consolidation of deliveries that is possible when demand is well known in advance. Furthermore, such time-sensitive deliveries are requested to a wider spatial scope than retail centers, including homes and offices. Therefore, an increase in such deliveries is considered to exacerbate negative externalities, such as congestion and emissions. One of the solutions is to leverage spare capacity in passenger transport modes. This concept is often denominated as cargo hitching. While there are various system designs, it is crucial that such a solution does not deteriorate the quality of service of passenger trips. This research aims to evaluate the use of mobility-on-demand (MOD) services that perform same-day parcel deliveries. To test the MOD-based solutions, we utilize a high-resolution agent- and activity-based simulation platform of passenger and freight flows. E-commerce demand carrier data collected in Singapore are used to characterize simulated parcel delivery demand. We explore operational scenarios that aim to minimize the adverse effects of fulfilling deliveries with MOD service vehicles on passenger flows. Adverse effects are measured in fulfillment, wait, and travel times. A case study on Singapore indicates that the MOD services have potential to fulfill a considerable amount of parcel deliveries and decrease freight vehicle traffic and total vehicle kilometers travelled without compromising the quality of MOD for passenger travel. Insights into the operational performance of the cargo-hitching service are also provided. Full article
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Article
An Index for the Sustainability of Integrated Urban Transport and Logistics: The Case Study of São Paulo
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12116; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112116 - 02 Nov 2021
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to understand the interactions and functioning of the transportation of people and goods in the urban environment, and to propose an evaluation model in terms of sustainability and integrated transportation. Firstly, an in-depth literature review allowed us [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to understand the interactions and functioning of the transportation of people and goods in the urban environment, and to propose an evaluation model in terms of sustainability and integrated transportation. Firstly, an in-depth literature review allowed us to understand the interactions and functioning of transport of people and goods in the urban environment, verifying the main initiatives to promote sustainability. The model was developed through a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology consisting of the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in a system specially developed for remote evaluation of the hierarchical model. The index was then applied to São Paulo, where two distinct periods were considered, and the results provided an assessment of the evolution of the city regarding the sustainability and integration of the passenger and freight systems. The conclusions indicate improve in the sustainability of the urban transport and logistics in the city, highlighting the importance of incentives to the use of active modes of transport and the communication channel with population. Full article
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Article
Methodology for the Sustainable Development of the Italy-Croatia Cross-Border Area: Sustainable and Multimodal/Cross-Border Passenger Services
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11895; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111895 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The efficient evaluation of the transport sector for the implementation of sustainable mobility solutions is a crucial challenge for governments and decisionmakers for strategically reducing the negative economic, social, and environmental impacts of transport. Current research trends on transport macromanagement indicate a lack [...] Read more.
The efficient evaluation of the transport sector for the implementation of sustainable mobility solutions is a crucial challenge for governments and decisionmakers for strategically reducing the negative economic, social, and environmental impacts of transport. Current research trends on transport macromanagement indicate a lack of integrative and comprehensive approaches to mitigating transport sustainability parameters. Thus, a holistic perspective on transport macromanagement is deemed necessary for supporting the transition towards a more sustainable approach to transport macroplanning. This paper contributes to the development of transport macromanagement by offering insights, tools, and strategies for contemporary sustainable transitions in the transport sector. A methodology for sustainable and multimodal/cross-border passenger services for the Italy-Croatia cross-border area, with a systematic development cycle composed of six interconnected steps for fostering stakeholder cooperation, is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, a methodological framework, a SWOT analysis, and a gap analysis on the function of defining port improvement for the action plan are elaborated in this study. The study analysis is based on the international passenger terminal ports in a passenger liner service by using a survey analysis conducted among the port authorities in the cross-border area. Moreover, the main aim of the methodology is to provide a holistic framework for the sustainable development of a complex and multilayered transport environment that encompasses a multiplicity of various stakeholders. Full article
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Article
A Methodological Approach to Assess the Impact of Energy and Raw Materials Constraints on the Sustainable Deployment of Light-Duty Vehicles by 2050
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11826; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111826 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Light-duty vehicles represent the land transport means with the most prominent impact on environment, society’s travel needs, and market dynamics. The evolution of different powertrains is analyzed herein mainly in terms of the raw materials sensitive to exploitation and the energy use in [...] Read more.
Light-duty vehicles represent the land transport means with the most prominent impact on environment, society’s travel needs, and market dynamics. The evolution of different powertrains is analyzed herein mainly in terms of the raw materials sensitive to exploitation and the energy use in three stages: production, operation, and end of life. In this sense, this study proposes a methodology based on balancing the rapports between supply and demand in order to evaluate every powertrain’s market share by 2050. The results of this analysis are compared to the outputs of other models and frameworks that aim to assess the sustainable deployment of transport means. The results show that scenarios that propose a market share of 25% for battery electric vehicles are unlikely to happen by 2050 due to the disruptions of the lithium, cobalt, and nickel supply chains, while the ambitious target of 50% market share for battery electric vehicles is not possible by then. The main findings of this study refer to the role played by battery chemistry and storage capacity in determining the market penetration of various powertrains for light-duty vehicles under the specific constraints of the automotive sector related to energy and materials. Full article
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Article
Ethical AI for Automated Bus Lane Enforcement
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11579; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111579 - 20 Oct 2021
Abstract
There is an explosion of camera surveillance in our cities today. As a result, the risks of privacy infringement and erosion are growing, as is the need for ethical solutions to minimise the risks. This research aims to frame the challenges and ethics [...] Read more.
There is an explosion of camera surveillance in our cities today. As a result, the risks of privacy infringement and erosion are growing, as is the need for ethical solutions to minimise the risks. This research aims to frame the challenges and ethics of using data surveillance technologies in a qualitative social context. A use case is presented which examines the ethical data required to automatically enforce bus lanes using camera surveillance and proposes ways of minimising the risks of privacy infringement and erosion in that scenario. What we seek to illustrate is that there is a challenge in using technologies in positive, socially responsible ways. To do that, we have to better understand the use case and not just the present, but also the downstream risks, and the downstream ethical questions. There is a gap in the literature in this aspect as well as a gap in the actual thinking of researchers in terms of understanding and responding to it. A literature review and detailed risk analysis of automated bus lane enforcement is conducted. Based on this, an ethical design framework is proposed and applied to the use case. Several potential solutions are created and described. The final chosen solution may also be broadly applicable to other use cases. We show how it is possible to provide an ethical AI solution for detecting infringements that incorporates privacy-by-design principles, while being fair to potential transgressors. By introducing positive, pragmatic and adaptable methods to support and uphold privacy, we support access to innovation that can help us mitigate current emerging risks. Full article
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Article
Decision-Making Behavior Analysis and Empirical Study under Information Intervention in a Cold Environment
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11522; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011522 - 18 Oct 2021
Abstract
Some mega-sport events such as the Winter Olympics are usually held in areas accompanied by cold environment, which has a great risk of frostbite and safety for pedestrians. Releasing guidance information have become a good way for managers to reduce freezing time, improve [...] Read more.
Some mega-sport events such as the Winter Olympics are usually held in areas accompanied by cold environment, which has a great risk of frostbite and safety for pedestrians. Releasing guidance information have become a good way for managers to reduce freezing time, improve travel efficiency and prevent safety accidents. In this article, the 2022 Winter Olympics were taken as an example to discuss influence of information intervention on TDMB (travel decision-making behavior). The mechanism of the TDMB was explored, and a survey of pedestrian behavior was carried out in the area. In particular, the influence of the subjective perception and objective factors on the RDMB (route decision-making behavior) was analyzed based on the SEM-logit model. The results show that information, congestion and the cold have an impact on the decision-making behavior. The path coefficient values of the pedestrians’ perception of information, congestion and the cold were 0.557, 0.216 and 0.324, respectively, which indicates that guidance information has the most serious impact on the pedestrians’ comprehensive perception. The objective factors including outdoor walking time, information intervention frequency, distance to a heated space had a significant impact on the RDMB. Indeed, when information intervention frequency is 2, the compliance rate of pedestrians to the information can be effectively increased. If the manager wants to alleviate traffic congestion, setting up heated spaces within a radius of 1 km is a good way to divert pedestrians. This study can provide a scientific reference for the sustainable development of mega-sport events, long-term construction of service facilities and the passenger flow management in a cold environment. Full article
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Article
A Study of the Factors Affecting Multimodal Ridesharing with Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11517; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011517 - 18 Oct 2021
Abstract
As public perception about the shared economy evolves, peer-to-peer ridesharing has been gaining increased attention worldwide. Both private and public sector entities have launched mobile app-based ridesharing services, while a range of methodologies and system architectures have been proposed in academia. Whereas traditional [...] Read more.
As public perception about the shared economy evolves, peer-to-peer ridesharing has been gaining increased attention worldwide. Both private and public sector entities have launched mobile app-based ridesharing services, while a range of methodologies and system architectures have been proposed in academia. Whereas traditional ridesharing methods match drivers and riders when their origin and destination are similar, recently proposed algorithms often feature multi-hop and multimodal properties that allow riders to be connected by multiple modes. Such algorithms can reduce travel time and/or travel cost; however, they may also add other travel impedances, such as requiring multiple transfers. Understanding user behavior toward such new ridesharing systems is essential for successful service design. For policymakers and service planners, identifying factors that impact traveler choices can lead to better design and improved services. This research involved a web-based survey to capture traveler preferences using a conjoint analysis framework. A choice-based method was adopted to identify factors for the estimation model and to analyze traveler willingness to pay. Among the proposed factors, the number-of-transfers was shown to be the most important, as was expected. When a multimodal ridesharing system provides less travel time, low travel cost, and sufficient ridesharing incentive, people are more likely to pay for the service. Full article
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Article
Lithium in the Green Energy Transition: The Quest for Both Sustainability and Security
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11274; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011274 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Considering the quest to meet both sustainable development and energy security goals, we explore the ramifications of explosive growth in the global demand for lithium to meet the needs for batteries in plug-in electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage. We find that heavy [...] Read more.
Considering the quest to meet both sustainable development and energy security goals, we explore the ramifications of explosive growth in the global demand for lithium to meet the needs for batteries in plug-in electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage. We find that heavy dependence on lithium will create energy security risks because China has a dominant position in the lithium supply chain and both Europe and North America seek to curtail reliance on China throughout their supply chains. We also find that efforts to expand lithium mining have been much less successful in Chile, the United States, and Europe than in Australia. Local communities resist licensing of new lithium mines due to a variety of environmental, social, and economic concerns. There are alternative technologies that may make lithium mining more sustainable such as direct lithium extraction, but the timing of commercialization of this process is uncertain. Progress is also being made in battery recycling and in alternative battery designs that do not use lithium. Such advances are unlikely to attenuate the global rate of growth in lithium demand prior to 2030. We conclude that tradeoffs between sustainability and energy security are real, especially in the next decade. Full article
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Article
Tripartite Dynamic Game among Government, Bike-Sharing Enterprises, and Consumers under the Influence of Seasons and Quota
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11221; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011221 - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
After the cast ban on bike-sharing was lifted, bike-sharing entered the quota period. This notion means that the management of bike-sharing began to change from the unified to the diversified government governance, including all sectors of society. This work creates a dynamic game [...] Read more.
After the cast ban on bike-sharing was lifted, bike-sharing entered the quota period. This notion means that the management of bike-sharing began to change from the unified to the diversified government governance, including all sectors of society. This work creates a dynamic game model based on the tripartite interest relationship among the government, bike-sharing enterprises, and consumers, and introduces the government quota policy and seasonal characteristics of bike-sharing into the game model. This model explores the multi-stage dynamic game process among the government, bike-sharing enterprises, and consumers. We draw the following conclusions. The government’s quota policy was effective during peak demand for bike-sharing, but not before the off-peak season. Through the case studies, we verify the feasibility of the government to relax the regulation appropriately in the peak season. We also changed the punishment and reward intensity of bike-sharing enterprises to consumers in the case studies and analyzed the influence of regulation intensity of bike-sharing enterprises on consumer behaviors. The final suggestion is that the government should appropriately relax regulation during peak demand season to reduce costs and strengthen regulation before the off-season of bike-sharing demand. Bike-sharing enterprises should maintain a high level of regulation on consumers, and a low level of regulation has no constraint on consumer behaviors. Full article
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Article
The Effects of On- and Before- Journey Advantages Using Ride-Sourcing in Indonesia
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11117; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911117 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper explores the effects of on-journey (i.e., waiting and travel time reliability, driver quality), before-journey (i.e., service coverage, application quality, fare, etc.), and multi-tasking advantages when using ride-sourcing, the perceived usefulness of ride-sourcing and, in turn, the frequency of usage. Assuming a [...] Read more.
This paper explores the effects of on-journey (i.e., waiting and travel time reliability, driver quality), before-journey (i.e., service coverage, application quality, fare, etc.), and multi-tasking advantages when using ride-sourcing, the perceived usefulness of ride-sourcing and, in turn, the frequency of usage. Assuming a structural form without any reciprocal effects, the modified Structural Equation Model is used. This study collected data from 497 ride-sourcing users in Bandung city in 2018. As expected, ride-sourcing users who appreciate the usefulness of ride-sourcing services correlate with a higher frequency of use. This study found that situational variables or variables related to travel and built environment conditions (e.g., on-journey advantages, built environment, and travel characteristics) play a role in keeping travellers using the services. This study confirms that multi-tasking is not a reason for ride-sourcing users to use the services more often. Moreover, those who previously used motorcycles and car-based ride-sourcing (CBRS) are more loyal travellers than car, public transport users, and motorcycle-based-ride-sourcing (MBRS) users, respectively. Full article
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Review
Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Traffic Flow Characteristics under Mixed Traffic Environment: Future Perspectives
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11052; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911052 - 06 Oct 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Vehicle automation and communication technologies are considered promising approaches to improve operational driving behavior. The expected gradual implementation of autonomous vehicles (AVs) shortly will cause unique impacts on the traffic flow characteristics. This paper focuses on reviewing the expected impacts under a mixed [...] Read more.
Vehicle automation and communication technologies are considered promising approaches to improve operational driving behavior. The expected gradual implementation of autonomous vehicles (AVs) shortly will cause unique impacts on the traffic flow characteristics. This paper focuses on reviewing the expected impacts under a mixed traffic environment of AVs and regular vehicles (RVs) considering different AV characteristics. The paper includes a policy implication discussion for possible actual future practice and research interests. The AV implementation has positive impacts on the traffic flow, such as improved traffic capacity and stability. However, the impact depends on the factors including penetration rate of the AVs, characteristics, and operational settings of the AVs, traffic volume level, and human driving behavior. The critical penetration rate, which has a high potential to improve traffic characteristics, was higher than 40%. AV’s intelligent control of operational driving is a function of its operational settings, mainly car-following modeling. Different adjustments of these settings may improve some traffic flow parameters and may deteriorate others. The position and distribution of AVs and the type of their leading or following vehicles may play a role in maximizing their impacts. Full article
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Article
Measuring Customer Reservation Price for Maintenance, Repair and Operations of the Metro Public Transport System in Qatar
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11023; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911023 - 05 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Getting to know the price that users assign to maintenance, repair and operations (MRO) has arisen as an essential consideration in gathering financial sustainability for metro public transport systems. The current research reveals customer reservation price for MRO in the main metro stations [...] Read more.
Getting to know the price that users assign to maintenance, repair and operations (MRO) has arisen as an essential consideration in gathering financial sustainability for metro public transport systems. The current research reveals customer reservation price for MRO in the main metro stations in Qatar. The purpose of the present work is to assess the willingness to pay for MRO services in eight metro stations in Doha in order to have a better understanding of user preferences. Qualitative research was carried out employing primary and secondary source of information. Primary data was collected by means of a mixture of data accumulation approaches: key informant meetings and focus-group conversations. Secondary data was collected from the account books, contracts, recordings of trans-actions, statements of work and activity reports given by the local rail committees. A stated preference investigation was applied through open text format questions to more than 1000 customers, and a Poisson regression model was used to evaluate the considerations affecting every higher value. Outputs reveal normal customer reservation prices per month and per train journey. The results also indicate a significant willingness to pay differential among the studied railway stations. The study of the decisive considerations elicits that the degree to which the MRO service can exclude paying consumers, the attending of rail conferences and the possibility of using another rail station are related with the customer reservation price. The outputs of this research are significant for railway public authorities willing to set up reasonable, adequate and realistic fares that support fund competent railway systems in Qatar. Full article
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Viewpoint
Subdivided Cellular Automata Model Considering Anticipation Floor Field and Analysis of Pedestrian Detour Behavior
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10621; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910621 - 24 Sep 2021
Abstract
The micro-pedestrian simulation model represented by the cellular automata model is an important simulation model. Improvements in various aspects enable a better description of the various behaviors of pedestrians, such as pedestrian avoidance behavior, companion behavior, as well as transcendence behavior, waiting behavior [...] Read more.
The micro-pedestrian simulation model represented by the cellular automata model is an important simulation model. Improvements in various aspects enable a better description of the various behaviors of pedestrians, such as pedestrian avoidance behavior, companion behavior, as well as transcendence behavior, waiting behavior and detour behavior. This paper takes the pedestrian detour behavior in the circle antipode experiment as the main entry point. The subdivision cellular automaton model is integrated into the prediction field to model and simulate the detour behavior. At the same time, it explores the degree of subdivision of the cell. Pedestrian heterogeneity and the influence of predicted field potential energy on the simulated pedestrian trajectory. Finally, based on the temporal and spatial indicators of pedestrian trajectory characteristics, the KS test and DTW method are used to evaluate the similarity of the trajectory distribution characteristics and time series characteristics with experimental samples, and evaluate and compare models with or without heterogeneity. The results show that the trajectory characteristics of heterogeneous pedestrians are closer to the experiment than homogeneous pedestrians. Full article
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Article
Fiber-Reinforced Sand-Fixing Board Based on the Concept of “Sand Control with Sand”: Experimental Design, Testing, and Application
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10229; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810229 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Harsh conditions, such as the lack of raw materials and high transportation costs, impede the construction of desert railway sand control projects. Against this background, aeolian sand along the desert railway was used in a study on “sand control with sand.” According to [...] Read more.
Harsh conditions, such as the lack of raw materials and high transportation costs, impede the construction of desert railway sand control projects. Against this background, aeolian sand along the desert railway was used in a study on “sand control with sand.” According to the mechanical properties and durability tests, as well as field observations, the enhancement effect of fiber (cloth) on the performance of a sand-fixing board made of aeolian sand was analyzed. Based on the results, the mechanical strength of the sand-fixing board increased with increasing fiber content and length, and the maximum increase in compressive strength and flexural strength reached 2.15 and 0.59 times, respectively. The addition of fiber significantly improved the frost resistance, effectively reducing the mass loss rate of the board by an average of 60%. With increasing fiber content and length, the improvement effect of the freeze–thaw strength loss rate of the sand-fixing board first decreased and then increased. The results show that the performance of sand-fixing boards reached the engineering application standard under the reinforcement of the fiber (cloth), successfully establishing the concept of “sand control with sand.” Full article
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Article
Hub-and-Spoke Logistics Network Considering Pricing and Co-Opetition
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9979; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179979 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the rapid development of the logistics market, the construction of an efficient “channel + hub + network” logistics system, that is, a hub-and-spoke logistics network, is of great importance to enterprises. In particular, how to reduce costs and increase efficiency in both [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the logistics market, the construction of an efficient “channel + hub + network” logistics system, that is, a hub-and-spoke logistics network, is of great importance to enterprises. In particular, how to reduce costs and increase efficiency in both the construction of network facilities and actual operations, and to formulate reasonable prices for the logistics service needs in the entire market are crucial strategies and decisions for enterprises. Under such a background, this article starts from the perspective of duopoly logistics enterprises that jointly build networks and allow the transfer of surplus capacity and carbon credits, and studies the hub-and-spoke logistics network design that also considers the relationship between service pricing and co-opetition. Considering the corporate profit and difficulty of implementation as a whole, the co-opetition is a better choice than the complete competition and perfect cooperation. In addition, the remaining capacity of the company, the transfer of carbon credits, the joint construction and sharing of hubs, and strategic cooperation in the area of corporate common pricing under the price framework agreement are conducive to the realization of an increase in corporate operating profits, a better market share and more favorable pricing. Full article
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