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Special Issue "Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Subhas Mukhopadhyay
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
Interests: sensors and sensing technology; instrumentation; wireless sensor networks; Internet of Things; mechatronics and robotics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Chinthaka Pasan Gooneratne
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Senior Design Engineer, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia
Interests: magnetic sensors; GMR sensors; micro/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS); sensors and instrumentation for harsh environments; smart nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The tremendous technological potential of the Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) effect was recognized when the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg in 2007 for the discovery of GMR. GMR sensors have been used as magnetic field detectors in a wide range of applications, from industrial applications, such as data storage in hard disk drives, to biomedical applications, such as the quantitative detection of cells tagged with magnetic beads. Recent advancements in microfabrication technology have led to novel ways of utilizing GMR sensors across market segments in different areas of application, such as stretchable electronics, superconducting spintronics, and smart grids. This Special Issue aims to provide a broad platform for publishing the many rapid advances that are currently being achieved in the area of GMR sensor technology.

Contributions may include, but are not limited to:

  • magnetic sensors
  • spintronics
  • magnetic logic
  • magnetic memory
  • biomedical devices
  • lab-on-a-chip
  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • magnetic microfluidics
  • flexible electronics
  • magnetoelectronics
  • wearable sensors
  • smart grids

Prof. Dr. Subhas Mukhopadhyay
Dr. Chinthaka Pasan Gooneratne
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • magnetic sensors
  • spintronics
  • magnetic logic
  • magnetic memory
  • biomedical devices
  • lab on a chip
  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • magnetic microfluidics
  • flexible electronics
  • magnetoelectronics
  • wearable sensors
  • smart grids

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
A High-Sensitivity Tunable Two-Beam Fiber-Coupled High-Density Magnetometer with Laser Heating
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101691 - 13 Oct 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Atomic magnetometers (AM) are finding many applications in biomagnetism, national security, industry, and science. Fiber-coupled (FC) designs promise to make them compact and flexible for operation. Most FC designs are based on a single-beam configuration or electrical heating. Here, we demonstrate a two-beam [...] Read more.
Atomic magnetometers (AM) are finding many applications in biomagnetism, national security, industry, and science. Fiber-coupled (FC) designs promise to make them compact and flexible for operation. Most FC designs are based on a single-beam configuration or electrical heating. Here, we demonstrate a two-beam FC AM with laser heating that has 5 fT/Hz1/2 sensitivity at low frequency (50 Hz), which is higher than that of other fiber-coupled magnetometers and can be improved to the sub-femtotesla level. This magnetometer is widely tunable from DC to very high frequencies (as high as 100 MHz; the only issue might be the application of a suitable uniform and stable bias field) with a sensitivity under 10 fT/Hz1/2 and can be used for magneto-encephalography (MEG), magneto-cardiography (MCG), underground communication, ultra-low MRI/NMR, NQR detection, and other applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Article
A Missile-Borne Angular Velocity Sensor Based on Triaxial Electromagnetic Induction Coils
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101625 - 30 Sep 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
Aiming to solve the problem of the limited measuring range for angular motion parameters of high-speed rotating projectiles in the field of guidance and control, a self-adaptive measurement method for angular motion parameters based on the electromagnetic induction principle is proposed. First, a [...] Read more.
Aiming to solve the problem of the limited measuring range for angular motion parameters of high-speed rotating projectiles in the field of guidance and control, a self-adaptive measurement method for angular motion parameters based on the electromagnetic induction principle is proposed. First, a framework with type bent “I-shape” is used to design triaxial coils in a mutually orthogonal way. Under the condition of high rotational speed of a projectile, the induction signal of the projectile moving across a geomagnetic field is acquired by using coils. Second, the frequency of the pulse signal is adjusted self-adaptively. Angular velocity and angular displacement are calculated in the form of periodic pulse counting and pulse accumulation, respectively. Finally, on the basis of that principle prototype of the sensor is researched and developed, performance of measuring angular motion parameters are tested on the sensor by semi-physical and physical simulation experiments, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the sensor has a wide measuring range of angular velocity from 1 rps to 100 rps with a measurement error of less than 0.3%, and the angular displacement measurement error is lower than 0.2°. The proposed method satisfies measurement requirements for high-speed rotating projectiles with an extremely high dynamic range of rotational speed and high precision, and has definite value to engineering applications in the fields of attitude determination and geomagnetic navigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Article
On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091369 - 26 Aug 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4266
Abstract
The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the [...] Read more.
The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Article
Quantitative Inspection of Remanence of Broken Wire Rope Based on Compressed Sensing
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091366 - 25 Aug 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3553
Abstract
Most traditional strong magnetic inspection equipment has disadvantages such as big excitation devices, high weight, low detection precision, and inconvenient operation. This paper presents the design of a giant magneto-resistance (GMR) sensor array collection system. The remanence signal is collected to acquire two-dimensional [...] Read more.
Most traditional strong magnetic inspection equipment has disadvantages such as big excitation devices, high weight, low detection precision, and inconvenient operation. This paper presents the design of a giant magneto-resistance (GMR) sensor array collection system. The remanence signal is collected to acquire two-dimensional magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data on the surface of wire ropes. Through the use of compressed sensing wavelet filtering (CSWF), the image expression of wire ropes MFL on the surface was obtained. Then this was taken as the input of the designed back propagation (BP) neural network to extract three kinds of MFL image geometry features and seven invariant moments of defect images. Good results were obtained. The experimental results show that nondestructive inspection through the use of remanence has higher accuracy and reliability compared with traditional inspection devices, along with smaller volume, lighter weight and higher precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Article
Integration of GMR Sensors with Different Technologies
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060939 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 4417
Abstract
Less than thirty years after the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect was described, GMR sensors are the preferred choice in many applications demanding the measurement of low magnetic fields in small volumes. This rapid deployment from theoretical basis to market and state-of-the-art applications can [...] Read more.
Less than thirty years after the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect was described, GMR sensors are the preferred choice in many applications demanding the measurement of low magnetic fields in small volumes. This rapid deployment from theoretical basis to market and state-of-the-art applications can be explained by the combination of excellent inherent properties with the feasibility of fabrication, allowing the real integration with many other standard technologies. In this paper, we present a review focusing on how this capability of integration has allowed the improvement of the inherent capabilities and, therefore, the range of application of GMR sensors. After briefly describing the phenomenological basis, we deal on the benefits of low temperature deposition techniques regarding the integration of GMR sensors with flexible (plastic) substrates and pre-processed CMOS chips. In this way, the limit of detection can be improved by means of bettering the sensitivity or reducing the noise. We also report on novel fields of application of GMR sensors by the recapitulation of a number of cases of success of their integration with different heterogeneous complementary elements. We finally describe three fully functional systems, two of them in the bio-technology world, as the proof of how the integrability has been instrumental in the meteoric development of GMR sensors and their applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Article
A High-Spin Rate Measurement Method for Projectiles Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor Based on Time-Frequency Domain Analysis
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060894 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
Traditional artillery guidance can significantly improve the attack accuracy and overall combat efficiency of projectiles, which makes it more adaptable to the information warfare of the future. Obviously, the accurate measurement of artillery spin rate, which has long been regarded as a daunting [...] Read more.
Traditional artillery guidance can significantly improve the attack accuracy and overall combat efficiency of projectiles, which makes it more adaptable to the information warfare of the future. Obviously, the accurate measurement of artillery spin rate, which has long been regarded as a daunting task, is the basis of precise guidance and control. Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors can be applied to spin rate measurement, especially in the high-spin and high-g projectile launch environment. In this paper, based on the theory of a MR sensor measuring spin rate, the mathematical relationship model between the frequency of MR sensor output and projectile spin rate was established through a fundamental derivation. By analyzing the characteristics of MR sensor output whose frequency varies with time, this paper proposed the Chirp z-Transform (CZT) time-frequency (TF) domain analysis method based on the rolling window of a Blackman window function (BCZT) which can accurately extract the projectile spin rate. To put it into practice, BCZT was applied to measure the spin rate of 155 mm artillery projectile. After extracting the spin rate, the impact that launch rotational angular velocity and aspect angle have on the extraction accuracy of the spin rate was analyzed. Simulation results show that the BCZT TF domain analysis method can effectively and accurately measure the projectile spin rate, especially in a high-spin and high-g projectile launch environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Article
Induced Voltage Linear Extraction Method Using an Active Kelvin Bridge for Disturbing Force Self-Sensing
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050739 - 20 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
This paper presents an induced voltage linear extraction method for disturbing force self-sensing in the application of giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMAs). In this method, a Kelvin bridge combined with an active device is constructed instead of a conventional Wheatstone bridge for extraction of [...] Read more.
This paper presents an induced voltage linear extraction method for disturbing force self-sensing in the application of giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMAs). In this method, a Kelvin bridge combined with an active device is constructed instead of a conventional Wheatstone bridge for extraction of the induced voltage, and an additional GMA is adopted as a reference actuator in the self-sensing circuit in order to balance the circuit bridge. The linear fitting of the measurement data is done according to the linear relationship between the disturbing forces and the integral of the induced voltage. The experimental results confirm the good performance of the proposed method, and the self-sensitivity of the disturbing forces is better than 2.0 (mV·s)/N. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Communication
A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050720 - 18 May 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two [...] Read more.
For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach’s performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Review

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Review
Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060904 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 6245
Abstract
The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss [...] Read more.
The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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Review
Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030298 - 26 Feb 2016
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5782
Abstract
Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity [...] Read more.
Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors)
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