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Open AccessArticle

Swirled Jet Flame Simulation and Flow Visualization Inside Rotary Kiln—CFD with PDF Approach

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Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Benha Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Benha, Qalyubia 13511, Egypt
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Institute of Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics, Otto-von-Guericke-University of Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
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Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura 35516, Egypt
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Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria 21934, Egypt
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020159
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2020 / Accepted: 22 January 2020 / Published: 29 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Energy Engineering Research and Simulation)
CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation using a commercial package (Fluent-ANSYS) on industrial rotary kilns using annulus-type burners and methane gas was carried out to examine the characteristics of the flame length and flow visualization. New influencing design and operating parameters—primary air swirl number, primary air inlet annulus diameter, and secondary air temperature—were investigated and discussed. The influence of these parameters on axial temperature distribution, axial mean mixture fractions, velocity vectors, mixture fractions, and temperature contours were investigated. The current numerical findings were compared with existing experimental results to validate the simulation approach. The results showed that the primary air swirl number had a remarkable influence on the flame length at a lower primary air inlet annulus diameter ratio of 2.3. Moreover, the flame length increased by 20% and 6% with increasing the swirl number from zero to one for primary air inlet annulus diameter ratios of 2.3 and 5, respectively, and it also increased by 19% with increasing primary air inlet annulus diameter ratio from 2.3 to 5.
Keywords: numerical simulation; rotary kiln; annulus burner; flame length; swirled flow numerical simulation; rotary kiln; annulus burner; flame length; swirled flow
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elattar, H.F.; Specht, E.; Fouda, A.; Rubaiee, S.; Al-Zahrani, A.; Nada, S.A. Swirled Jet Flame Simulation and Flow Visualization Inside Rotary Kiln—CFD with PDF Approach. Processes 2020, 8, 159.

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