Wellness Assessment of Alzheimer’s Patients in an Instrumented Health-Care Facility
1.1. State of the Art
1.1.1. Indoor Localization
1.1.2. Wellness Assessment
- Five factors model of personality  (or big five) defines five categories of human behaviour: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness.
- The wheel of wellness model  defines five life tasks: spirituality, self-direction, work and leisure, friendship and love.
- Life assessment questionnaire (LAQ)  scores wellness with 100 questions on a five-point Likert scale. It provides a measure of the social, spiritual, physical, intellectual, emotional and occupational wellness of the individual.
- Perceived wellness survey (PWS)  scores wellness with 36 questions on a six-point Likert scale. It provides a measure of the social, emotional, physical, intellectual, spiritual and psychological wellness of the individual.
- Optimal living profile (OPL)  scores wellness with 135 questions on a five-point Likert scale. It provides a measure of the social, emotional, physical, intellectual, spiritual and environmental wellness of the individual.
- Wellness evaluation of life inventory (WEL) [26,27]. The latest version of this survey is the the WEL-S, it scores wellness with 120 questions on a five-point Likert scale. The 5F-WEL instead uses 91 items; among them, 17 are experimental items, on a five-point Likert scale. Finally, the 4F-WEL is an additional extension of the 5F-WEL that scores cognitive-emotional, relational, physical and spiritual wellness.
- Wellness inventory (WI)  scores wellness with 120 questions on a five-point Likert scale. It provides a measure of multiple dimensions such as self-responsibility and love, breathing, moving, sensing, thinking, eating, feeling, communication, playing and working, sex, finding meaning, and transcending.
- TestWell  scores wellness with 100 questions on a five-point Likert scale. It provides a measure of the social, emotional, physical, intellectual, spiritual and occupational wellness of the individual.
- The Barthel index  is currently used in hospitals to evaluate the self-care ability and mobility of patients. Its measure considers 10 basic ADLs to generate a score of independence. The environment greatly influence the final score.
- The Katz index  is used to assess the individual ability of performing ADLs independently. An overall performance on six basic ADLs is the result of the instrument.
- The MACTAR patient preference disability questionnaire  is used to assess the ability of the patients to perform five specific activities.
- The health assessment questionnaire  is used to assess the ability of patients to perform ADLs. It considers 20 items to describe eight basic ADLs.
- The modified health assessment questionnaire  is an alteration of the Health Assessment Questionnaire. It considers just 8 items (12 less than HAQ) to score the patient ability of performing ADLs.
- The PF-10  is used to examine the physical ability of an individual through 10 items. It is a subset of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): an instrument designed by the same authors to assess the health status of patients in a clinical settings.
- The functional independence measure  is used to estimate the level of autonomy in performing 18 basic ADLs. It is designed for adults who are independent in most functional activities.
1.2. Contributions and Paper Organization
1.3. Case Study
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Coarse Grained Localization System
2.1.2. Localization Algorithm
|Bracelet of person i|
|List of RSSI values of received from all antennas at time t|
|Candidate position of at time t|
|Selected position of at time t|
|Likelihood that the is in at time t|
|Initialization value of likelihood for each|
|Constant value added or removed to the likelihood|
|Likelihood threshold: under this level, wall crossing is allowed|
|Algorithm 1 Localization algorithm.|
2.1.3. System Notifications
2.1.4. Antenna Positioning
2.2. Wellness Assessment
2.2.1. Physical Activity
2.2.2. Social Activity
2.2.3. Psychological Activity
2.3. System Implementation
2.4. Data Collection
Conflicts of Interest
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Masciadri, A.; Comai, S.; Salice, F. Wellness Assessment of Alzheimer’s Patients in an Instrumented Health-Care Facility. Sensors 2019, 19, 3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173658
Masciadri A, Comai S, Salice F. Wellness Assessment of Alzheimer’s Patients in an Instrumented Health-Care Facility. Sensors. 2019; 19(17):3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173658Chicago/Turabian Style
Masciadri, Andrea, Sara Comai, and Fabio Salice. 2019. "Wellness Assessment of Alzheimer’s Patients in an Instrumented Health-Care Facility" Sensors 19, no. 17: 3658. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173658