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Special Issue "Modelling for Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. HJ (Ine) Van der Fels-Klerx

RIKILT Wageningen UR, RIKILT is part of Wageningen University and Research Centre, NL-6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mycotoxins; management influencing mycotoxin contamination; environmental factors; management factors; epidemiology; forecasting; modelling; decision support system; cropping systems; cereals; grapes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As a consequence of the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in feed and food crops, animals and humans are exposed to the contaminants via feed of food consumption, resulting in animal and human health issues. Risk assessments are performed to determine the impact on animal and human health, related to mycotoxin exposure. A full quantitative risk assessment consists of four related steps: Hazard identification; hazard characterization; exposure assessment; and risk characterization. The result is an estimation of the adverse effects that are likely to occur in a given population, including related uncertainties, expressed in numerical values. In addition to the quantitative risk assessment approach, qualitative assessments and comparative approaches are being used, such as risk ratio and risk ranking methods. Modelling is a key component of all these approaches, in particular to include uncertainties and variability in the key input parameters.

This Special Issue of Toxins invites articles that address modelling for risk assessment of mycotoxins, with particular interest in the step of exposure assessment, consisting of an estimation of the presence of mycotoxins in feed or food, combined with an estimation of intake via feed or food. Modelling for obtaining insights in the presence, exposure and risks related to mycotoxins is key of this special issue. Papers addressing the following topics are welcomed: a) modelling to estimate the presence of mycotoxins in feed or food crops, i.e., forecasting models for mycotoxins, and effects of agronomics and climate (change), b) modelling to estimate the fate of mycotoxins in the feed or food supply chain and to estimate contamination in final products, c) modelling carry-over of mycotoxins in animals to estimate mycotoxin presence in animal derived products, d) approaches to assess animal or human exposure to mycotoxins via intake, or to assess related health effects due to feed/food exposure of mycotoxins, and e) comparative approaches for estimating mycotoxin risks to animal or human health.

For this Special Issue, there is no restriction to a particular mycotoxin. Experimental studies, such as in vitro studies to investigate toxicological effects, and chemical analytical studies are outside the scope of this Special Issue.

We look forward to reviewing original research or review articles, which will provide new insights into modelling approaches useful for risk assessment of mycotoxins.

Dr. HJ (Ine) van der Fels-Klerx
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • risk assessment
  • exposure assessment
  • human exposure
  • contamination
  • modelling
  • forecasting
  • decision support systems
  • transfer
  • carry-over

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Mucin (MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B) mRNA Expression and Protein Production and Secretion in Caco-2/HT29-MTX Co-Cultures Following Exposure to Individual and Combined Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), which widely coexist in milk, may pose a serious threat to human health. Mucin is a major component of the intestinal mucus layer, which plays an important role in maintaining intestinal mucosal homeostasis. However, the effect [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), which widely coexist in milk, may pose a serious threat to human health. Mucin is a major component of the intestinal mucus layer, which plays an important role in maintaining intestinal mucosal homeostasis. However, the effect of mycotoxins AFM1 and OTA on intestinal mucin production is still not clear. This study aimed to investigate individual and interactive effects of mycotoxins AFM1 and OTA on the intestinal barrier and the mRNA expression of intestinal mucin (MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B) and on protein production in Caco-2/HT29-MTX cultures after 48 h of exposure. Our results show that individual mycotoxins and their mixtures significantly reduced intestinal cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values, as well as significantly altered intestinal mucin mRNA expression and protein abundance. Moreover, OTA showed toxicity similar to AFM1 in cell viability and TEER value at the same concentration. When the two mycotoxins acted in combination, the synergistic effects observed in the assessment of cell viability and protein abundance in all mono- and co-cultures. In general, this study provides evidence that AFM1 and OTA can damage the intestine, and it contributes to optimized maximum permissible limits of mycotoxins in milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling for Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Modeling Studies on the Interactions of Aflatoxin B1 and Its Metabolites with Human Acetylcholinesterase. Part II: Interactions with the Catalytic Anionic Site (CAS)
Toxins 2018, 10(10), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100389
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (27010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The most common type of aflatoxin (AFT) found in nature is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). This micotoxin is extremely hepatotoxic and carcinogenic to mammals, with acute and chronic effects. It is believed that this could be related to the capacity of AFB1 and its [...] Read more.
The most common type of aflatoxin (AFT) found in nature is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). This micotoxin is extremely hepatotoxic and carcinogenic to mammals, with acute and chronic effects. It is believed that this could be related to the capacity of AFB1 and its metabolites in inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In a previous work, we performed an inedited theoretical investigation on the binding modes of these molecules on the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of human AChE (HssAChE), revealing that the metabolites can also bind in the PAS in the same way as AFB1. Here, we investigated the binding modes of these compounds on the catalytic anionic site (CAS) of HssAChE to compare the affinity of the metabolites for both binding sites as well as verify which is the preferential one. Our results corroborated with experimental studies pointing to AFB1 and its metabolites as mixed-type inhibitors, and pointed to the residues relevant for the stabilization of these compounds on the CAS of HssAChE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling for Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
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