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Special Issue "Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Megan A. McCrory

Research Associate Professor of Nutrition, Department of Health Sciences, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 635 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: eating patterns; meal timing; dietary composition; taste preferences; sleep patterns; physical activity; appetite; obesity; energy regulation; chronic disease risk; psychological factors; dietary assessment methodology; wearable technology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carol J. Boushey

Research Associate Professor, Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo Street, Room 525, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dietary assessment; dietary patterns; diet quality; image-based dietary assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet and sleep are both important parts of a healthy lifestyle, but little is known about their independent or interactive roles in affecting human health. Furthermore, research is needed on how sleep and diet may impact each other. The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together recent research on these topics. Submissions of original research, narrative and systematic reviews, and meta-analyses will be included. Studies in which aspects of both diet and sleep as exposures or in which one is the exposure and the other is the outcome will be considered. Manuscripts that investigate sleep quality and sleep duration are of particular interest, but those investigating other sleep variables are also welcome. Dietary aspects of particular interest include energy intake, dietary patterns, diet quality, meal timing, and macro- and micro-nutrients. Human health aspects of energy balance, obesity, and chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and others are encouraged.

Prof. Megan A. McCrory
Prof. Carol J. Boushey
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sleep duration
  • Sleep quality
  • Energy intake
  • Dietary patterns
  • Eating patterns
  • Meal timing
  • Diet quality
  • Food selection
  • Macronutrient intake
  • Micronutrient intake

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Subjective Hunger, Gastric Upset, and Sleepiness in Response to Altered Meal Timing during Simulated Shiftwork
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061352
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI [...] Read more.
Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI = 23.82 ± 2.59kg/m2) participated in a 7-day simulated shiftwork protocol. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three eating conditions. At 00:30, participants consumed a meal comprising 30% of 24 h energy intake (Meal condition; n = 14, 8 males), a snack comprising 10% of 24 h energy intake (Snack condition; n = 14; 8 males) or did not eat during the night (No Eating condition; n = 16, 10 males). Total 24 h individual energy intake and macronutrient content was constant across conditions. During the night, participants reported hunger, gut reaction, and sleepiness levels at 21:00, 23:30, 2:30, and 5:00. Mixed model analyses revealed that the snack condition reported significantly more hunger than the meal group (p < 0.001) with the no eating at night group reporting the greatest hunger (p < 0.001). There was no difference in desire to eat between meal and snack groups. Participants reported less sleepiness after the snack compared to after the meal (p < 0.001) or when not eating during the night (p < 0.001). Gastric upset did not differ between conditions. A snack during the nightshift could alleviate hunger during the nightshift without causing fullness or increased sleepiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Healthy Dietary Patterns and Self-Reported Sleep Disturbances in Older Men: The ULSAM Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051029
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
To date, little is known about how dietary patterns may link to measures of sleep quality in older subjects, who often suffer from sleep problems. Here, we investigated, in an older male population from Sweden (n = 970; aged 71 ± 1 [...] Read more.
To date, little is known about how dietary patterns may link to measures of sleep quality in older subjects, who often suffer from sleep problems. Here, we investigated, in an older male population from Sweden (n = 970; aged 71 ± 1 year), whether adherence to the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI; based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) or the Mediterranean Diet (MD) is linked to sleep disturbances. The diet scores were calculated using a seven-day food diary, and self-reported sleep initiation or maintenance problems were assessed by questionnaires. When adjusted for potential confounders, no associations between dietary scores and sleep parameters were found. In contrast, low consumption of milk and dairy products —one of the dietary features of the MD —was associated with better subjective sleep initiation. This association was, however, not found in men with adequate reports of daily energy intake (~54% of the cohort). To summarize, our findings do not suggest that older men can mitigate perceived difficulties to fall and stay asleep by adhering to either the HDI or MD. Whether low consumption of milk and dairy products can facilitate sleep initiation must be confirmed in future studies by utilizing objective measures of sleep such as polysomnography. Finally, when investigating associations between dietary patterns and sleep, particular attention should be paid to the potential confounder of inadequate reporting of energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Increased Hunger, Food Cravings, Food Reward, and Portion Size Selection after Sleep Curtailment in Women Without Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030663
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
This study examined the effects of one night of sleep curtailment on hunger, food cravings, food reward, and portion size selection. Women who reported habitually sleeping 7–9 h per night, were aged 18–55, were not obese, and had no sleep disorders were recruited. [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of one night of sleep curtailment on hunger, food cravings, food reward, and portion size selection. Women who reported habitually sleeping 7–9 h per night, were aged 18–55, were not obese, and had no sleep disorders were recruited. Sleep conditions in this randomized crossover study consisted of a normal night (NN) and a curtailed night (CN) where time in bed was reduced by 33%. Hunger, tiredness, sleep quality, sleepiness, and food cravings were measured. A progressive ratio task using chocolates assessed the food reward. Participants selected portions of various foods that reflected how much they wanted to eat at that time. The sleep duration was measured using a single-channel electroencephalograph. Twenty-four participants completed the study. The total sleep time was shorter during the CN (p < 0.001). Participants reported increased hunger (p = 0.013), tiredness (p < 0.001), sleepiness (p < 0.001), and food cravings (p = 0.002) after the CN. More chocolate was consumed after the CN (p = 0.004). Larger portion sizes selected after the CN resulted in increased energy plated for lunch (p = 0.034). In conclusion, the present study observed increased hunger, food cravings, food reward, and portion sizes of food after a night of modest sleep curtailment. These maladaptive responses could lead to higher energy intake and, ultimately, weight gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Caloric and Macronutrient Intake Differ with Circadian Phase and between Lean and Overweight Young Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030587
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The timing of caloric intake is a risk factor for excess weight and disease. Growing evidence suggests, however, that the impact of caloric consumption on metabolic health depends on its circadian phase, not clock hour. The objective of the current study was to [...] Read more.
The timing of caloric intake is a risk factor for excess weight and disease. Growing evidence suggests, however, that the impact of caloric consumption on metabolic health depends on its circadian phase, not clock hour. The objective of the current study was to identify how individuals consume calories and macronutrients relative to circadian phase in real-world settings. Young adults (n = 106; aged 19 ± 1 years; 45 females) photographically recorded the timing and content of all calories for seven consecutive days using a smartphone application during a 30-day study. Circadian phase was determined from in-laboratory assessment of dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). Meals were assigned a circadian phase relative to each participant’s DLMO (0°, ~23:17 h) and binned into 60° bins. Lean (n = 68; 15 females) and non-lean (n = 38, 30 females) body composition was determined via bioelectrical impedance. The DLMO time range was ~10 h, allowing separation of clock time and circadian phase. Eating occurred at all circadian phases, with significant circadian rhythmicity (p < 0.0001) and highest caloric intake at ~300° (~1900 h). The non-lean group ate 8% more of their daily calories at an evening circadian phase (300°) than the lean group (p = 0.007). Consumption of carbohydrates and proteins followed circadian patterns (p < 0.0001) and non-lean participants ate 13% more carbohydrates at 240° (~1500 h) than the lean group (p = 0.004). There were no significant differences when caloric intake was referenced to local clock time or sleep onset time (p > 0.05). Interventions targeting the circadian timing of calories and macronutrients for weight management should be tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Standardized Phlorotannin Supplement Attenuates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disruption in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030556
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
In our previous studies, a standardized phlorotannin (brown seaweed polyphenol) supplement (PS) exhibited sleep-promoting effects via type A γ-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine receptors in mice. In addition, in human clinical trials, it decreased wake after sleep onset in adults with sleep disturbance. In this follow-up [...] Read more.
In our previous studies, a standardized phlorotannin (brown seaweed polyphenol) supplement (PS) exhibited sleep-promoting effects via type A γ-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine receptors in mice. In addition, in human clinical trials, it decreased wake after sleep onset in adults with sleep disturbance. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether PS attenuates caffeine-induced sleep disruption in mice. The effects of PS were evaluated in a caffeine model by analyzing sleep architecture based on electroencephalogram and electromyogram findings, and were compared with the effects of a well-known sedative-hypnotic drug zolpidem (ZPD). As expected, oral administration of caffeine (25 mg/kg) significantly increased sleep latency and decreased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). In the caffeine + PS and caffeine + ZPD groups, PS (500 mg/kg) attenuated caffeine-induced sleep disruption, and its effects were comparable with those of ZPD (10 mg/kg). In particular, PS inhibited the arousal effects of caffeine without change in delta activity during NREMS, whereas ZPD produced a decrease in the delta activity. Considering global trends in coffee and energy drink consumption, our finding suggest that PS may be useful to relieve transitory insomnia symptoms caused by caffeine consumption, unlike the prescription drug ZPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Sleep Disturbances and Liver Status in Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison with Healthy Controls
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020322
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight [...] Read more.
The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight non-NAFLD controls. Ninety-four overweight or obese patients with NAFLD and 40 non-NAFLD normal weight controls assessed by abdominal ultrasonography were enrolled. Hepatic status evaluation considered liver stiffness determined by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse elastography (ARFI) and transaminases. Additionally, anthropometric measurements, clinical characteristics, and biochemical profiles were determined. Sleep features were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hepatic status parameters, anthropometric measurements, and clinical and biochemical markers differed significantly in NAFLD subjects compared to controls, as well as sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance score, and sleep quality score. In the NAFLD group, a higher prevalence of short sleep duration (p = 0.005) and poor sleep quality (p = 0.041) were found. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD considering sleep disturbance was 1.59 (1.11–2.28). Regression models that included either sleep disturbance or sleep quality predicted up to 20.3% and 20.4% of the variability of liver stiffness, respectively, and after adjusting for potential confounders. Current findings suggest that sleep disruption may be contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD as well as the alteration of the liver may be affecting sleep patterns. Consequently, sleep characteristics may be added to the list of modifiable behaviors to consider in health promotion strategies and in the prevention and management of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association with the Quality of Sleep and the Mediating Role of Eating on Self-Esteem in Healthcare Personnel
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020321
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
In recent decades, organizational research has paid special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and well-being of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource associated with well-being at work and the psychological well-being of nurses. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
In recent decades, organizational research has paid special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and well-being of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource associated with well-being at work and the psychological well-being of nurses. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of eating on the relationship between sleep quality and self-esteem in nursing professionals. A sample of 1073 nurses was administered the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-18). The results show that poor sleep quality and type of eating directly and indirectly affect self-esteem. Poor sleep quality lowered self-esteem through emotional eating and, even though emotional eating facilitated uncontrolled eating, this relationship had no significant effect on self-esteem. The findings of this study suggest that hospital management should implement employee health awareness programs on the importance of healthy sleep and design educational interventions for improving diet quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Their Polyphenol Content Are Inversely Associated with Sleep Duration: Prospective Associations from the UK Women’s Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111803
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate the prospective associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes and their polyphenol content with subsequent sleep duration in UK women. In this study, 13,958 women with ~4 years of follow-up in the UK Women’s Cohort Study were included [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the prospective associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes and their polyphenol content with subsequent sleep duration in UK women. In this study, 13,958 women with ~4 years of follow-up in the UK Women’s Cohort Study were included in the analyses. FV intakes were assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and average hours of sleep per day were self-reported in follow-up. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching FV items from the FFQ with the Phenol-Explorer database. Linear regression models, adjusting for confounders, were used for the analyses. Consuming an additional portion of apples, kiwi, oranges, pineapple, and 100% pure juice were associated with shorter sleep. Similarly, an additional portion of cabbage, celery, aubergine, olives, and peppers were inversely associated with sleep duration. An additional gram of total polyphenols was associated with shorter sleep by 18 min (99% CI −31 to −4, p < 0.001). FV consumption and total polyphenol content were inversely associated with sleep duration; however, effect sizes were small, and polyphenol classes from FV intakes were not associated with sleep duration. Future intervention studies considering the time of FV consumption in relation to sleep are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Bridging the Reciprocal Gap between Sleep and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Review of the Evidence, Potential Mechanisms, Implications, and Directions for Future Work
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061382
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
A substantial burden of disease and mortality globally is attributable to both sleep disruption and low intakes of fruit and vegetable (FV) and there is increasing mechanistic and epidemiological evidence to support a reciprocal relationship between the two. This review provides an overview [...] Read more.
A substantial burden of disease and mortality globally is attributable to both sleep disruption and low intakes of fruit and vegetable (FV) and there is increasing mechanistic and epidemiological evidence to support a reciprocal relationship between the two. This review provides an overview of experimental and observational studies assessing the relations between sleep and FV consumption from 52 human adult studies. Experimental studies are currently limited and show inconsistent results. Observational studies support a non-linear association with adults sleeping the recommended 7–9 hours/day having the highest intakes of FV. The potential mechanisms linking sleep and FV consumption are highlighted. Disrupted sleep influences FV consumption through homeostatic and non-homeostatic mechanisms. Conversely, FV consumption may influence sleep through polyphenol content via several potential pathways. Few human experimental studies have examined the effects of FV items and their polyphenols on sleep and there is a need for more studies to address this. An appreciation of the relationship between sleep and FV consumption may help optimize sleep and FV consumption and may reduce the burden of chronic diseases. This review provides implications for public health and directions for future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
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