Special Issue "CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Other Topics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Alfredo Iranzo
Website
Guest Editor
Energy Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, 41092, Spain
Interests: Energy Engineering; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Heat Transfer; PEM Fuel Cells; Solar Reactors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been firmly established as a fundamental discipline to advancing research on energy engineering. The major progresses achieved during the last two decades both on software modeling capabilities and hardware computing power have resulted in a considerable and wide spread of CFD interest among scientist and engineers. Numerical modeling and simulation developments are increasingly contributing to the current state of the art in many energy engineering aspects, such as power generation, combustion, wind energy, concentrated solar power, hydro power, gas and steam turbines, fuel cells, and many others. As an example, over 1000 journal publications are published every year with the latest scientific developments and applictions of CFD in energy engineering. 

This Special Issue on “CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation” aims at providing the latest significant advances in the applications of computational fluid dynamics in energy engineering. Topics include but are not limited to:

  • CFD fundamentals;
  • CFD applications in power generation;
  • CFD applications in renewable energies; and
  • CFD applications in combustion, heat transfer, and rotating machinery.

Dr. Alfredo Iranzo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • computational fluid dynamics
  • energy engineering
  • modeling
  • simulation
  • meshing
  • renewable energy
  • combustion
  • turbulence
  • heat transfer
  • thermal radiation

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Superposition Effect of Oil Vapor Leakage and Diffusion from External Floating-Roof Tanks Using CFD Numerical Simulations and Wind-Tunnel Experiments
Processes 2020, 8(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030299 - 05 Mar 2020
Abstract
Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Realizable k-ε turbulence model, we established a numerical simulation method for wind and vapor-concentration fields of various external floating-roof tanks (EFRTs) (single, two, and four) and verified its feasibility using wind-tunnel experiments. Subsequently, we analysed superposition [...] Read more.
Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Realizable k-ε turbulence model, we established a numerical simulation method for wind and vapor-concentration fields of various external floating-roof tanks (EFRTs) (single, two, and four) and verified its feasibility using wind-tunnel experiments. Subsequently, we analysed superposition effects of wind speed and concentration fields for different types of EFRTs. The results show that high concentrations of vapor are found near the rim gap of the floating deck and above the floating deck surface. At different ambient wind speeds, interference between tanks is different. When the ambient wind speed is greater than 2 m/s, vapor concentration in leeward area of the rear tank is greater than that between two tanks, which makes it easy to reach explosion limit. It is suggested that more monitoring should be conducted near the bottom area of the rear tank and upper area on the left of the floating deck. Superposition in a downwind direction from the EFRTs becomes more obvious with an increase in the number of EFRTs; vapor superposition occurs behind two leeward tanks after leakage from four large EFRTs. Considering safety, environmental protection, and personnel health, appropriate measures should be taken at these positions for timely monitoring, and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Flow Characteristics of Straight Line Conjugate Internal Meshing Gear Pump
Processes 2020, 8(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030269 - 27 Feb 2020
Abstract
The improvement of the overall performance of hydraulic pumps is the basis of intelligent hydraulics. Taking the straight line conjugate internal meshing gear pump as the research object, the theoretical flow rate and the geometric flow pulsation rate equations are established in this [...] Read more.
The improvement of the overall performance of hydraulic pumps is the basis of intelligent hydraulics. Taking the straight line conjugate internal meshing gear pump as the research object, the theoretical flow rate and the geometric flow pulsation rate equations are established in this study through the volume change method. The change laws of the gear pair’s geometric parameters on the theoretical flow rate and the geometric flow pulsation rate are studied. The simulation model of the internal flow channel is established, and the influence factors and the influence degree of the flow pulsation and average flow rate are analyzed. The high-pressure positive displacement pump test system is also designed and built. The performance evaluations are conducted, and the experimental results are analyzed. The results show that the periodic change of the meshing point position is the root cause of the geometric flow pulsation. The theoretical flow rate and the geometric flow pulsation rate are 103.71 L/min and 1.76%, respectively. To increase the theoretical flow rate whilst decreasing the geometric flow pulsation rate, the tip circle radius of the external gear should be increased as much as possible within the allowable range of the design calculation. Amongst the three influencing factors that produce flow pulsation, the oil compressibility has no effect on the flow pulsation. The uneven internal leakage is the main factor, and the geometric flow pulsation only accounts for a small proportion. The internal leakage reduces the simulated flow rate by 3.59 L/min. The difference between the experimental and simulated flow rates is less than 2%. Within the allowable speed range, the rotation speed of the external gear should be increased as much as possible to increase the average flow rate and the volumetric efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Soil Particle Size on the Temperature Field and Energy Consumption of Injected Steam Soil Disinfection
Processes 2020, 8(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020241 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Soil steam disinfection (SSD) technology is an effective means of eliminating soil borne diseases. Among the soil cultivation conditions of facility agriculture in the Yangtze River Delta region of China, the clay soil particles (SPs) are fine, the soil pores are small, and [...] Read more.
Soil steam disinfection (SSD) technology is an effective means of eliminating soil borne diseases. Among the soil cultivation conditions of facility agriculture in the Yangtze River Delta region of China, the clay soil particles (SPs) are fine, the soil pores are small, and the texture is relatively viscous. When injection disinfection technology is applied in the clay soil, the diffusion of steam is hindered and the heating efficiency is substantially affected. To increase the heating efficiency of SSD, we first discretized the continuum model of Philip and De Vries into circular particle porous media of different sizes and random distribution. Then with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation technology, a single-injection steam disinfection model for different SP size conditions was constructed. Furthermore, the diffusion pattern of the macro-porous vapor flow and matrix flow and the corresponding temperature field were simulated and analyzed. Finally, a single-pipe injection steam disinfection verification test was performed for different SP sizes. The test results show that for the clay soil in the Yangtze River Delta region of China, the test temperature filed results are consistent with the simulation results when the heat flow reaches H = 20 cm in the vertical direction, the simulation and test result of the heat flow in the maximum horizontal diffusion distance are L = 13 cm and 12 cm, respectively. At the same disinfection time, the simulated soil temperature change trend is consistent with the test results, and the test temperature is lower than the simulated temperature. The difference between the theoretical temperature and the experimental temperature may be attributed to the heat loss in the experimental device. Further, it is necessary to optimize the CFD simulation process and add the disintegration and deformation processes of soil particle size with the change of water content. Furthermore, the soil pores increase as the SP size increases and that a large amount of steam vertically diffuses along the macropores and accumulates on the soil surface, causing ineffective heat loss. Moreover, soil temperature distribution changes from oval (horizontal short radius/vertical long radius = 0.65) to irregular shape. As the SP size decreases, the soil pore flow path becomes fine; the steam primarily diffuses uniformly around the soil in the form of a matrix flow; the diffusion distance in the horizontal direction gradually increases; and the temperature distribution gradually becomes even, which is consistent with the soil temperature field simulation results. Similar to the energy consumption analysis, the maximum energy consumption for SP sizes>27mm and <2mm was 486and 477kJ, respectively. Therefore, proper pore growth was conducive to the diffusion of steam, but excessive pores cause steam to overflow, which increased energy consumption of the system. Considering that the test was carried out in an ideal soil environment, the rotary tiller must be increased for fine rotary tillage in an actual disinfection operation. Although large particles may appear during the rotary tillage process, an appropriate number of large particles contributes to the formation of a large pore flow, under the common effect of matrix flow, it will simultaneously promote greater steam diffusion and heating efficiency. The above theoretical research has practical guiding significance for improving the design and disinfection effect of soil steam sterilizers in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Swirled Jet Flame Simulation and Flow Visualization Inside Rotary Kiln—CFD with PDF Approach
Processes 2020, 8(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020159 - 29 Jan 2020
Abstract
CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation using a commercial package (Fluent-ANSYS) on industrial rotary kilns using annulus-type burners and methane gas was carried out to examine the characteristics of the flame length and flow visualization. New influencing design and operating parameters—primary air swirl number, [...] Read more.
CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation using a commercial package (Fluent-ANSYS) on industrial rotary kilns using annulus-type burners and methane gas was carried out to examine the characteristics of the flame length and flow visualization. New influencing design and operating parameters—primary air swirl number, primary air inlet annulus diameter, and secondary air temperature—were investigated and discussed. The influence of these parameters on axial temperature distribution, axial mean mixture fractions, velocity vectors, mixture fractions, and temperature contours were investigated. The current numerical findings were compared with existing experimental results to validate the simulation approach. The results showed that the primary air swirl number had a remarkable influence on the flame length at a lower primary air inlet annulus diameter ratio of 2.3. Moreover, the flame length increased by 20% and 6% with increasing the swirl number from zero to one for primary air inlet annulus diameter ratios of 2.3 and 5, respectively, and it also increased by 19% with increasing primary air inlet annulus diameter ratio from 2.3 to 5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Numerical Study on the Flow Mechanism of Performance Improvement of a Wide-Angle Diffuser by Inserting a Short Splitter Vane
Processes 2020, 8(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020143 - 22 Jan 2020
Abstract
Usage of a wide-angle diffuser may result in unfavorable separated flow and a significant diffuser loss. To improve the performance of the diffusers, inserting short splitter vanes is known as a useful method that has been demonstrated experimentally. Regarding the role of the [...] Read more.
Usage of a wide-angle diffuser may result in unfavorable separated flow and a significant diffuser loss. To improve the performance of the diffusers, inserting short splitter vanes is known as a useful method that has been demonstrated experimentally. Regarding the role of the vane in the diffuser flow, Senoo & Nishi (1977) qualitatively explained that the lift force acting on the vane should be a key factor. However, its quantitative verification remains since then. To challenge this issue, numerical simulations of incompressible flow in a wide angle of 28° two-dimensional diffuser with and without a short splitter vane were conducted in the present study. An improvement of pressure-recovery by the vane and oscillatory flows in the diffuser are reasonably reproduced from comparison with the experimental results made by Cochran & Kline (1958). It is also found that the lift force acting on the vane varies periodically in an opposite phase with the detachment point moved back and forth on a diverging wall, since one vane is not sufficient to fully suppress the flow separation that occurred on the wall and the incoming main-flow shifts toward the other diverging wall in the diffuser. Thus, as a role of splitter vane in the diffuser, “the lift force of the vane is a key factor” may be quantitatively verified from the present numerical simulation. Further, it is confirmed by the local loss analysis that the turbulent kinetic energy production observed in mixing layers contributes most of the loss in the diffuser. Consequently, the present numerical technique may be usable to investigate the flow character in a diffuser with splitter vanes at a design stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Cryogenic Energy for Indirect Freeze Desalination—Numerical and Experimental Investigation
Processes 2020, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010019 - 21 Dec 2019
Abstract
Renewed interest in freeze desalination has emerged due to its advantages over other desalination technologies. A major advantage of the freeze desalination process over evaporative methods is its lower energy consumption (latent heat of freezing is 333.5 kJ/kg and latent heat of evaporation [...] Read more.
Renewed interest in freeze desalination has emerged due to its advantages over other desalination technologies. A major advantage of the freeze desalination process over evaporative methods is its lower energy consumption (latent heat of freezing is 333.5 kJ/kg and latent heat of evaporation is 2256.7 kJ/kg). Cryogenic fluids like LN2/LAir are emerging as an effective energy storage medium to maximise utilisation of intermittent renewable energy sources. The recovery of this stored cold energy has the potential to be used for freeze desalination. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling was developed to simulate the evaporation of liquid nitrogen to simultaneously conduct freeze desalination to investigate the feasibility of using cryogenic energy for freeze desalination. This integrated CFD model was validated using experimental heat exchanger test facility constructed, to evaporate liquid nitrogen to supply the cooling required for freezing. Parametric study on the LN2 flow rate to observe the volume of ice obtained was also examined using CFD, where increasing the velocity of LN2 by 6 times, increased the volume of ice obtained by 4.3 times. A number of freezing stages were required in order to reduce the ice salinity from 1.5% down to 0.1% as regarded by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as safe to drink. In the cryogenic desalination test rig, approximately 1.35 L of liquid nitrogen was required to reduce the ice salinity from 1.5% to less than 0.1%. Furthermore, the above results illustrate the potential of using the cold energy of cryogenic fluids such as Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) and LN2/LAir for freeze desalination applications as most cold energy during LNG regasification has been unexploited today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Affinity Law of Energy and Cavitation Characteristics in Emergency Drainage Pumps at Different Rotating Speeds
Processes 2019, 7(12), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120932 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
The affinity law is widely used in pump design and experiments. The applicability of the affinity law in an emergency drainage pump at different rotating speeds was studied. Experiments and numerical simulation through ANSYS CFX (Computational Fluid Dynamics X) 15.0 software were used [...] Read more.
The affinity law is widely used in pump design and experiments. The applicability of the affinity law in an emergency drainage pump at different rotating speeds was studied. Experiments and numerical simulation through ANSYS CFX (Computational Fluid Dynamics X) 15.0 software were used to research the affinity law characteristics. Results show that the simulation of characteristics is basically consistent with the experimental curves. In small flow rate conditions, due to the existence of obvious differential pressure between the pressure side and the suction side in the impeller blade tip area, the leakage flow occurs at the tip clearance, which collides with the main stream at the inlet and generates vortices at the leading edge of the impeller. The tip leakage flows of the pump at four different rotating speeds were compared, and it was found that the tip leakage increased with increasing rotation speed, and at the same rotation speed, the tip leakage flow was large in the small flow rate condition, which led to the simulation value of the characteristics being greater than the scaling value. As the flow rate increased, the anti-cavitation performance of the pump became worse and the hydraulic loss was larger, so the pump’s performance curve deviated from the scaling curve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation on Hydraulic Characteristics of Nozzle in Waterjet Propulsion System
Processes 2019, 7(12), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120915 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
As an important over-current component of the waterjet propulsion system, the main function of a nozzle is to transform the mechanical energy of the propulsion pump into the kinetic energy of the water and eject the water flow to obtain thrust. In this [...] Read more.
As an important over-current component of the waterjet propulsion system, the main function of a nozzle is to transform the mechanical energy of the propulsion pump into the kinetic energy of the water and eject the water flow to obtain thrust. In this study, the nozzle with different geometry and parameters was simulated based on computational fluid dynamics simulation and experiment. Numerical results show a good agreement with experimental results. The results show that the nozzle with a circular shape outlet shrinks evenly. Under the designed flow rate condition, the velocity uniformity of the circular nozzle is 0.26% and 0.34% higher than that of the elliptical nozzle and the rounded rectangle nozzle, respectively. The pump efficiency of the circular nozzle is 0.31% and 0.14% higher than that of the others. The pressure recovery and hydraulic loss of the circular nozzle are superior. The hydraulic characteristics of the propulsion pump and waterjet propulsion system are optimal when the nozzle area is 30% times the outlet area of the inlet duct. Thus, the shaft power, head, thrust, and system efficiency of the propulsion pump and waterjet propulsion system are maximized. The system efficiency curve decreases rapidly when the outlet area exceeds 30% times the outlet area of the inlet duct. The transition curve forms greatly affect thrust and system efficiency. The transition of the linear contraction shows improved uniformity, and the hydraulic loss is reduced. Furthermore, the hydraulic performance of the nozzle with a linear contraction transition is better than that of others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modeling and Thermal Analysis of a Moving Spacecraft Subject to Solar Radiation Effect
Processes 2019, 7(11), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110807 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The impact of solar radiation on spacecraft can increase the cooling load, degrade the material properties of the structure and possibly lead to catastrophic failure of their missions. In this paper, we develop a computational model to investigate the effect of the exposure [...] Read more.
The impact of solar radiation on spacecraft can increase the cooling load, degrade the material properties of the structure and possibly lead to catastrophic failure of their missions. In this paper, we develop a computational model to investigate the effect of the exposure to solar radiation on the thermal distribution of a spacecraft with a cylindrical shape which is traveling in low earth orbit environment. This is obtained by the energy conservation between the heat conduction among the spacecraft, the heating from the solar radiation, and the radiative heat dissipation into the surroundings while accounting for the dynamics of the space vehicle (rotational motion). The model is solved numerically using the meshless collocation point method to evaluate the temperature variations under different operating conditions. The meshless method is based on approximating the unknown field function and their space derivatives, by using a set of nodes, sprinkled over the spatial domain of the spacecraft wall and functions with compact support. Meshless schemes bypass the use of conventional mesh configurations and require only clouds of points, without any prior knowledge on their connectivity. This would relieve the computational burden associated with mesh generation. The simulation results are found in good agreement with those reported in previously-published research works. The numerical results show that spinning the spacecraft at appropriate rates ensures low and uniform temperature distribution on the spacecraft, treated as thick-walled object of different geometries. Therefore, this would extend its lifetime and protect all on-board electronic equipment needed to accomplish its mission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of the Unsteady Flow Characteristics of a Jet Centrifugal Pump under Multiple Conditions
Processes 2019, 7(11), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110786 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
To study the reasons for the low efficiency of jet centrifugal pumps (JCPs) and the mechanism of unsteady flow characteristics under multiple conditions, taking a JET750G1 JCP as the object, three-dimensional steady and unsteady numerical calculations of the model pump were carried out [...] Read more.
To study the reasons for the low efficiency of jet centrifugal pumps (JCPs) and the mechanism of unsteady flow characteristics under multiple conditions, taking a JET750G1 JCP as the object, three-dimensional steady and unsteady numerical calculations of the model pump were carried out using the kω turbulence model. The transient fluctuation characteristics of the flow field in the major flow passage components and the spatial and temporal evolution laws of vortices in the rotor–stator cascades were analyzed. The accuracy of the numerical method was verified by experiments. The results show that there are various scales of flow distortion phenomena in the chamber of the JCP, such as eddies, blockage of the flow passage, recirculation, secondary flow, and circulation, which not only cause great hydraulic loss, but also destroy the flow stability, symmetry, and balance in the other flow passage components. This is an important reason for the obviously lower efficiency of a JCP compared to a general centrifugal pump. The spatial and temporal evolution laws of vortices in the rotor–stator cascades are mainly related to the relative positions of the impeller blades and guide vane blades. The formation mechanism of the unsteady flow field fluctuation characteristics of JCPs is mainly related to the number of blades in the rotor–stator cascades and the operation parameters of the pump. The fluctuation intensity of the flow field inside the impeller and guide vane is obviously greater than that in the other flow areas, reflecting that the rotor–stator interaction is the decisive factor affecting the unsteady flow characteristics of a JCP under multiple conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
DynamFluid: Development and Validation of a New GUI-Based CFD Tool for the Analysis of Incompressible Non-Isothermal Flows
Processes 2019, 7(11), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110777 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
A computational fluid dynamics software (DynamFluid) based on the application of the finite element method with the characteristic-based-split algorithm is presented and validated. The software is used to numerically integrate the steady and unsteady Navier–Stokes equations for both constant-density and Boussinesq non-isothermal flows. [...] Read more.
A computational fluid dynamics software (DynamFluid) based on the application of the finite element method with the characteristic-based-split algorithm is presented and validated. The software is used to numerically integrate the steady and unsteady Navier–Stokes equations for both constant-density and Boussinesq non-isothermal flows. Benchmark two-dimensional computations carried out with DynamFluid show good agreement with previous results reported in the literature. Test cases used for validation include (i) the lid-driven cavity flow, (ii) mixed convection flow in a vertical channel with asymmetric wall temperatures, (iii) unsteady incompressible flow past a circular cylinder, and (iv) steady non-isothermal flow past a circular cylinder with negligible buoyancy effects. The new software is equipped with a graphical user interface that facilitates the definition of the fluid properties, the discretization of the physical domain, the definition of the boundary conditions, and the post-processing of the computed velocity, pressure and temperature fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Verification of a Single-Channel Pump Model based on a Hybrid Optimization Technique
Processes 2019, 7(10), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100747 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
This paper handles a hybrid multiple optimization technique to concurrently enhance hydraulic efficiency and decrease unsteady radial forces resulting from fluid-induced vibration of a single-channel pump for wastewater treatment. A single-channel impeller and volute was optimized systematically by using a hybrid particle swarm [...] Read more.
This paper handles a hybrid multiple optimization technique to concurrently enhance hydraulic efficiency and decrease unsteady radial forces resulting from fluid-induced vibration of a single-channel pump for wastewater treatment. A single-channel impeller and volute was optimized systematically by using a hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm coupled with surrogate modeling. Steady and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes analyses were conducted to optimize the internal flow path in the single-channel pump. Design variables for controlling the internal flow cross-sectional area of the single-channel impeller and volute in the single-channel pump were chosen to concurrently optimize objective functions with hydraulic efficiency and the unsteady radial forces resulting from impeller–volute interaction. The optimization results clearly showed that the arbitrary cluster optimum design considerably enhanced hydraulic efficiency and decreased the unsteady radial forces concurrently, compared to the reference design. Finally, the hydraulic performance of the optimized prototype model was verified experimentally. Then, it was proved that the proposed technique is a practical tool for designing a single-channel pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Optimization of High Specific Speed Centrifugal Pump Based on Orthogonal Experiment Design Method
Processes 2019, 7(10), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100728 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
A high specific speed centrifugal pump is used in the situation of large flow and low head. Centrifugal pump parameters need to be optimized in order to raise its head and efficiency under off-design conditions. In this study, the orthogonal experiment design method [...] Read more.
A high specific speed centrifugal pump is used in the situation of large flow and low head. Centrifugal pump parameters need to be optimized in order to raise its head and efficiency under off-design conditions. In this study, the orthogonal experiment design method is adopted to optimize the performance of centrifugal pump basing on three parameters, namely, blade outlet width b2, blade outlet angle β2 and blade wrap angle φ. First, the three-dimensional model of the centrifugal pump is established by CFturbo and SolidWorks. Then nine different schemes are designed by using orthogonal table, and numerical simulation is carried out in CFX15.0. The final optimized combination of parameters is b2 = 24 mm, β2 = 24°, φ = 112°. Under the design condition, the head and efficiency of the optimized centrifugal pump are appropriately improved, the increments of which are 0.74 m and 0.48%, respectively. However, the efficiency considerably increases at high flow rates, with an increase of 6.9% at 1.5 Qd. The anti-cavitation performance of the optimized centrifugal pump is also better than the original pump. The results in this paper can provide references for parameter selection (b2, β2, φ) in the centrifugal pump design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Unsteady Characteristics of Forward Multi-Wing Centrifugal Fan at Low Flow Rate
Processes 2019, 7(10), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100691 - 02 Oct 2019
Abstract
The unsteady flow characteristics of a forward multi-wing centrifugal fan under a low flow rate are studied using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. This paper emphasizes the eddy current distribution in terms of the Q criterion method, as well as pressure fluctuation, [...] Read more.
The unsteady flow characteristics of a forward multi-wing centrifugal fan under a low flow rate are studied using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. This paper emphasizes the eddy current distribution in terms of the Q criterion method, as well as pressure fluctuation, frequency spectrum, and kinetic energy spectrum analysis of internal monitoring points in a forward multi-wing centrifugal fan. The numerical results show that abnormal eddies mainly appear at the volute outlet and near the volute tongue, boundary layer separation occurs near the suction surface of the blade, and shedding eddies appear at the trailing edge of the blade with the time evolution. The unsteady flow characteristics of a forward multi-wing centrifugal fan at a small flow rate provide significant physical insight into understanding the internal flow law. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
CFD-DEM Modeling and Simulation Coupled to a Global Thermodynamic Analysis Methodology for Evaluating Energy Performance: Biofertilizer Industry
Processes 2019, 7(10), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100673 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
This work develops a methodology based on real chemical plant data collected from a Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium fertilizer (NPK) cooling rotary drum. By blending thermodynamic variables given by global energy and mass balances with computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) modeling and simulation, the methodology [...] Read more.
This work develops a methodology based on real chemical plant data collected from a Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium fertilizer (NPK) cooling rotary drum. By blending thermodynamic variables given by global energy and mass balances with computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) modeling and simulation, the methodology provides an initial approximation to the understanding of heat transfer inside industry rotary coolers. The NPK cooling process was modeled in CFD software Simcenter STAR − CCM + 13.06.011 using a Eulerian–Lagrangian scheme through a coupled CFD-DEM method using one-way coupling. The average temperature of the NPK particles was obtained as well as the average mass flow of the particles dropping as the drum was rotating. The analysis was performed for two-particle diameters (8 and 20 mm) during 17.5 s. The average heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and the NPK particles during the simulated time was obtained. A thermodynamic analysis was carried out using instantaneous energy and mass balances. Prandtl, Nusselt, and Reynolds numbers were obtained for each simulated time step. Finally, through a non-linear regression using the Marquardt method, a correlation between Prandtl, Nusselt, and Reynolds number was developed that allowed analyzing the rotating drum. Results showed that the proposed methodology could serve as a useful tool during the design and analysis of any given rotary cooler, allowing calculation of the heat transfer coefficient and obtaining the process variables that could expand the machine operational capabilities due to the knowledge of the Nusselt number as a function of the drum working parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Single-arc Blade Profile Length on the Performance of a Forward Multiblade Fan
Processes 2019, 7(9), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090629 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effects of single-arc blade profile length on the performance of a forward multiblade fan are investigated in this paper by computational fluid dynamics and experimental measurement. The present work emphasizes that the use of a properly reduced blade inlet angle (β1A [...] Read more.
The effects of single-arc blade profile length on the performance of a forward multiblade fan are investigated in this paper by computational fluid dynamics and experimental measurement. The present work emphasizes that the use of a properly reduced blade inlet angle (β1A) and properly improved blade outlet angle (β2A) is to increase the length blade profile, which suggests a good physical understanding of internal complex flow characteristics and the aerodynamic performance of the fan. Numerical results indicate that the gradient of the absolute velocity among the blades in model-L (reducing the blade inlet angle and improving blade outlet angle) is clearly lower than that of the baseline model and model-S (improving the blade inlet angle and reducing blade outlet angle), where a number of secondary flows arise on the exit surface of baseline model and model-S. However, no secondary flow occurs in model-L, and the flow loss at the exit surface of the volute (scroll-shaped flow patterns) for model-L is obviously lower than that of the baseline model at the design point. The comparison of the test results further shows that to improve the blade profile length is to increase the static pressure and the efficiency of the static pressure, since the improved static pressure of the model-L rises as much as 22.5 Pa and 26.2%, and the improved static pressure efficiency of the model-L rises as much as 5 % at the design flow rates. It is further indicated that increasing the blade working area provides significant physical insight into increasing the static pressure, total pressure, the efficiency of the static pressure and the total pressure efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Blade Sinusoidal Tubercle Trailing Edge in a Centrifugal Pump with Low Specific Speed
Processes 2019, 7(9), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090625 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Pressure pulsations may cause high-amplitude vibrations during the process of a centrifugal pump. The trailing edge shape of the blade has a critical influence on the pump’s pressure fluctuation and hydraulic characterization. In this paper, inspired by the humpback whale flipper, the authors [...] Read more.
Pressure pulsations may cause high-amplitude vibrations during the process of a centrifugal pump. The trailing edge shape of the blade has a critical influence on the pump’s pressure fluctuation and hydraulic characterization. In this paper, inspired by the humpback whale flipper, the authors research the impact of applying the sinusoidal tubercles to the blade suction side of the trailing edge. Numerical calculation and experiments are carried out to investigate the impact of the trailing edge shape on the pressure pulsations and performance of a centrifugal pump with low specific speed. Two designed impellers are tested, one is a sinusoidal tubercle trailing edge (STTE) impeller and the other is the original trailing edge (OTE) prototype. The detailed study indicates that the sinusoidal tubercle trailing edge (STTE) reduces pressure pulsation and enhances hydraulic performance. In the volute tongue region, the pressure pulsation amplitudes of STTE at fBPF decrease significantly. The STTE impeller also effectively changes the vortex structure and intensity in the blade trailing edge area. This investigation will be of great benefit to the optimal design of pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation and Performance Prediction of Centrifugal Pump’s Full Flow Field Based on OpenFOAM
Processes 2019, 7(9), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090605 - 07 Sep 2019
Abstract
The open-source software OpenFOAM 5.0 was used as a platform to perform steady-state and transient numerical simulation for full flow field of a pipeline centrifugal pump (specific speed ns = 65) in a wide operating capacity range of 0.3Qd~1.4Qd [...] Read more.
The open-source software OpenFOAM 5.0 was used as a platform to perform steady-state and transient numerical simulation for full flow field of a pipeline centrifugal pump (specific speed ns = 65) in a wide operating capacity range of 0.3Qd~1.4Qd. The standard k-ε and k-ω SST (Shear-Stress Transport) turbulence models were selected in the flow governing equations. The simpleFoam and pimpleDyMFoam solvers were used for the steady-state and transient calculations, respectively. ParaView, the postprocessor in OpenFOAM, was used to display the calculated flow velocity, pressure and streamline distributions, and to analyze the relationship between the vortex and the hydraulic loss in the pump. The external performance parameters of the pump such as head, input power and efficiency were also calculated based on the simulated flow fields. The predicted pump performances by OpenFOAM and Ansys-Fluent are compared with the test results under the same calculation model, grids and boundary conditions. The comparison indicates that OpenFOAM had high accuracy in the prediction of pump performance in the current case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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Open AccessPerspective
CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation: An Introduction to Published Reviews
Processes 2019, 7(12), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120883 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been firmly established as a fundamental discipline to advancing research on energy engineering. The major progresses achieved during the last two decades both on software modelling capabilities and hardware computing power have resulted in considerable and widespread CFD [...] Read more.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been firmly established as a fundamental discipline to advancing research on energy engineering. The major progresses achieved during the last two decades both on software modelling capabilities and hardware computing power have resulted in considerable and widespread CFD interest among scientist and engineers. Numerical modelling and simulation developments are increasingly contributing to the current state of the art in many energy engineering aspects, such as power generation, combustion, wind energy, concentrated solar power, hydro power, gas and steam turbines, fuel cells, and many others. This review intends to provide an overview of the CFD applications in energy and thermal engineering, as a presentation and background for the Special Issue “CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation” published by Processes in 2020. A brief introduction to the most significant reviews that have been published on the particular topics is provided. The objective is to provide an overview of the CFD applications in energy and thermal engineering, highlighting the review papers published on the different topics, so that readers can refer to the different review papers for a thorough revision of the state of the art and contributions into the particular field of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
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