Special Issue "Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Megan A. McCrory
Website
Guest Editor
Research Associate Professor of Nutrition, Department of Health Sciences, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 635 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Interests: eating patterns; meal timing; dietary composition; taste preferences; sleep patterns; physical activity; appetite; obesity; energy regulation; chronic disease risk; psychological factors; dietary assessment methodology; wearable technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Carol J. Boushey
Website
Guest Editor
Research Associate Professor, Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo Street, Room 525, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
Interests: dietary assessment; dietary patterns; diet quality; image-based dietary assessment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet and sleep are both important parts of a healthy lifestyle, but little is known about their independent or interactive roles in affecting human health. Furthermore, research is needed on how sleep and diet may impact each other. The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together recent research on these topics. Submissions of original research, narrative and systematic reviews, and meta-analyses will be included. Studies in which aspects of both diet and sleep as exposures or in which one is the exposure and the other is the outcome will be considered. Manuscripts that investigate sleep quality and sleep duration are of particular interest, but those investigating other sleep variables are also welcome. Dietary aspects of particular interest include energy intake, dietary patterns, diet quality, meal timing, and macro- and micro-nutrients. Human health aspects of energy balance, obesity, and chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and others are encouraged.

Prof. Megan A. McCrory
Prof. Carol J. Boushey
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sleep duration
  • Sleep quality
  • Energy intake
  • Dietary patterns
  • Eating patterns
  • Meal timing
  • Diet quality
  • Food selection
  • Macronutrient intake
  • Micronutrient intake

Published Papers (21 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Associations of Sleep with Food Cravings, Diet, and Obesity in Adolescence
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122899 - 30 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Sleep and dietary intake/quality can contribute to excess weight gain, but food cravings may influence these relationships. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of adolescents’ sleep characteristics with dietary intake/quality and obesity and whether food cravings mediated these relationships. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Sleep and dietary intake/quality can contribute to excess weight gain, but food cravings may influence these relationships. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of adolescents’ sleep characteristics with dietary intake/quality and obesity and whether food cravings mediated these relationships. Methods: Sleep measures were calculated based on 24-h accelerometry, and height and weight were directly measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Food cravings were assessed by the Food Craving Inventory (FCI). Dietary intake and quality were calculated based on dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations among sleep, food cravings, dietary intake/quality, and obesity, adjusting for confounders. Results: In total, 256 adolescents (ages 10–16 years) had complete data; 42% were non-White and 45% were boys. Sleep efficiency was inversely associated with sweet cravings and FCI-28. Sleep duration, meeting the sleep duration guidelines, and fruit/vegetable cravings were each positively associated with dietary quality. Sleep duration was negatively associated with BMI z-score. Mediation models were not performed as no sleep parameter was associated with both cravings and dietary intake/quality or BMI z-score. Conclusions: Associations existed among poor sleep, quantity and quality, with more frequent food cravings and worse dietary quality. Sleep may underlie adolescent obesogenic behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Hypnotic Effects of Lactobacillus fermentum PS150TM on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102409 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system appears to be functionally linked to the intestinal microbiome, namely the microbiome–gut–brain axis (MGBA). Probiotics with health benefits on psychiatric or neurological illnesses are generally called psychobiotics, and some of them [...] Read more.
The bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system appears to be functionally linked to the intestinal microbiome, namely the microbiome–gut–brain axis (MGBA). Probiotics with health benefits on psychiatric or neurological illnesses are generally called psychobiotics, and some of them may also be able to improve sleep by targeting the MGBA. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a psychobiotic strain, Lactobacillus fermentum PS150TM (PS150TM), on sleep improvement by using a pentobarbital-induced sleep mouse model. Compared with the vehicle control group, the oral administration of PS150TM, but not the other L. fermentum strains, significantly decreased the sleep latency and increased the sleep duration of mice, suggesting strain-specific sleep-improving effects of PS150TM. Moreover, the ingestion of diphenhydramine, an antihistamine used to treat insomnia, as a drug control group, only increased the sleep duration of mice. We also found that the sleep-improving effects of PS150TM are time- and dose-dependent. Furthermore, the oral administration of PS150TM could attenuate a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice, and PS150TM appeared to increase the expression of the gene encoding the adenosine 1 receptor in the hypothalamus of mice, as assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Taken together, our results present a potential application of PS150TM as a dietary supplement for sleep improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association between Macronutrient Intake and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: An Iso-Caloric Substitution Analysis from the North West Adelaide Health Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102374 - 05 Oct 2019
Abstract
Epidemiological evidence on the association between macronutrient intake and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is scarce. Using data from the North West Adelaide Health Study, we aimed to determine the association between iso-caloric substitution of macronutrients and EDS. Data from 1997 adults aged ≥ [...] Read more.
Epidemiological evidence on the association between macronutrient intake and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is scarce. Using data from the North West Adelaide Health Study, we aimed to determine the association between iso-caloric substitution of macronutrients and EDS. Data from 1997 adults aged ≥ 24 years were analyzed. Daytime sleepiness was measured using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, a score ≥ 11 was considered EDS. Dietary intake data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire. We determined absolute and relative energy intake based on consumption of saturated and unsaturated fats, protein, and carbohydrate. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine the associations using log-binomial logistic regression with and without iso-caloric substitution methods, and models were adjusted for confounders. The prevalence of EDS in the sample was 10.6%. After adjusting for potential confounders, substituting 5% energy intake from protein with an equal amount of saturated fat (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.00–2.45) and carbohydrate (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.92–1.65) increased the odds of EDS. When carbohydrate was substituted with saturated fat (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.93–1.59), the odds of EDS were increased. The odds of EDS were lower when saturated fat was substituted with unsaturated fat (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.51–1.06), protein (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41–0.99) or carbohydrate (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.57–1.08). While these results were consistent over different iso-caloric substitution methods, inconsistent results were found with standard regression. While substitution of fat and carbohydrate with protein was inversely associated with EDS, substitution of protein with fat and carbohydrate was positively associated with EDS. Randomized trials are needed to confirm if dietary interventions can be used to improve daytime alertness in those with EDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Micronutrient Inadequacy in Short Sleep: Analysis of the NHANES 2005–2016
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102335 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
One third of U.S. adults report short sleep (<7 h), which has been linked to negative health outcomes. Inadequate intake of micronutrients across the U.S. adult population has been reported, and a relationship between sleep conditions and micronutrient intake is emerging. This cross-sectional [...] Read more.
One third of U.S. adults report short sleep (<7 h), which has been linked to negative health outcomes. Inadequate intake of micronutrients across the U.S. adult population has been reported, and a relationship between sleep conditions and micronutrient intake is emerging. This cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2016) (n = 26,211) showed that participants with short sleep duration had a lower usual intake (Food + Supplements) of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D in all adults aged 19+ years, and vitamin K in adults aged 19–50 years, even after adjusting for covariates. In addition, participants reporting short sleep had a higher percentage of individuals with intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) across multiple nutrients. Age and gender differences were observed in the prevalence of inadequate intake across multiple nutrients. Adults aged 51–99 years with short sleep duration had inadequate intake with respect to more nutrients. In females there was an association between short sleep and a higher prevalence of inadequate intake (Food + Spp) for calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and K (above adequate intake). Conversely, males reporting short sleep only had an inadequate intake of vitamin D. Overall, we demonstrate that short sleep is associated with increased nutrient inadequacy, emphasizing the possible need for dietary supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Interdisciplinary Weight Loss and Lifestyle Intervention for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Adults: Rationale, Design and Methodology of the INTERAPNEA Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092227 - 15 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), the most common sleep-disordered breathing related to neurocognitive and metabolic syndromes, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Although strongly recommended for this condition, there are no studies on the effectiveness of an [...] Read more.
Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), the most common sleep-disordered breathing related to neurocognitive and metabolic syndromes, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Although strongly recommended for this condition, there are no studies on the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary weight loss and lifestyle intervention including nutrition, exercise, sleep hygiene, and smoking and alcohol cessation. INTERAPNEA is a randomised controlled trial with a two-arm parallel design aimed at determining the effects of an interdisciplinary tailored weight loss and lifestyle intervention on OSA outcomes. The study will include 84 males aged 18–65 with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 and severe to moderate OSA randomly assigned to usual care (i.e., continuous positive airway pressure), or interdisciplinary weight loss and lifestyle intervention combined with usual care. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, intervention end-point, and six-month post-intervention, including apnoea-hypopnoea index (primary outcome), other neurophysical and cardiorespiratory polysomnographic outcomes, sleep quality, daily functioning and mood, body weight and composition, physical fitness, blood biomarkers, health-related quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. INTERAPNEA may serve to establish a cost-effective treatment not only for the improvement of OSA and its vast and severe comorbidities, but also for a potential remission of this condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multiple Dimensions of Sweet Taste Perception Altered after Sleep Curtailment
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092015 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Short sleep duration increases preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods. It is unclear if insufficient sleep-induced changes in food preference are mediated by changes in taste perception and if these changes are related to sweetener type (sucrose or sucralose) or sweet liking phenotype. [...] Read more.
Short sleep duration increases preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods. It is unclear if insufficient sleep-induced changes in food preference are mediated by changes in taste perception and if these changes are related to sweetener type (sucrose or sucralose) or sweet liking phenotype. The primary objective of this study was to determine if sleep curtailment results in changes in sweet taste perception after sleep curtailment. Forty participants used a single-channel electroencephalograph to record both a habitual and curtailed night (33% reduction) of sleep at home. The following morning, multiple dimensions of sweet taste perception were measured, including preferred sweetener concentrations, patterns of sweet liking, and intensity perception over a range of concentrations. After curtailment, a significant increase in preferred concentration for both sucrose and sucralose (p < 0.001 for both) was observed. The slope of sucrose sweet liking increased after curtailment (p = 0.001). The slope of sucralose liking also increased, but this was not significant (p = 0.129). Intensity perception of the sweeteners was not altered by curtailment. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify participants by sweet liking phenotype. Phenotypes were found to predict preferred sweetener concentration. These findings illustrate a possible need to control for sleep in food sensory studies and suggest a potential mechanism by which insufficient sleep can lead to excess energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association of Sleep Duration and Insomnia Symptoms with Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081848 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The study determined the association of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with the components of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in middle-aged and older adults with metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used the database compiled in Taiwan between 2004–2013. A total of [...] Read more.
The study determined the association of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with the components of metabolic syndrome and inflammation in middle-aged and older adults with metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used the database compiled in Taiwan between 2004–2013. A total of 26,016 volunteers aged 35 years and above were selected. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Compared with regular sleep duration (6–8 h/day), short (<6 h/day) or long sleep duration (>8 h/day) and insomnia symptoms significantly increased the odds ratios of high waist circumference, high blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high triglycerides, high fasting blood glucose, and high C-reactive protein. Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration on the components of metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Our study suggests that short or long sleep duration and insomnia symptoms may have an adverse effect on metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Social Jet Lag Associates Negatively with the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Body Mass Index among Young Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081756 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Obesity and unhealthy eating habits have been associated with irregular sleep–wake patterns during the week, also known as social jet lag. The Mediterranean diet is a healthy pattern related with a better health and sleep quality. However, potential associations with social jet lag [...] Read more.
Obesity and unhealthy eating habits have been associated with irregular sleep–wake patterns during the week, also known as social jet lag. The Mediterranean diet is a healthy pattern related with a better health and sleep quality. However, potential associations with social jet lag remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine whether higher social jet lag is linked to lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet and whether it is associated with BMI (Body Mass Index). This cross-sectional study included 534 young adults (18–25 years). Anthropometric parameters, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, chronotype and social jet lag were studied. Our results revealed that individuals with greater social jet lag showed lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet and had a higher BMI. Among the habits that characterized the Mediterranean dietary pattern, we observed that higher social jet lag was significantly associated with a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as skipping breakfast. Hence, the promotion of regular sleep habits together with healthy dietary patterns should be considered for obesity prevention, especially among young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Sleep Quality and the Mediating Role of Stress Management on Eating by Nursing Personnel
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081731 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
(1) Background: The work schedule of nursing personnel often involves double or continuous shifts and sources of stress derived from the work context, making it necessary to ensure their rest and eating habits contribute to a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The work schedule of nursing personnel often involves double or continuous shifts and sources of stress derived from the work context, making it necessary to ensure their rest and eating habits contribute to a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of stress management on the effect that sleep quality has on uncontrolled and emotional eating by nursing professionals. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 was applied to measure uncontrolled and emotional eating, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, and the EQ-i-20M for the stress management component of emotional intelligence. (2) Methods: A sample of 1073 nurses aged 22 to 57 years was selected for this purpose. (3) Results: The main result of this study was that stress management was a mediator in the effect of sleep quality on uncontrolled and emotional eating. Furthermore, low scores for sleeping problems correlated with high scores for stress management. The results also revealed a strong negative association between stress management and uncontrolled and emotional eating. (4) Conclusions: The results are discussed from the perspective of promoting health at work as well as improving the psychosocial wellbeing of nursing professionals and increasing the quality of patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Polygonatum sibiricum on Mild Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081719 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Polygonatum sibiricum (PS) rhizome, which contains glyceryl-1-monolinoleate as its primary active component, has been shown to improve insomnia in animal models. Based on these findings, we aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of PS rhizome extract in improving sleep quality in individuals [...] Read more.
Polygonatum sibiricum (PS) rhizome, which contains glyceryl-1-monolinoleate as its primary active component, has been shown to improve insomnia in animal models. Based on these findings, we aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of PS rhizome extract in improving sleep quality in individuals with mild insomnia. Eighty individuals with mild insomnia were enrolled in a four-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of PS rhizome extract (500 mg/day, n = 40, PS group) or placebo (n = 40, placebo group). The primary outcome measure was change in total score on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to indicate sleep quality. The secondary outcome measures included change in actigraphy data and perfusion levels in the brain regions within the default mode network (DMN), which is known to play a key role in insomnia. The PS group showed greater improvement in the total AIS score with a significant increase in total sleep time, relative to the placebo group. In addition, significant group-by-visit interactions were observed in the perfusion level of the medial prefrontal cortex within the DMN. Findings of the current study provide first evidence that PS rhizome extract could be an effective natural ingredient for improving sleep in mild insomnia using a human model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Study of the Effects of Alpha-s1 Casein Hydrolysate on Sleep Disturbance
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071466 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of alpha-s1 casein hydrolysate (ACH; Lactium®) on the subjective and objective sleep profiles of a community-based sample of Koreans with poor sleep quality. We performed a double-blind, randomized crossover trial with 48 participants (49.0 ± 1.7 [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of alpha-s1 casein hydrolysate (ACH; Lactium®) on the subjective and objective sleep profiles of a community-based sample of Koreans with poor sleep quality. We performed a double-blind, randomized crossover trial with 48 participants (49.0 ± 1.7 years old, 65% female) who exhibited a mild to moderate degree of sleep disturbance. Either ACH or placebo was administered for the initial four weeks, and the counterpart was administered in precisely the same manner after a four-week washout period. Sleep disturbance scales, daytime functioning, and psychiatric aspects showed a similar tendency to improve during both ACH and placebo phases without significant group differences. Overall perceived sleep profiles in sleep diaries were significantly improved during the ACH phase, represented by increased total sleep time and sleep efficiency (SE), as well as decreased sleep latency and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Interestingly, actigraphy demonstrated significantly increased SE after continuous use of ACH for four weeks, clearly more improved when compared to two weeks of use. The polysomnography measures showed a similar tendency without statistically significant group differences. Our findings suggest that refined ACH was well tolerated and could improve sleep quality, with possible cumulative beneficial effects with long-term administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Subjective Hunger, Gastric Upset, and Sleepiness in Response to Altered Meal Timing during Simulated Shiftwork
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061352 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI [...] Read more.
Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants (n = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI = 23.82 ± 2.59kg/m2) participated in a 7-day simulated shiftwork protocol. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three eating conditions. At 00:30, participants consumed a meal comprising 30% of 24 h energy intake (Meal condition; n = 14, 8 males), a snack comprising 10% of 24 h energy intake (Snack condition; n = 14; 8 males) or did not eat during the night (No Eating condition; n = 16, 10 males). Total 24 h individual energy intake and macronutrient content was constant across conditions. During the night, participants reported hunger, gut reaction, and sleepiness levels at 21:00, 23:30, 2:30, and 5:00. Mixed model analyses revealed that the snack condition reported significantly more hunger than the meal group (p < 0.001) with the no eating at night group reporting the greatest hunger (p < 0.001). There was no difference in desire to eat between meal and snack groups. Participants reported less sleepiness after the snack compared to after the meal (p < 0.001) or when not eating during the night (p < 0.001). Gastric upset did not differ between conditions. A snack during the nightshift could alleviate hunger during the nightshift without causing fullness or increased sleepiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association between Healthy Dietary Patterns and Self-Reported Sleep Disturbances in Older Men: The ULSAM Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051029 - 08 May 2019
Abstract
To date, little is known about how dietary patterns may link to measures of sleep quality in older subjects, who often suffer from sleep problems. Here, we investigated, in an older male population from Sweden (n = 970; aged 71 ± 1 [...] Read more.
To date, little is known about how dietary patterns may link to measures of sleep quality in older subjects, who often suffer from sleep problems. Here, we investigated, in an older male population from Sweden (n = 970; aged 71 ± 1 year), whether adherence to the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI; based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) or the Mediterranean Diet (MD) is linked to sleep disturbances. The diet scores were calculated using a seven-day food diary, and self-reported sleep initiation or maintenance problems were assessed by questionnaires. When adjusted for potential confounders, no associations between dietary scores and sleep parameters were found. In contrast, low consumption of milk and dairy products —one of the dietary features of the MD —was associated with better subjective sleep initiation. This association was, however, not found in men with adequate reports of daily energy intake (~54% of the cohort). To summarize, our findings do not suggest that older men can mitigate perceived difficulties to fall and stay asleep by adhering to either the HDI or MD. Whether low consumption of milk and dairy products can facilitate sleep initiation must be confirmed in future studies by utilizing objective measures of sleep such as polysomnography. Finally, when investigating associations between dietary patterns and sleep, particular attention should be paid to the potential confounder of inadequate reporting of energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Increased Hunger, Food Cravings, Food Reward, and Portion Size Selection after Sleep Curtailment in Women Without Obesity
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030663 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
This study examined the effects of one night of sleep curtailment on hunger, food cravings, food reward, and portion size selection. Women who reported habitually sleeping 7–9 h per night, were aged 18–55, were not obese, and had no sleep disorders were recruited. [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of one night of sleep curtailment on hunger, food cravings, food reward, and portion size selection. Women who reported habitually sleeping 7–9 h per night, were aged 18–55, were not obese, and had no sleep disorders were recruited. Sleep conditions in this randomized crossover study consisted of a normal night (NN) and a curtailed night (CN) where time in bed was reduced by 33%. Hunger, tiredness, sleep quality, sleepiness, and food cravings were measured. A progressive ratio task using chocolates assessed the food reward. Participants selected portions of various foods that reflected how much they wanted to eat at that time. The sleep duration was measured using a single-channel electroencephalograph. Twenty-four participants completed the study. The total sleep time was shorter during the CN (p < 0.001). Participants reported increased hunger (p = 0.013), tiredness (p < 0.001), sleepiness (p < 0.001), and food cravings (p = 0.002) after the CN. More chocolate was consumed after the CN (p = 0.004). Larger portion sizes selected after the CN resulted in increased energy plated for lunch (p = 0.034). In conclusion, the present study observed increased hunger, food cravings, food reward, and portion sizes of food after a night of modest sleep curtailment. These maladaptive responses could lead to higher energy intake and, ultimately, weight gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Caloric and Macronutrient Intake Differ with Circadian Phase and between Lean and Overweight Young Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030587 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The timing of caloric intake is a risk factor for excess weight and disease. Growing evidence suggests, however, that the impact of caloric consumption on metabolic health depends on its circadian phase, not clock hour. The objective of the current study was to [...] Read more.
The timing of caloric intake is a risk factor for excess weight and disease. Growing evidence suggests, however, that the impact of caloric consumption on metabolic health depends on its circadian phase, not clock hour. The objective of the current study was to identify how individuals consume calories and macronutrients relative to circadian phase in real-world settings. Young adults (n = 106; aged 19 ± 1 years; 45 females) photographically recorded the timing and content of all calories for seven consecutive days using a smartphone application during a 30-day study. Circadian phase was determined from in-laboratory assessment of dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). Meals were assigned a circadian phase relative to each participant’s DLMO (0°, ~23:17 h) and binned into 60° bins. Lean (n = 68; 15 females) and non-lean (n = 38, 30 females) body composition was determined via bioelectrical impedance. The DLMO time range was ~10 h, allowing separation of clock time and circadian phase. Eating occurred at all circadian phases, with significant circadian rhythmicity (p < 0.0001) and highest caloric intake at ~300° (~1900 h). The non-lean group ate 8% more of their daily calories at an evening circadian phase (300°) than the lean group (p = 0.007). Consumption of carbohydrates and proteins followed circadian patterns (p < 0.0001) and non-lean participants ate 13% more carbohydrates at 240° (~1500 h) than the lean group (p = 0.004). There were no significant differences when caloric intake was referenced to local clock time or sleep onset time (p > 0.05). Interventions targeting the circadian timing of calories and macronutrients for weight management should be tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Standardized Phlorotannin Supplement Attenuates Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disruption in Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030556 - 06 Mar 2019
Abstract
In our previous studies, a standardized phlorotannin (brown seaweed polyphenol) supplement (PS) exhibited sleep-promoting effects via type A γ-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine receptors in mice. In addition, in human clinical trials, it decreased wake after sleep onset in adults with sleep disturbance. In this follow-up [...] Read more.
In our previous studies, a standardized phlorotannin (brown seaweed polyphenol) supplement (PS) exhibited sleep-promoting effects via type A γ-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine receptors in mice. In addition, in human clinical trials, it decreased wake after sleep onset in adults with sleep disturbance. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether PS attenuates caffeine-induced sleep disruption in mice. The effects of PS were evaluated in a caffeine model by analyzing sleep architecture based on electroencephalogram and electromyogram findings, and were compared with the effects of a well-known sedative-hypnotic drug zolpidem (ZPD). As expected, oral administration of caffeine (25 mg/kg) significantly increased sleep latency and decreased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). In the caffeine + PS and caffeine + ZPD groups, PS (500 mg/kg) attenuated caffeine-induced sleep disruption, and its effects were comparable with those of ZPD (10 mg/kg). In particular, PS inhibited the arousal effects of caffeine without change in delta activity during NREMS, whereas ZPD produced a decrease in the delta activity. Considering global trends in coffee and energy drink consumption, our finding suggest that PS may be useful to relieve transitory insomnia symptoms caused by caffeine consumption, unlike the prescription drug ZPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association between Sleep Disturbances and Liver Status in Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison with Healthy Controls
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020322 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight [...] Read more.
The relevance of sleep patterns in the onset or evolution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the association between sleep characteristics and hepatic status indicators in obese people with NAFLD compared to normal weight non-NAFLD controls. Ninety-four overweight or obese patients with NAFLD and 40 non-NAFLD normal weight controls assessed by abdominal ultrasonography were enrolled. Hepatic status evaluation considered liver stiffness determined by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse elastography (ARFI) and transaminases. Additionally, anthropometric measurements, clinical characteristics, and biochemical profiles were determined. Sleep features were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hepatic status parameters, anthropometric measurements, and clinical and biochemical markers differed significantly in NAFLD subjects compared to controls, as well as sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance score, and sleep quality score. In the NAFLD group, a higher prevalence of short sleep duration (p = 0.005) and poor sleep quality (p = 0.041) were found. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD considering sleep disturbance was 1.59 (1.11–2.28). Regression models that included either sleep disturbance or sleep quality predicted up to 20.3% and 20.4% of the variability of liver stiffness, respectively, and after adjusting for potential confounders. Current findings suggest that sleep disruption may be contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD as well as the alteration of the liver may be affecting sleep patterns. Consequently, sleep characteristics may be added to the list of modifiable behaviors to consider in health promotion strategies and in the prevention and management of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association with the Quality of Sleep and the Mediating Role of Eating on Self-Esteem in Healthcare Personnel
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020321 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In recent decades, organizational research has paid special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and well-being of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource associated with well-being at work and the psychological well-being of nurses. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
In recent decades, organizational research has paid special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and well-being of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource associated with well-being at work and the psychological well-being of nurses. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of eating on the relationship between sleep quality and self-esteem in nursing professionals. A sample of 1073 nurses was administered the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-18). The results show that poor sleep quality and type of eating directly and indirectly affect self-esteem. Poor sleep quality lowered self-esteem through emotional eating and, even though emotional eating facilitated uncontrolled eating, this relationship had no significant effect on self-esteem. The findings of this study suggest that hospital management should implement employee health awareness programs on the importance of healthy sleep and design educational interventions for improving diet quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Their Polyphenol Content Are Inversely Associated with Sleep Duration: Prospective Associations from the UK Women’s Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111803 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the prospective associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes and their polyphenol content with subsequent sleep duration in UK women. In this study, 13,958 women with ~4 years of follow-up in the UK Women’s Cohort Study were included [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the prospective associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes and their polyphenol content with subsequent sleep duration in UK women. In this study, 13,958 women with ~4 years of follow-up in the UK Women’s Cohort Study were included in the analyses. FV intakes were assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and average hours of sleep per day were self-reported in follow-up. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching FV items from the FFQ with the Phenol-Explorer database. Linear regression models, adjusting for confounders, were used for the analyses. Consuming an additional portion of apples, kiwi, oranges, pineapple, and 100% pure juice were associated with shorter sleep. Similarly, an additional portion of cabbage, celery, aubergine, olives, and peppers were inversely associated with sleep duration. An additional gram of total polyphenols was associated with shorter sleep by 18 min (99% CI −31 to −4, p < 0.001). FV consumption and total polyphenol content were inversely associated with sleep duration; however, effect sizes were small, and polyphenol classes from FV intakes were not associated with sleep duration. Future intervention studies considering the time of FV consumption in relation to sleep are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Association of Sleep Quality and Macronutrient Distribution: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010126 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sleep is involved in metabolic, emotional and cognitive regulation and is therefore an essential part of our health. Although an association between sleep quality and macronutrient intake has been reported, studies on the effect of macronutrient distribution with sleep quality are limited, and [...] Read more.
Sleep is involved in metabolic, emotional and cognitive regulation and is therefore an essential part of our health. Although an association between sleep quality and macronutrient intake has been reported, studies on the effect of macronutrient distribution with sleep quality are limited, and available results are inconsistent. In this study, we aim to assess the association between sleep quality and macronutrient distribution in healthy adults from systematically reviewed cross-sectional studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A total of 19 relevant articles were selected and it was observed that good sleepers (sleep duration ≥ 7 h, global sleep score ≤ 5, sleep latency ≤ 30 min and sleep efficiency >85%) had a higher energy distribution from dietary protein than poor sleepers. On the other hand, good sleepers showed a relatively lower percentage of energy from dietary carbohydrate and fat than poor sleepers. However, meta-regression analysis revealed no dose-dependent association between the macronutrient distributions and sleep duration. These results suggest that consuming a greater proportion of dietary protein may benefit on improving sleep quality in healthy adults. However, findings may be susceptible to reverse causality and additional RCTs are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Bridging the Reciprocal Gap between Sleep and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Review of the Evidence, Potential Mechanisms, Implications, and Directions for Future Work
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061382 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A substantial burden of disease and mortality globally is attributable to both sleep disruption and low intakes of fruit and vegetable (FV) and there is increasing mechanistic and epidemiological evidence to support a reciprocal relationship between the two. This review provides an overview [...] Read more.
A substantial burden of disease and mortality globally is attributable to both sleep disruption and low intakes of fruit and vegetable (FV) and there is increasing mechanistic and epidemiological evidence to support a reciprocal relationship between the two. This review provides an overview of experimental and observational studies assessing the relations between sleep and FV consumption from 52 human adult studies. Experimental studies are currently limited and show inconsistent results. Observational studies support a non-linear association with adults sleeping the recommended 7–9 hours/day having the highest intakes of FV. The potential mechanisms linking sleep and FV consumption are highlighted. Disrupted sleep influences FV consumption through homeostatic and non-homeostatic mechanisms. Conversely, FV consumption may influence sleep through polyphenol content via several potential pathways. Few human experimental studies have examined the effects of FV items and their polyphenols on sleep and there is a need for more studies to address this. An appreciation of the relationship between sleep and FV consumption may help optimize sleep and FV consumption and may reduce the burden of chronic diseases. This review provides implications for public health and directions for future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop