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Selected Papers from the 12th International Conference on Sensing Technology

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2019) | Viewed by 33781

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electronic & Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
Interests: wireless sensor metworks; ad hoc networks; information security; cyber security
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
Interests: drones; robots; swarm drones; swarm robotics; IoT; smart sensors; mechatronics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centre for Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Dept. of Electronic & Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, V94T9PX, Ireland
Interests: WSN; IoT; IIoT 4.0; Security; Body Area Networks; Sensor Applications; Smart Sensors; Internet-based/Remote Data Acquisition; Optical Sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 12th International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST 2018) will be held 3–6 December, 2018, in Limerick, Ireland (http://www.ece.ul.ie/ICST2018).

ICST 2018 is intended to provide a common forum for researchers, scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present their latest research findings, ideas, developments and applications in sensing technology. Authors of selected papers from the conference will be invited to submit extended versions of their original papers and contributions under the following conference topics:

Topics will include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. Vision Sensing
  2. Sensors Signal Processing
  3. Sensors and Actuators
  4. Sensors Phenomena and Modelling
  5. Sensors Characterization
  6. Smart Sensors and Sensor Fusion
  7. Electromagnetic Sensors
  8. Chemical/Gas/Biological/Solid State Sensors
  9. Physical Sensors
  10. Electronic Nose Technology
  11. Particle accelerators and detectors
  12. Electro-optic Sensors and Systems
  13. Mechanical sensors (inertial, pressure, and tactile)
  14. Nano Sensors
  15. Acoustic, Noise and Vibration Sensors
  16. Wireless Sensors and WSN
  17. Body Area Network
  18. Internet of Things (IoT)
  19. Security and Reliability of WSN
  20. Optical Sensors (radiation sensors, optoelectronic/photonic sensors, and fibres)
  21. Lab-on chip
  22. Sensor Arrays
  23. Intelligent sensing
  24. Telemetering
  25. Online monitoring
  26. Applications of Sensors (automotive, medical, environmental monitoring, earthquake life detection, high speed impact, consumer, alarm and security, military, nautical/marine, aeronautical and space sensor systems, robotics, automation and manufacturing)
  27. Sensors for high energy physics
  28. Internet-based/Remote Data Acquisition

29. Education using sensors

Dr. Thomas Newe
Prof. Subhas Mukhopadhyay
Dr. Eoin O’Connell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2310 KiB  
Article
Fruit Battery Method for Oil Palm Fruit Ripeness Sensor and Comparison with Computer Vision Method
by Nor Aziana Aliteh, Kaiko Minakata, Kunihisa Tashiro, Hiroyuki Wakiwaka, Kazuki Kobayashi, Hirokazu Nagata and Norhisam Misron
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030637 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4323
Abstract
Oil palm ripeness’ main evaluation procedure is traditionally accomplished by human vision. However, the dependency on human evaluators to grade the ripeness of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) by traditional means could lead to inaccuracy that can cause a reduction in oil [...] Read more.
Oil palm ripeness’ main evaluation procedure is traditionally accomplished by human vision. However, the dependency on human evaluators to grade the ripeness of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) by traditional means could lead to inaccuracy that can cause a reduction in oil palm fruit oil extraction rate (OER). This paper emphasizes the fruit battery method to distinguish oil palm fruit FFB ripeness stages by determining the value of load resistance voltage and its moisture content resolution. In addition, computer vision using a color feature is tested on the same samples to compare the accuracy score using support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy score results of the fruit battery, computer vision, and a combination of both methods’ accuracy scores are evaluated and compared. When the ripe and unripe samples were tested for load resistance voltage ranging from 10 Ω to 10 kΩ, three resistance values were shortlisted and tested for moisture content resolution evaluation. A 1 kΩ load resistance showed the best moisture content resolution, and the results were used for accuracy score evaluation comparison with computer vision. From the results obtained, the accuracy scores for the combination method are the highest, followed by the fruit battery and computer vision methods. Full article
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17 pages, 7174 KiB  
Article
A New Configurable Wireless Sensor System for Biomedical Applications with ISO 18000-3 Interface in 0.35 µm CMOS
by Tatjana Fedtschenko, Alexander Utz, Alexander Stanitzki, Andreas Hennig, Andre Lüdecke, Norbert Haas and Rainer Kokozinski
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4110; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194110 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
This article presents a new configurable wireless sensor system. The system is used to perform amperometric measurements and send the measurement data to a handheld reader using a wireless transponder interface. The two-chip sensor system was implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. [...] Read more.
This article presents a new configurable wireless sensor system. The system is used to perform amperometric measurements and send the measurement data to a handheld reader using a wireless transponder interface. The two-chip sensor system was implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The system consists of an integrated nano-potentiostat that performs the actual measurements and an ISO 18000-3 compliant frontend that enables wireless telemetric data transmission and powering of the entire sensor system. The system was manufactured in combination with a chronoamperometric glucose sensor which allows the measurement of the glucose content in tear fluid and thus a non-invasive determination of the blood sugar level. For a range of sensor currents from 0.1 μA to 10 μA, the potentiostat achieved an accuracy of better than 5 % with a total power dissipation of less than 600 μW. With the realized antenna geometry a wireless communication distance of more than 7 cm has been achieved. Full article
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13 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Very Low Resource Digital Implementation of Bioimpedance Analysis
by Fabien Soulier, Achraf Lamlih, Vincent Kerzérho, Serge Bernard and Tristan Rouyer
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3381; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153381 - 1 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Bioimpedance spectroscopy consists of measuring the complex impedance of biological tissues over a large frequency domain. This method is particularly convenient for physiological studies or health monitoring systems. For a wide range of applications, devices need to be portable, wearable or even implantable. [...] Read more.
Bioimpedance spectroscopy consists of measuring the complex impedance of biological tissues over a large frequency domain. This method is particularly convenient for physiological studies or health monitoring systems. For a wide range of applications, devices need to be portable, wearable or even implantable. Next generation of bioimpedance sensing systems thus require to be implemented with power and resource savings in mind. Impedance measurement methods are divided into two main categories. Some are based on “single-tone” signals while the others use “multi-tone” signals. The firsts benefit from a very simple analysis that may consist of synchronous demodulation. However, due to necessary frequency sweep, the total measurement may take a long time. On the other hand, generating a multi-frequency signal allows the seconds to cover the whole frequency range simultaneously. This is at the cost of a more complex analysis algorithm. This makes both approaches hardly suitable for embedded applications. In this paper, we propose an intermediate approach that combines the speed of multi-tone systems with a low-resource analysis algorithm. This results in a minimal implementation using only adders and synchronous adc. For optimal performances, this small footprint digital processing can be synthesized and embedded on a mixed-mode integrated circuit together with the analog front-end. Moreover, the proposed implementation is easily scalable to fit an arbitrary frequency range. We also show that the resulting impact on noise sensitivity can be mitigated. Full article
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16 pages, 4600 KiB  
Article
Lab-On-A-Chip Device for Yeast Cell Characterization in Low-Conductivity Media Combining Cytometry and Bio-Impedance
by Julien Claudel, Arthur Luiz Alves De Araujo, Mustapha Nadi and Djilali Kourtiche
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3366; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153366 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3278
Abstract
This paper proposes a simple approach to optimize the operating frequency band of a lab-on-a-chip based on bio-impedance cytometry for a single cell. It mainly concerns applications in low-conductivity media. Bio-impedance allows for the characterization of low cell concentration or single cells by [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a simple approach to optimize the operating frequency band of a lab-on-a-chip based on bio-impedance cytometry for a single cell. It mainly concerns applications in low-conductivity media. Bio-impedance allows for the characterization of low cell concentration or single cells by providing an electrical signature. Thus, it may be necessary to perform impedance measurements up to several tens of megahertz in order to extract the internal cell signature. In the case of single cells, characterization is performed in a very small volume down to 1 pL. At the same time, measured impedances increase from tens of kilo-ohms for physiological liquids up to several mega-ohms for low conductivity media. This is, for example, the case for water analysis. At frequencies above hundreds of kilohertz, parasitic effects, such as coupling capacitances, can prevail over the impedance of the sample and completely short-circuit measurements. To optimize the sensor under these conditions, a complete model of a cytometry device was developed, including parasitic coupling capacitances of the sensor to take into account all the impedances. It appears that it is possible to increase the pass band by optimizing track geometries and placement without changing the sensing area. This assumption was obtained by measuring and comparing electrical properties of yeast cells in a low-conductivity medium (tap water). Decreased coupling capacitance by a factor higher than 10 was obtained compared with a previous non-optimized sensor, which allowed for the impedance measurement of all electrical properties of cells as small as yeast cells in a low-conductivity medium. Full article
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14 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
Surf Session Events’ Profiling Using Smartphones’ Embedded Sensors
by Diana Gomes, Dinis Moreira, João Costa, Ricardo Graça and João Madureira
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143138 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3624
Abstract
The increasing popularity of water sports—surfing, in particular—has been raising attention to its yet immature technology market. While several available solutions aim to characterise surf session events, this can still be considered an open issue, due to the low performance, unavailability, obtrusiveness and/or [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of water sports—surfing, in particular—has been raising attention to its yet immature technology market. While several available solutions aim to characterise surf session events, this can still be considered an open issue, due to the low performance, unavailability, obtrusiveness and/or lack of validation of existing systems. In this work, we propose a novel method for wave, paddle, sprint paddle, dive, lay, and sit events detection in the context of a surf session, which enables its entire profiling with 88.1% accuracy for the combined detection of all events. In particular, waves, the most important surf event, were detected with second precision with an accuracy of 90.3%. When measuring the number of missed and misdetected wave events, out of the entire universe of 327 annotated waves, wave detection performance achieved 97.5% precision and 94.2% recall. These findings verify the precision, validity and thoroughness of the proposed solution in constituting a complete surf session profiling system, suitable for real-time implementation and with market potential. Full article
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20 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Home Energy Management System Incorporating Heat Pump Using Real Measured Data
by Zhengnan Cao, Fergal O’Rourke, William Lyons and Xiaoqing Han
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2937; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132937 - 3 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3162
Abstract
The demand for electricity has been rising significantly over the past years and it is expected to rise further in the coming years due to economic and societal development. Smart grid technology is being developed in order to meet the rising electricity requirement. [...] Read more.
The demand for electricity has been rising significantly over the past years and it is expected to rise further in the coming years due to economic and societal development. Smart grid technology is being developed in order to meet the rising electricity requirement. In order for the smart grid to perform its full functions, the Energy Management Systems (EMSs), especially Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) are essential. It is necessary to understand the energy demand of the loads and the energy supply either from the national grid or from renewable energy technologies. To facilitate the Demand Side Management (DSM), Heat Pumps (HP) and air conditioning systems are often utilised for heating and cooling in residential houses due to their high-efficiency power output and low CO2 emissions. This paper presents a program for a HEMS using a Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) algorithm. A HP is used as the load and the aim of the optimisation program is to minimise the operational cost, i.e., the cost of electricity, while maintaining end-user comfort levels. This paper also details an indoor thermal model for temperature update in the heat pump control program. Real measured data from the UK Government’s Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP) scheme was utilised to generate characteristic curves and equations that can represent the data. This paper compares different PSO variants with standard PSO and the unscheduled case calculated from the data for five winter days in 2019. Among all chosen algorithms, the Crossover Subswarm PSO (CSPSO) achieved an average saving of 25.61% compared with the cost calculated from the measured data with a short search time of 1576 ms for each subswarm. It is clear from this work that there is significant scope to reduce the cost of operating a HP while maintaining end user comfort levels. Full article
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14 pages, 6587 KiB  
Article
Gas Leakage Source Detection for Li-Ion Batteries by Distributed Sensor Array
by Valentin Mateev, Iliana Marinova and Zhelyazko Kartunov
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2900; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132900 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6895
Abstract
Lithium-based batteries operation is related to some safety risks of dangerous flaming, integrity destruction, or even explosion. Gas leakage is an early and reliable indicator for such irreversible malfunctioning of electrical accumulators. Often, accurate gas emission source location sensing is difficult especially in [...] Read more.
Lithium-based batteries operation is related to some safety risks of dangerous flaming, integrity destruction, or even explosion. Gas leakage is an early and reliable indicator for such irreversible malfunctioning of electrical accumulators. Often, accurate gas emission source location sensing is difficult especially in heavy operational conditions, related to temperature changes, vibrations, movements, accelerations, etc. In this paper we propose a gas detection system, with catalytic type sensor array, and a numerical reconstruction method for precise gas emission source location inside the battery pack. The detection system employs a distributed array of CO sensors. Proposed sensor array configurations significantly reduce the number of sensing nodes inside the battery pack and fewer sensors than the protected battery elements are used. This way, data acquisition process by sensor nodes is also simplified. Several array configurations are considered according to their measurement efficiency and accuracy. Reconstruction algorithm is based on fast interpolation technique very suitable for real-time data processing. Estimation of reconstruction method accuracy is made by computational model of the gas diffusion inside the pack. Full article
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15 pages, 11599 KiB  
Article
Influence of Electrode Connection Tracks on Biological Cell Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy
by Arthur Luiz Alves de Araujo, Julien Claudel, Djilali Kourtiche and Mustapha Nadi
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132839 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
The limit of detection of a biological sensor is an important parameter because, when it is optimized, it allows the detection of a reduced number of biological cells and the reduction of the detection time. This parameter can be improved upon with a [...] Read more.
The limit of detection of a biological sensor is an important parameter because, when it is optimized, it allows the detection of a reduced number of biological cells and the reduction of the detection time. This parameter can be improved upon with a reduction in electrode size, but the rate of detection is similarly reduced as well. To avoid this problem, we propose a sensor matrix composed of 20 × 20 µm² coplanar square electrodes with a standard clean room manufacturing process. However, it was observed that the exposition of electrode connection tracks to the solution reduces the normalized impedance variation. In this pursuit, we propose in this paper an analysis of electrode connection tracks on the normalized impedance variation and cutoff frequencies to biological cell measurements by impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results were obtained using the E4990A Keysight impedance analyser (Keysight Technologies, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) with a frequency band ranging from 100 Hz to 12 MHz, thus allowing for good measurement accuracy. Therefore, it was found that, for the measurements between the electrodes with 9 µm of connection tracks in contact with the solution, the normalized impedance variation was from 3.7% to 4.2% for different measurements, while, for the electrodes with 40 µm of connection tracks in contact with the solution, the normalized impedance variation was from 1.8% to 2.1% for different measurements. Full article
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19 pages, 9790 KiB  
Article
Implementation and Evaluation of a Wide-Range Human-Sensing System Based on Cooperating Multiple Range Image Sensors
by Mikihiro Tokuoka, Naoki Komiya, Hiroshi Mizoguchi, Ryohei Egusa, Shigenori Inagaki and Fusako Kusunoki
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051172 - 7 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
A museum is an important place for science education for children. The learning method in the museum is reading exhibits and explanations. Museums are investing efforts to quantify interests using questionnaires and sensors to improve their exhibitions and explanations. Therefore, even in places [...] Read more.
A museum is an important place for science education for children. The learning method in the museum is reading exhibits and explanations. Museums are investing efforts to quantify interests using questionnaires and sensors to improve their exhibitions and explanations. Therefore, even in places where many people gather, such as in museums, it is necessary to quantify people’s interest by sensing behavior of multiple people. However, this has not yet been realized. We aim to quantify the interest by sensing a wide range of human behavior for multiple people by coordinating multiple noncontact sensors. When coordinating multiple sensors, the coordinates and the time of each sensor differ. To solve these problems, coordinates were transformed using a simultaneous transformation matrix and time synchronization was performed using unified time. The effectiveness of this proposal was verified through experimental evaluation. Furthermore, we evaluated the actual museum content. In this paper, we describe the proposed method and the results of the evaluation experiment. Full article
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