Special Issue "Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zhien Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Interests: CO2 capture and storage (CCS); membrane; absorption
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Avelino Núñez-Delgado
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Engineering Polytechnic School, campus univ. Lugo, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Interests: wastewater/water treatment; solid waste treatment; adsorption of pollutants
Dr. Wenxiang Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau
Interests: wastewater/water treatment; membrane separation; absorption; environmental adsorption mater

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental pollution, including gas pollution, water pollution, and solid waste pollution, are the main social and environmental problems. A variety of treatment technologies, such as physical, chemical, and biological methods, have been used for the treatment of the pollutants. However, there are still information gaps in the fields of treatment processes for gas emissions, wastewater, and solid waste. Herein, we are inviting scholars to submit original research articles, technical notes, and review articles in a broad range of topics for the Special Issue on “Gas, Water, and Solid Waste Treatment Technology”. Experimental and modeling works and life cycle assessment (LCA) or techno-economic analysis (TEA) focused on pollutant treatment processes using emerging and novel technologies in a wide variety of application fields as well as reviews on the recent advances are highly welcome.

Dr. Zhien Zhang
Prof. Dr. Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Dr. Wenxiang Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 31 December 2019 an APC of 1400 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pollutant treatment
  • Gas emission
  • Wastewater
  • Solid waste
  • Waste-to-energy
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Technoeconomic analysis
  • Modeling

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Measurements of Two Promising Tertiary Amines for CO2 Capture
Processes 2019, 7(12), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120951 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Post combustion CO2 capture is still a rather energy intense, and therefore expensive, process. Much of the current research for reducing the process energy requirements is focused on the regeneration section. A good description of the vapor liquid equilibrium of the solvent [...] Read more.
Post combustion CO2 capture is still a rather energy intense, and therefore expensive, process. Much of the current research for reducing the process energy requirements is focused on the regeneration section. A good description of the vapor liquid equilibrium of the solvent is necessary for the accurate representation of the process. 3-(Diethylamino)-1,2-propanediol (DEA-12-PD) and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine (12-HEPP) have been proposed as potential components in solvent blends for the membrane contactor. However, there are few available experimental data for these two tertiary amines making difficult to accurate simulate such process. In this work, we provide experimental data on the pure component saturation pressure (383 to 443 K) and on VLE of aqueous solutions of these amines (313 to 373 K) in order to fill part of the data gap. The data were used to estimate model parameters used to represent the data. The saturation pressure was modeled using the Antoine equation and the deviation is calculated lower than 2%. The NRTL model was used in this work to calculate the activity coefficients in the aqueous systems. The deviations in pressure for the aqueous systems were lower than 5% in both systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Copper Adsorption by Magnetized Pine-Needle Biochar
Processes 2019, 7(12), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120903 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
The Cu(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by magnetic biochar obtained from pine needles has been studied by means of batch-type experiments. The biochar fibers have been magnetized prior (pncm: carbonized-magnetized pine needles) and after oxidation (pncom: carbonized-oxidized-magnetized pine needles) and have been used [...] Read more.
The Cu(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by magnetic biochar obtained from pine needles has been studied by means of batch-type experiments. The biochar fibers have been magnetized prior (pncm: carbonized-magnetized pine needles) and after oxidation (pncom: carbonized-oxidized-magnetized pine needles) and have been used as adsorbents to study the presence of carboxylic moieties on the magnetization and following adsorption process. The effect of pH (2–10), initial metal concentration (10−5–9·10−3 mol·L−1) and contact time (0–60 min) has been studied by varying the respective parameter, and the adsorbents have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements prior and after Cu(II)-adsorption. FTIR measurements were performed to investigate the formation of surface species and XRD measurements to record possible solid phase formation and characterize formed solids, including the evaluation of their average crystal size. The data obtained from the batch-type studies show that the oxidized magnetic biochar (pncom) presents significantly higher adsorption capacity (1.0 mmol g−1) compared to pncm (0.4 mmol g−1), which is ascribed to the synergistic effect of the carboxylic moieties present on the pncom surface, and the adsorption process follows the pseudo-second order kinetics. On the other hand, the FTIR spectra prove the formation of inner-sphere complexes and XRD diffractograms indicate Cu(II) solid phase formation at pH 6 and increased metal ion concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
Open AccessArticle
Filtration Performances of Different Polysaccharides in Microfiltration Process
Processes 2019, 7(12), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120897 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Membrane technology has been widely applied for water treatment, while membrane fouling still remains a big challenge. The polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have been known as a significant type of foulant due to their high fouling propensity. However, polysaccharides have many [...] Read more.
Membrane technology has been widely applied for water treatment, while membrane fouling still remains a big challenge. The polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have been known as a significant type of foulant due to their high fouling propensity. However, polysaccharides have many varieties which definitely behave differently in membrane filtration. Therefore, in this study, different polysaccharides alginate sodium and xanthan gum were chosen to study their effects on membrane fouling in a wide concentration range. The results demonstrated that the filtration behaviors of alginate sodium and xanthan gum were completely different, which was due to their different molecular structures. Alginate had a small molecular weight and it was easy for alginate to penetrate membrane pores resulting in pore blocking. A series of concentrations of alginate including 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 40 mg/L, and 50 mg/L were examined and it was found that the permeate flux decline highly depended on the level of alginate in the feed water. While for the filtration of xanthan gum, the same concentration of xanthan gum led to more serious fouling than that observed in alginate, which might be due to its large molecule. In addition, calcium chloride was added in the solutions of both alginate and xanthan gum to examine the influence of a divalent cation on polysaccharide fouling. A “unimodal” peak can be observed in the fouling propensity caused by Ca2+ and alginate with increasing the concentration of alginate. Such a phenomenon was not found in the fouling of xanthan gum and Ca2+ led to more serious fouling for all concentrations of xanthan gum. In light of this, this study gave new insights into the fouling propensities of different polysaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Numerical Study on Separation Performance of Cyclone Flue Used in Grate Waste Incinerator
Processes 2019, 7(12), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120866 - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
The traditional treatment of waste incineration flue gas is mostly carried out in low temperatures, but there are some problems such as corrosion of the heating surface at high and low temperatures, re-synthesis of dioxins, and low efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to [...] Read more.
The traditional treatment of waste incineration flue gas is mostly carried out in low temperatures, but there are some problems such as corrosion of the heating surface at high and low temperatures, re-synthesis of dioxins, and low efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the pollutants at high temperatures. For the grate waste incinerator, this study proposes an adiabatic cyclone flue arranged at the exit of the first-stage furnace of the grate waste incinerator to pre-remove the fly ash at high temperatures, so as to alleviate the abrasion and corrosion of the tail heating surface. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is applied to study the performance of a cyclone flue under different structural parameters, and the comprehensive performance of the cyclone flue is evaluated by the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. The results show that particle separation efficiency increases at first and then decreases with the increase of the vortex finder length, the vortex finder diameter, and the distance between vortex finder and gas outlet tube, while it decreases with the increase of the gas outlet tube diameter. The pressure drop increases with the increase of the vortex finder length, and the vortex finder diameter, while decreases with the increase of the distance between the vortex finder, the gas outlet tube, and the gas outlet tube diameter. In the scope of this study, when h1/a = 1.1, D1/A = 0.33, h2/A = 1.5, and D2/A = 0.50, the comprehensive performance of the cyclone flue is much better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Fouling Propensities of Natural Derived Alginate Blocks during the Microfiltration Process
Processes 2019, 7(11), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110858 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Membrane technology has been one of the most promising techniques to solve the water problem in future. Unfortunately, it suffers from the fouling problem which is ubiquitous in membrane systems. The origin of the bewilderments of the fouling problem lies in the lack [...] Read more.
Membrane technology has been one of the most promising techniques to solve the water problem in future. Unfortunately, it suffers from the fouling problem which is ubiquitous in membrane systems. The origin of the bewilderments of the fouling problem lies in the lack of deep understanding. Recent studies have pointed out that the molecular structure of foulant affects its fouling propensity which has been ignored in the past. In this study, the filtration behaviors of alginate blocks derived from the same source were comprehensively explored. Alginate blocks share the same chemical composition but differ from each other in molecular structure. The alginate was first extracted from natural seaweed using calcium precipitation and ion-exchange methods. Extracted alginate was further fractionized into MG-, MM- and GG-blocks and the characteristics of the three blocks were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) observations, and transparent exopolymer particles’ (TEPs) measurements. Results showed that MG-, MM- and GG-blocks had the same functional groups, but they showed different intermolecular interactions. TEP formation from MG-, MM- and GG-blocks revealed that the molecule crosslinking of them decreased in the order of MM-blocks > GG-blocks > MG-blocks. It was further found from microfiltration tests that these alginate blocks had completely different fouling propensities which can be explained by the TEP formation. TEPs would accumulate on membrane surfaces and worked as a pre-filter to avoid serious pore blocking of membrane. That all suggested that the membrane fouling was closely related to the molecular structure of foulant. It is expected that this study can provide useful insights into the fouling propensities of different types of polysaccharides during filtration processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Modifying Nanoporous Carbon through Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation for Removal of Metronidazole Antibiotics from Simulated Wastewater
Processes 2019, 7(11), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110835 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study examined change in pore structure and microstructure of nanoporous carbon after surface oxidation and how it affects the adsorption performance of metronidazole antibiotics. The surface oxidation was performed by hydrogen peroxide at 60 °C. The properties of porous carbon were investigated [...] Read more.
This study examined change in pore structure and microstructure of nanoporous carbon after surface oxidation and how it affects the adsorption performance of metronidazole antibiotics. The surface oxidation was performed by hydrogen peroxide at 60 °C. The properties of porous carbon were investigated by N2-sorption analysis (pore structure), scanning electron microscopy (surface morphology), the Boehm titration method (quantification of surface functional group), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (type of surface functional group). The results showed that the oxidation of porous carbon by hydrogen peroxide has a minor defect in the carbon pore structure. Only a slight decrease in specific surface area (8%) from its original value (973 m2g−1) was seen but more mesoporosity was introduced. The oxidation of porous carbon with hydrogen peroxide modified the amount of oxide groups i.e., phenol, carboxylic acid and lactone. Moreover, in the application the oxidized carbon exhibited a higher the metronidazole uptake capacity of up to three-times manifold with respect to the pristine carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Knowledge Mapping of Carbon Footprint Research in a LCA Perspective: A Visual Analysis Using CiteSpace
Processes 2019, 7(11), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110818 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Carbon emissions are inevitably linked to lifestyle and consumption behaviours, and the concept of “carbon footprinting” is now well-recognised beyond academia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the primary tools for assessing carbon footprints. The aim of this paper is to present [...] Read more.
Carbon emissions are inevitably linked to lifestyle and consumption behaviours, and the concept of “carbon footprinting” is now well-recognised beyond academia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one of the primary tools for assessing carbon footprints. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic review of literatures focusing on carbon footprint calculated with life cycle assessment. We used CiteSpace software to draw the knowledge map of related research to identify and trace the knowledge base and frontier terminology. It was found that the LCA application in respects of carbon footprint studies was completed mainly for the following aspect: beef production and dairy industry, seafood and fishery, nutrition, urban structure and energy use. The CiteSpace analysis showed the development path of the above aspects, for example, beef production and dairy industry has been a long-term topic in this kind of research, while the topic of nutrition appeared in recent years. There was also a cluster of literature discussing footprint evaluation tools, such as comparing LCA with input–output analysis. The CiteSpace analysis indicated that earlier methodological literature still plays an important role in recent research. Moreover, through the analysis of burst keywords, it was found that agriculture productions (dairy, meat, fish, crop) as well as global climate issues (greenhouse gases emission, global warming potential) have always been the areas of concern, which matches the result of co-citation analysis. Building materials (low-carbon building, natural buildings, sustainable buildings) and soil issues (soil carbon sequestration, soil organic carbon) are the topics of recent concern, which could arouse the attention of follower-up researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism and Kinetics of Ammonium Sulfate Roasting of Boron-Bearing Iron Tailings for Enhanced Metal Extraction
Processes 2019, 7(11), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110812 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
The large amount of boron-bearing iron tailings in China is a resource for metals that needs to be more completely and efficiently utilized. In this evaluation, the ammonium sulfate roasting process was used to make a controllable phase transformation to facilitate the subsequent [...] Read more.
The large amount of boron-bearing iron tailings in China is a resource for metals that needs to be more completely and efficiently utilized. In this evaluation, the ammonium sulfate roasting process was used to make a controllable phase transformation to facilitate the subsequent extraction of valuable metals from boron-bearing iron tailings. The effects of roasting temperature, roasting time, the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate to tailings, and the particle size on the extraction of elements were investigated. The orthogonal experimental design of experiments was used to determine the optimal processing conditions. XRD (X-Ray Diffractomer), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and simultaneous DSC–TG analyzer were used to assist in elucidating the mechanism of ammonium sulfate roasting. The experimental results showed that nearly all Fe, Al, and Mg were extracted under the following conditions: (1) the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate to iron tailings was 3:1; (2) the roasting temperature was 450 °C; (3) the roasting time was 120 min.; and, (4) the particle size was less than 80 μm. The kinetics analysis indicated that the sulfation of metals was controlled by internal diffusion, with the apparent activation energies of 17.10 kJ·mol−1, 17.85 kJ·mol−1, 19.79 kJ·mol−1, and 29.71 kJ·mol−1 for Fe, Al, Mg, and B, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of the Least Impactful Municipal Solid Waste Management Option in Harare, Zimbabwe
Processes 2019, 7(11), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110785 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
Six municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options (A1–A6) in Harare were developed and analyzed for their global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human health impact potentials using life cycle assessment methodology to determine the least impactful option in Harare. Study findings will aid the [...] Read more.
Six municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options (A1–A6) in Harare were developed and analyzed for their global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human health impact potentials using life cycle assessment methodology to determine the least impactful option in Harare. Study findings will aid the development of future MSWM systems in Harare. A1 and A2 considered the landfilling and incineration, respectively, of indiscriminately collected MSW with energy recovery and byproduct treatment. Source-separated biodegradables were anaerobically treated with the remaining non-biodegradable fraction being incinerated in A3 and landfilled in A4. A5 and A6 had the same processes as in A3 and A4, respectively, except the inclusion of the recovery of 20% of the recoverable materials. The life cycle stages considered were collection and transportation, materials recovery, anaerobic digestion, landfilling and incineration. A5 emerged as the best option. Materials recovery contributed to impact potential reductions across the four impact categories. Sensitivity analysis revealed that doubling materials recovery and increasing it to 28% under A5 resulted in zero eutrophication and acidification, respectively. Increasing material recovery to 24% and 26% under A6 leads to zero acidification and eutrophication, respectively. Zero global warming and human health impacts under A6 are realised at 6% and 9% materials recovery levels, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Chromium VI and Fluoride Competitive Adsorption on Different Soils and By-Products
Processes 2019, 7(10), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100748 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Chromium (as Cr(VI)) and fluoride (F) are frequently found in effluents from different industrial activities. In cases where these effluents reach soil, it can play an important role in retaining those pollutants. Similarly, different byproducts could act as bio-adsorbents to directly [...] Read more.
Chromium (as Cr(VI)) and fluoride (F) are frequently found in effluents from different industrial activities. In cases where these effluents reach soil, it can play an important role in retaining those pollutants. Similarly, different byproducts could act as bio-adsorbents to directly treat polluted waters or to enhance the purging potential of soil. In this work, we used batch-type experiments to study competitive Cr(VI) and F adsorption in two different soils and several kinds of byproducts. Both soils, as well as mussel shell, oak ash, and hemp waste showed higher adsorption for F, while pyritic material, pine bark, and sawdust had a higher affinity for Cr(VI). Considering the binary competitive system, a clear competition between both elements in anionic form is shown, with decreases in adsorption of up to 90% for Cr(VI), and of up to 30% for F. Adsorption results showed better fitting to Freundlich’s than to Langmuir’s model. None of the individual soils or byproducts were able to adsorbing high percentages of both pollutants simultaneously, but it could be highly improved by adding pine bark to increase Cr(VI) adsorption in soils, thus drastically reducing the risks of pollution and deleterious effects on the environment and on public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas, Water and Solid Waste Treatment Technology)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Dr. Gratitude  Charis from Botswana International University of Science and Technology

2. Dr. Andrea Salimbeni from AIN

3. Dr. Andrew Paluch from Miami University
Predicting the Phase Behavior of the Wastewater Contaminants Monuron, Diuron, Atrazine, and Atenolol using a Combination of Molecular Simulation and Solubility Parameter Methods

4. Dr.  Xiayi(Eric)Hu from Xiangtan University

5. Prof. Dr. Avelino Núñez-Delgado from University of Santiago de Compostela

6. Dr. AGUS HARYANTO from Universitas Lampung

7. Dr. Muhammad Shaaban from Huazhong Agricultural University

8. Dr. Yaoyu Zhou from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

9. Dr. Hong Yin  from Chongqing University

10. Dr. Zvanaka S. Mazhandu from University of the Witwatersrand

11. Dr. Hussein Abid from Curtin University

Simple Routes for Synthesis , activation , modification and characterisation of MOFs

12. Dr. Marko D. Ćirović from University of Belgrade

13. Dr. Nguyen Thanh Hoa, Thuyloi University

14. Dr. Hugo, Universidad Catolica del Maule

15.  Dr.  Mohammed Kadhom, Univ Missouri

16. Dr.  Ihsanullah, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

17. Dr. Yanbao Liu, Donghua University

18. Dr. Gamal A El Hiti, King Saud University

19. Dr. Malin Bomberg, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

20. Dr. Roberto, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague

21. Dr. Weixin Yang, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology

22. Prof. Yuangang Li,  University of Shanghai for Science and Technology

 

 
 
 
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