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Special Issue "Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Subhas Mukhopadhyay
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Macquarie University, Australia
Interests: sensors and sensing technology; wirless sensor networks; instrumentation; Internet of Things (IoT); mechatronics and robotics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Nagender K. Suryadevara
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, School of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
Interests: WSN, IoT, time series data mining
Dr. Anindya Nag
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia
Interests: fabrication and implementation of printed sensors, manoparticle-based flexible sensors, biosensors; sensors for different applications, smart sensors and sensing technology, sensor applications; strain sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wearable smart devices are now widely used to determine various physical parameters at any point in time. The proliferation of such devices has been driven by the acceptance of enhanced technology by the general public. Despite the exponential growth in wearable sensors, they have limitations, especially regarding the broader aspects of their commercialized use, that need to be rectified to further enhance the field of wearable electronics.

Consideration of the Internet of Things (IoT), which connects smart objects around the world, has increased predominantly over the last two decades. By 2020, it is estimated that there will be over 50 billion IoT-connected devices, thus provoking questions regarding security and big data handling. This Special Issue aims at presenting the issues and challenges faced by the currently-proposed IoT-based systems along with state-of-the-art research on the commercialisation of current systems.

The topics of interest for this issue include:

  1. Wearable sensors
  2. Flexible sensing systems
  3. Flexible devices
  4. Sensing technologies
  5. Measurement of physiological parameters
  6. Autonomous wearable sensors
  7. Textile-based wearable sensors
  8. Printed electronics
  9. Wearable IoT based systems
  10. Energy harvesting
  11. Energy efficient wearable systems
  12. Health care wearable sensing
  13. Integrated wearable sensors
  14. Multifunctional wearable sensing systems
  15. IoT-based systems
  16. Security in IoT-based systems
  17. Heterogenous IoT-based systems
  18. Big data handling in IoT-based systems
  19. Smart homes and cities
  20. Visualisation techniques
  21. Artificial Intelligence algorithms
  22. Hardware Architecture for IoT-based systems
  23. Data processing in IoT
  24. Wireless energy harvesting
  25. Cloud computing in IoT-based systems

Prof. Dr. Subhas Mukhopadhyay
Dr. Nagender K. Suryadevara
Dr. Anindya Nag
Guest Edtiors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
WaistonBelt X: A Belt-Type Wearable Device with Sensing and Intervention Toward Health Behavior Change
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4600; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204600 (registering DOI) - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
Changing behavior related to improper lifestyle habits has attracted attention as a solution to prevent lifestyle diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, arteriosclerosis, and stroke. To drive health behavior changes, wearable devices are needed, and they must not only provide accurate sensing and [...] Read more.
Changing behavior related to improper lifestyle habits has attracted attention as a solution to prevent lifestyle diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, arteriosclerosis, and stroke. To drive health behavior changes, wearable devices are needed, and they must not only provide accurate sensing and visualization functions but also effective intervention functions. In this paper, we propose a health support system, WaistonBelt X, that consists of a belt-type wearable device with sensing and intervention functions and a smartphone application. WaistonBelt X can automatically measure a waistline with a magnetometer that detects the movements of a blade installed in the buckle, and monitor the basic activities of daily living with inertial sensors. Furthermore, WaistonBelt X intervenes with the user to correct lifestyle habits by using a built-in vibrator. Through evaluation experiments, we confirmed that our proposed device achieves measurement of the circumference on the belt position (mean absolute error of 0.93 cm) and basic activity recognition (F1 score of 0.95) with high accuracy. In addition, we confirmed that the intervention via belt vibration effectively improves the sitting posture of the user. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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Open AccessArticle
Wellness Assessment of Alzheimer’s Patients in an Instrumented Health-Care Facility
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3658; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173658 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Wellness assessment refers to the evaluation of physical, mental, and social well-being. This work explores the possibility of applying technological tools to assist clinicians and professionals to improve the quality of life of people through continuous monitoring of their wellness. The contribution of [...] Read more.
Wellness assessment refers to the evaluation of physical, mental, and social well-being. This work explores the possibility of applying technological tools to assist clinicians and professionals to improve the quality of life of people through continuous monitoring of their wellness. The contribution of this paper is manifold: a coarse-grained localization system is responsible for monitoring and collecting data related to patients, while a novel wellness assessment methodology is proposed to extract quantitative indicators related to the well-being of patients from the collected data. The proposed system has been installed at “Il Paese Ritrovato", an innovative health-care facility for Alzheimer’s in Monza, Italy; first satisfactory results have been obtained, and the dataset shows great potential for several applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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Open AccessArticle
A Wide-Range, Wireless Wearable Inertial Motion Sensing System for Capturing Fast Athletic Biomechanics in Overhead Pitching
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3637; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173637 - 21 Aug 2019
Abstract
The standard technology used to capture motion for biomechanical analysis in sports has employed marker-based optical systems. While these systems are excellent at providing positional information, they suffer from a limited ability to accurately provide fundamental quantities such as velocity and acceleration (hence [...] Read more.
The standard technology used to capture motion for biomechanical analysis in sports has employed marker-based optical systems. While these systems are excellent at providing positional information, they suffer from a limited ability to accurately provide fundamental quantities such as velocity and acceleration (hence forces and torques) during high-speed motion typical of many sports. Conventional optical systems require considerable setup time, can exhibit sensitivity to extraneous light, and generally sample too slowly to accurately capture extreme bursts of athletic activity. In recent years, wireless wearable sensors have begun to penetrate devices used in sports performance assessment, offering potential solutions to these limitations. This article, after determining pressing problems in sports that such sensors could solve and surveying the state-of-the-art in wearable motion capture for sports, presents a wearable dual-range inertial and magnetic sensor platform that we developed to enable an end-to-end investigation of high-level, very wide dynamic-range biomechanical parameters. We tested our system on collegiate and elite baseball pitchers, and have derived and measured metrics to glean insight into performance-relevant motion. As this was, we believe, the first ultra-wide-range wireless multipoint and multimodal inertial and magnetic sensor array to be used on elite baseball pitchers, we trace its development, present some of our results, and discuss limitations in accuracy from factors such as soft-tissue artifacts encountered with extreme motion. In addition, we discuss new metric opportunities brought by our systems that may be relevant for the assessment of micro-trauma in baseball. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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Open AccessArticle
Multifunctional Flexible Sensor Based on Laser-Induced Graphene
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3477; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163477 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
The paper presents the design and fabrication of a low-cost and easy-to-fabricate laser-induced graphene sensor together with its implementation for multi-sensing applications. Laser-irradiation of commercial polymer film was applied for photo-thermal generation of graphene. The graphene patterned in an interdigitated shape was transferred [...] Read more.
The paper presents the design and fabrication of a low-cost and easy-to-fabricate laser-induced graphene sensor together with its implementation for multi-sensing applications. Laser-irradiation of commercial polymer film was applied for photo-thermal generation of graphene. The graphene patterned in an interdigitated shape was transferred onto Kapton sticky tape to form the electrodes of a capacitive sensor. The functionality of the sensor was validated by employing them in electrochemical and strain-sensing scenarios. Impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the response of the sensor. For the electrochemical sensing, different concentrations of sodium sulfate were prepared, and the fabricated sensor was used to detect the concentration differences. For the strain sensing, the sensor was deployed for monitoring of human joint movements and tactile sensing. The promising sensing results validating the applicability of the fabricated sensor for multiple sensing purposes are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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Open AccessArticle
Zirconia-Based Ultra-Thin Compact Flexible CPW-Fed Slot Antenna for IoT
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143134 - 16 Jul 2019
Abstract
An ultra-thin compact flexible CPW-fed slot monopole antenna suitable for the Internet of Things (IoT) applications was achieved as a result of exploring the use of Zirconia-based ENrG’s Thin E-Strate® for the antenna’s design. The electromagnetic characterization of the novel material at [...] Read more.
An ultra-thin compact flexible CPW-fed slot monopole antenna suitable for the Internet of Things (IoT) applications was achieved as a result of exploring the use of Zirconia-based ENrG’s Thin E-Strate® for the antenna’s design. The electromagnetic characterization of the novel material at the frequency range of interest was analyzed. A comparison was made concerning the required dimensions and the simulation results regarding impedance matching and radiation properties, for three different dielectric substrates: Novel flexible ceramic (ENrG’s Thin E-Strate), rigid Arlon 25N, and flexible Polypropylene (PP). Two different metallization techniques—electrotextile-based and inkjet printing—were used in the fabrication of prototypes based on ENrG’s Thin E-Strate. Return losses measured results for the fabricated prototypes with both procedures was compared, as well as with simulation. The best prototype on the ENrG’s Thin E-Strate was compared with one on Arlon 25N, in terms of radiation properties in an anechoic chamber, and conclusions were drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cancelable Iris- and Steganography-Based User Authentication System for the Internet of Things
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2985; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132985 - 06 Jul 2019
Abstract
Remote user authentication for Internet of Things (IoT) devices is critical to IoT security, as it helps prevent unauthorized access to IoT networks. Biometrics is an appealing authentication technique due to its advantages over traditional password-based authentication. However, the protection of biometric data [...] Read more.
Remote user authentication for Internet of Things (IoT) devices is critical to IoT security, as it helps prevent unauthorized access to IoT networks. Biometrics is an appealing authentication technique due to its advantages over traditional password-based authentication. However, the protection of biometric data itself is also important, as original biometric data cannot be replaced or reissued if compromised. In this paper, we propose a cancelable iris- and steganography-based user authentication system to provide user authentication and secure the original iris data. Most of the existing cancelable iris biometric systems need a user-specific key to guide feature transformation, e.g., permutation or random projection, which is also known as key-dependent transformation. One issue associated with key-dependent transformations is that if the user-specific key is compromised, some useful information can be leaked and exploited by adversaries to restore the original iris feature data. To mitigate this risk, the proposed scheme enhances system security by integrating an effective information-hiding technique—steganography. By concealing the user-specific key, the threat of key exposure-related attacks, e.g., attacks via record multiplicity, can be defused, thus heightening the overall system security and complementing the protection offered by cancelable biometric techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation on Context Recognition Using Temperature Sensors in the Nostrils
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071528 - 29 Mar 2019
Abstract
We can benefit from various services with context recognition using wearable sensors. In this study, we focus on the contexts acquired from sensor data in the nostrils. Nostrils can provide various contexts on breathing, nasal congestion, and higher level contexts including psychological and [...] Read more.
We can benefit from various services with context recognition using wearable sensors. In this study, we focus on the contexts acquired from sensor data in the nostrils. Nostrils can provide various contexts on breathing, nasal congestion, and higher level contexts including psychological and health states. In this paper, we propose a context recognition method using the information in the nostril. We develop a system to acquire the temperature in the nostrils using small temperature sensors connected to glasses. As a result of the evaluations, the proposed system can detect breathing correctly, workload at an accuracy of 96.4%, six behaviors at an accuracy of 54%, and eight behaviors in daily life at an accuracy of 86%. Moreover, the proposed system can detect nasal congestion, therefore, it can log nasal cycles that are considered to have a relationship with the autonomic nerves and/or biological states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Fabrication Methods for Flexible Antennas in Wearable Devices: State of the Art
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102312 - 19 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Antennas are a vital component of the wireless body sensor networks devices. A wearable antenna in this system can be used as a communication component or energy harvester. This paper presents a detailed review to recent advances fabrication methods for flexible antennas. Such [...] Read more.
Antennas are a vital component of the wireless body sensor networks devices. A wearable antenna in this system can be used as a communication component or energy harvester. This paper presents a detailed review to recent advances fabrication methods for flexible antennas. Such antennas, for any applications in wireless body sensor networks, have specific considerations such as flexibility, conformability, robustness, and ease of integration, as opposed to conventional antennas. In recent years, intriguing approaches have demonstrated antennas embroidered on fabrics, encapsulated in polymer composites, printed using inkjets on flexible laminates and a 3-D printer and, more interestingly, by injecting liquid metal in microchannels. This article presents an operational perspective of such advanced approaches and beyond, while analyzing the strengths and limitations of each in the microwave as well as millimeter-wave regions. Navigating through recent developments in each area, mechanical and electrical constitutive parameters are reviewed, and finally, some open challenges are presented as well for future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems in the IOT)
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