Special Issue "Dietary Fibers and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2016).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Megan A. McCrory
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Associate Professor of Nutrition, Department of Health Sciences, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 635 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Interests: eating patterns; meal timing; dietary composition; taste preferences; sleep patterns; physical activity; appetite; obesity; energy regulation; chronic disease risk; psychological factors; dietary assessment methodology; wearable technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary fiber has long been recognized for its role in digestive function. However, currently there is scientific debate about definitions (descriptive and analytical), optimal intake, and essentiality in the human diet. Dietary fiber is a key substrate for bacterial metabolism in the colon, which makes research on dietary fiber an important issue that complements current interest in the gut microbiota. Dietary fiber is also important for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. This Special Issue will highlight recent research on dietary fiber content in foods and function in human health, ranging from digestive function to chronic disease prevention and management.

Clinical Assoc. Prof. Dr. Megan A. McCrory
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Dietary fiber
  • Fermentation
  • Viscosity
  • Solubility
  • Definition
  • Prebiotic
  • Appetite
  • Glucose control

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Commercial Apple Varieties on Human Gut Microbiota Composition and Metabolic Output Using an In Vitro Colonic Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060533 - 24 May 2017
Cited by 19
Abstract
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic [...] Read more.
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties—Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady—were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5.5–6.0, 37 °C) inoculated with feces from three healthy donors. Inulin and cellulose were used as a readily and a poorly fermentable plant fiber, respectively. Fecal microbiota composition was measured by 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing (V3-V4 region) and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyphenol microbial metabolites were determined. The three apple varieties significantly changed bacterial diversity, increased Actinobacteria relative abundance, acetate, propionate and total SCFAs (p < 0.05). Renetta Canada and Golden Delicious significantly decreased Bacteroidetes abundance and increased Proteobacteria proportion and bifidobacteria population (p < 0.05). Renetta Canada also increased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, butyrate levels and polyphenol microbial metabolites (p < 0.05). Together, these data suggest that apples, particularly Renetta Canada, can induce substantial changes in microbiota composition and metabolic activity in vitro, which could be associated with potential benefits to human health. Human intervention studies are necessary to confirm these data and potential beneficial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cincau Extract (Premna oblongifolia Merr) and Other Types of Non-Digestible Fibre Using Faecal Fermentation Supernatants and Caco-2 Cells as a Model of the Human Colon
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040355 - 03 Apr 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination. Furthermore, fermentation supernatants (FSs) were evaluated in Caco-2 cells for their effect on cell viability, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration. FSs from all dietary fibre sources, including cincau, reduced Caco-2 cell viability. However, the effects of all FSs on cell viability, cell differentiation, and apoptosis were not simply explainable by their butyrate content. In conclusion, products of fermentation of cincau extracts induced cell death, but further work is required to understand the mechanism of action. This study demonstrates for the first time that this Indonesian traditional source of dietary fibre may be protective against colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040352 - 02 Apr 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women (n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal [...] Read more.
Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women (n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast treatments during four 2-week interventions in a randomized crossover fashion. On the last day of each intervention, meal tolerance tests were completed to assess postprandial (every 60 min for 240 min) serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to measure 24-h interstitial glucose during five days of the second week of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied for data analyses. The HPHF treatment did not affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses or 24-h glucose total area under the curve (AUC). Higher fiber intake reduced 240-min insulin AUC. Doubling the amount of protein from 12.5 g to 25 g/meal and quadrupling fiber from 2 to 8 g/meal at breakfast was not an effective strategy for modulating insulin-mediated glucose responses in these young, overweight adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040326 - 25 Mar 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, [...] Read more.
The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p < 0.001 or obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p < 0.001, with abdominal obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p < 0.001 or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in relation with the fibre intake according to the body mass index (BMI), presence or absence of abdominal obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p < 0.05 or OB (4.79%), p < 0.05, with abdominal obesity (5.18%), p < 0.01, or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (5.21%), p < 0.01, in the whole sample. Conversely, these differences were not observed in the plausible reporters. The present study demonstrates an insufficient fibre intake both in the whole sample and in the plausible reporters and confirms its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intra Amniotic Administration of Raffinose and Stachyose Affects the Intestinal Brush Border Functionality and Alters Gut Microflora Populations
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030304 - 19 Mar 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics—stachyose and raffinose—which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effectiveness of two types of prebiotics—stachyose and raffinose—which are present in staple food crops that are widely consumed in regions where dietary Fe deficiency is a health concern. The hypothesis is that these prebiotics will improve Fe status, intestinal functionality, and increase health-promoting bacterial populations in vivo (Gallus gallus). By using the intra-amniotic administration procedure, prebiotic treatment solutions were injected in ovo (day 17 of embryonic incubation) with varying concentrations of a 1.0 mL pure raffinose or stachyose in 18 MΩ H2O. Four treatment groups (50, 100 mg·mL−1 raffinose or stachyose) and two controls (18 MΩ H2O and non-injected) were utilized. At hatch the cecum, small intestine, liver, and blood were collected for assessment of the relative abundance of the gut microflora, relative expression of Fe-related genes and brush border membrane functional genes, hepatic ferritin levels, and hemoglobin levels, respectively. The prebiotic treatments increased the relative expression of brush border membrane functionality proteins (p < 0.05), decreased the relative expression of Fe-related proteins (p < 0.05), and increased villus surface area. Raffinose and stachyose increased the relative abundance of probiotics (p < 0.05), and decreased that of pathogenic bacteria. Raffinose and stachyose beneficially affected the gut microflora, Fe bioavailability, and brush border membrane functionality. Our investigations have led to a greater understanding of these prebiotics’ effects on intestinal health and mineral metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Fruit or Fiber-Fruit Decreases the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Mediterranean Young Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030295 - 17 Mar 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Fiber and fiber-rich foods have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the evidence is scarce in young and Mediterranean cohorts. We used Cox regression models to assess the association between quintiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources, and the [...] Read more.
Fiber and fiber-rich foods have been inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the evidence is scarce in young and Mediterranean cohorts. We used Cox regression models to assess the association between quintiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources, and the risk of CVD adjusted for the principal confounding factors in a Mediterranean cohort of young adults, the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, Follow-up) cohort. After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, we observed 112 cases of CVD among 17,007 participants (61% female, mean age 38 years). We observed an inverse association between fiber intake and CVD events (p for trend = 0.024) and also between the highest quintile of fruit consumption (hazard ratio (HR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.95) or whole grains consumption (HR 0.43 95% CI 0.20–0.93) and CVD compared to the lowest quintile, and also a HR of 0.58 (95% CI 0.37–0.90) for the participants who ate at least 175 g/day of fruit. Only the participants in the highest quintile of fruit-derived fiber intake had a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28–0.97). The participants who ate at least one serving per week of cruciferous vegetables had a lower risk than those who did not (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.30–0.89). In conclusion, high fruit consumption, whole grain consumption, or consumption of at least one serving/week of cruciferous vegetables may be protective against CVD in young Mediterranean populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
A High Fiber Cookie Made with Resistant Starch Type 4 Reduces Post-Prandial Glucose and Insulin Responses in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030237 - 05 Mar 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method). [...] Read more.
Distarch phosphate is a resistant starch type 4 (RS4) containing phosphodiester cross-links within and between starch molecules. This study examined the glycemic effects of VERSAFIBE 1490™ resistant starch, a distarch phosphate derived from potato, containing 90% total dietary fiber (TDF, AOAC 991.43 method). In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 28 healthy adults consumed a cookie containing 24 g fiber from distarch phosphate (fiber cookie) or a control cookie containing 0.5 g fiber that was matched for fat, protein, and total carbohydrate content. Intravenous blood glucose, intravenous blood insulin, and capillary glucose were measured for two hours after cookie consumption. The fiber cookie reduced the post-prandial blood glucose incremental area under the curve from 0 to 120 minutes (iAUC0-120min) by 44% (p = 0.004) and reduced the maximum glucose concentration (Cmax0-120min) by 8% (p = 0.001) versus the control cookie. Consumption of the fiber cookie resulted in a significant 46% reduction of the post-prandial serum insulin iAUC0-120min (p < 0.001) and a 23% reduction in Cmax0-120min (p = 0.007) versus the control cookie. This study shows that distarch phosphate RS4 can be incorporated into a cookie and significantly reduce post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Moderate Whole Grain Consumption on Fasting Glucose and Lipids, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Microbiota
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020173 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG) or refined grains (RG) under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting [...] Read more.
This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG) or refined grains (RG) under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were made at baseline and post intervention. Subjects were given adequate servings of either WG or RG products based on their caloric need and asked to keep records of grain consumption, bowel movements, and GI symptoms weekly. After six weeks, subjects repeated baseline testing. Significant decreases in total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol were seen after the WG treatments but were not observed in the RG treatment. During Week 6, bowel movement frequency increased with increased WG consumption. No significant differences in microbiota were seen between baseline and post intervention, although, abundance of order Erysipelotrichales increased in RG subjects who ate more than 50% of the RG market basket products. Increasing consumption of WGs can alter parameters of health, but more research is needed to better elucidate the relationship between the amount consumed and the health-related outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Whole Grains Contribute Only a Small Proportion of Dietary Fiber to the U.S. Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020153 - 17 Feb 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Dietary fiber (DF), found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG), is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber (DF), found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG), is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber WG, and sources of fiber that are not from WG. The study is based on the two-day diets reported consumed by the nationally representative sample of Americans participating in What We Eat In America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003–2010. Foods consumed were classified into tertiles of DF and WG and the contribution of fiber by differing levels of WG content were examined. Foods containing high amounts of WG and DF only contributed about 7% of total fiber intake. Overall, grain-based foods contributed 54.5% of all DF consumed. Approximately 39% of DF came from grain foods that contained no WG, rather these foods contained refined grains, which contain only small amounts of DF but are consumed in large quantities. All WG-containing foods combined contributed a total of 15.3% of DF in the American diet. Thus, public health messaging needs to be changed to specifically encourage consumption of WG foods with high levels of DF to address both recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary Choice in Overweight Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020149 - 16 Feb 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Fibre supplementation can potentially reduce energy intake and contribute to weight loss. The mechanism may be reduced frequency of eating, resulting in reduced food consumption. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of fibre supplementation with PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), on body [...] Read more.
Fibre supplementation can potentially reduce energy intake and contribute to weight loss. The mechanism may be reduced frequency of eating, resulting in reduced food consumption. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of fibre supplementation with PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), on body weight and composition, frequency of eating and dietary intake in 118 overweight adults. In a three‐arm, parallel, blind, randomised controlled trial participants were randomised to one of three groups; 4.5 g PGX as softgels (PGXS), 5 g PGX granules (PGXG) or 5 g rice flour (RF) control. Prior to supplementation and at 12 weeks, participants captured before and after images of all food and beverages consumed within 4 days using a mobile food record app (mFR). The mFR images were analysed for food group serving sizes and number of eating occasions. In the PGXG group, per-protocol analysis showed there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (2.5 cm; p = 0.003). Subgroup analysis showed that PGXG supplementation at the recommended dose resulted in a reduction in body weight (−1.4 ± 0.10 kg, p < 0.01), body mass index (BMI) reduction (-0.5 ± 0.10, p < 0.01), reduced number of eating occasions (−1.4 ± 1.2, p < 0.01) and a reduced intake of grain food (-1.52 ± 1.84 serves, p = 0.019). PGXG at the recommended dose resulted in a reduction in weight and BMI which was significantly greater than that for RF (p = 0.001). These results demonstrate the potential benefits of PGX fibre in controlling frequency of eating and in weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Fiber and the Human Gut Microbiota: Application of Evidence Mapping Methodology
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020125 - 10 Feb 2017
Cited by 35
Abstract
Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidence map of current research activity in this area was created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber [...] Read more.
Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidence map of current research activity in this area was created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber intervention studies in humans to identify studies with the following broad outcomes: (1) modulation of colonic microflora; and/or (2) colonic fermentation/short-chain fatty acid concentration. Study design characteristics, fiber exposures, and outcome categories were summarized. A sub-analysis described oligosaccharides and bacterial composition in greater detail. One hundred eighty-eight relevant studies were identified. The fiber categories represented by the most studies were oligosaccharides (20%), resistant starch (16%), and chemically synthesized fibers (15%). Short-chain fatty acid concentration (47%) and bacterial composition (88%) were the most frequently studied outcomes. Whole-diet interventions, measures of bacterial activity, and studies in metabolically at-risk subjects were identified as potential gaps in the evidence. This evidence map efficiently captured the variability in characteristics of expanding research on dietary fiber, gut microbiota, and physiological health benefits, and identified areas that may benefit from further research. We hope that this evidence map will provide a resource for researchers to direct new intervention studies and meta-analyses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect on Insulin, Glucose and Lipids in Overweight/Obese Australian Adults of 12 Months Consumption of Two Different Fibre Supplements in a Randomised Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020091 - 29 Jan 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Higher fibre intakes are associated with risk reduction for chronic diseases. This study investigated the effects of supplementation with PolyGlycopleX® (PGX), a complexed polysaccharide, on insulin, glucose and lipids in overweight and obese individuals. In this double-blind 12 months study, participants were [...] Read more.
Higher fibre intakes are associated with risk reduction for chronic diseases. This study investigated the effects of supplementation with PolyGlycopleX® (PGX), a complexed polysaccharide, on insulin, glucose and lipids in overweight and obese individuals. In this double-blind 12 months study, participants were randomised into three groups: control (rice flour); PGX or psyllium (PSY). Participants followed their usual lifestyle and diet but consumed 5 g of their supplement before meals. Insulin was significantly lower in the PGX and PSY groups compared to control at 3 and 6 months and in the PSY group compared to control at 12 months. Serum glucose was significantly lower in the PGX group at 3 months compared to control. Total cholesterol was significantly lower in the PGX and PSY groups compared to control at 3 and 6 months. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly increased in the PGX group compared to control at 12 months. low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was significantly lower in the PGX group at 3 and 6 months compared to control and in the PSY group at 3 months compared to control. A simple strategy of fibre supplementation may offer an effective solution to glucose, insulin and lipid management without the need for other nutrient modification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wheat Bran Does Not Affect Postprandial Plasma Short-Chain Fatty Acids from 13C-inulin Fermentation in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010083 - 20 Jan 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Wheat bran (WB) is a constituent of whole grain products with beneficial effects for human health. Within the human colon, such insoluble particles may be colonized by specific microbial teams which can stimulate cross-feeding, leading to a more efficient carbohydrate fermentation and an [...] Read more.
Wheat bran (WB) is a constituent of whole grain products with beneficial effects for human health. Within the human colon, such insoluble particles may be colonized by specific microbial teams which can stimulate cross-feeding, leading to a more efficient carbohydrate fermentation and an increased butyrate production. We investigated the extent to which WB fractions with different properties affect the fermentation of other carbohydrates in the colon. Ten healthy subjects performed four test days, during which they consumed a standard breakfast supplemented with 10 g 13C-inulin. A total of 20 g of a WB fraction (unmodified WB, wheat bran with a reduced particle size (WB RPS), or de-starched pericarp-enriched wheat bran (PE WB)) was also added to the breakfast, except for one test day, which served as a control. Blood samples were collected at regular time points for 14 h, in order to measure 13C-labeled short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate and butyrate) concentrations. Fermentation of 13C-inulin resulted in increased plasma SCFA for about 8 h, suggesting that a sustained increase in plasma SCFA can be achieved by administering a moderate dose of carbohydrates, three times per day. However, the addition of a single dose of a WB fraction did not further increase the 13C-SCFA concentrations in plasma, nor did it stimulate cross-feeding (Wilcoxon signed ranks test). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Soluble Fibre Meal Challenge Reduces Airway Inflammation and Expression of GPR43 and GPR41 in Asthma
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010057 - 10 Jan 2017
Cited by 32
Abstract
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced following the fermentation of soluble fibre by gut bacteria. In animal models, both dietary fibre and SCFAs have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects via the activation of free fatty acid receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptor 41 and [...] Read more.
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced following the fermentation of soluble fibre by gut bacteria. In animal models, both dietary fibre and SCFAs have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects via the activation of free fatty acid receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptor 41 and 43 (GPR41 and GPR43). This pilot study examined the acute effect of a single dose of soluble fibre on airway inflammation—including changes in gene expression of free fatty acid receptors—in asthma. Adults with stable asthma consumed a soluble fibre meal (n = 17) containing 3.5 g inulin and probiotics, or a control meal (n = 12) of simple carbohydrates. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured and induced sputum was collected at 0 and 4 h for differential cell counts, measurement of interleukin-8 (IL-8) protein concentration, and GPR41 and GPR43 gene expression. At 4 h after meal consumption, airway inflammation biomarkers, including sputum total cell count, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, sputum IL-8, and eNO significantly decreased compared to baseline in the soluble fibre group only. This corresponded with upregulated GPR41 and GPR43 sputum gene expression and improved lung function in the soluble fibre group alone. Soluble fibre has acute anti-inflammatory effects in asthmatic airways. Long-term effects of soluble fibre as an anti-inflammatory therapy in asthma warrants further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010025 - 01 Jan 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating [...] Read more.
Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profile and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD/STZ)
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120792 - 17 Dec 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, [...] Read more.
Physical activity and the ingestion of dietary fiber are non-drug alternatives commonly used as adjuvants to glycemic control in diabetic individuals. Among these fibers, we can highlight beta-glucans. However, few studies have compared isolated and synergic effects of physical exercise and beta-glucan ingestion, especially in type 2 diabetic rats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consumption, associated or not to exercise, on metabolic parameters of diabetic Wistar rats. The diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) associated with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ—35 mg/kg). Trained groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise in aquatic environment. In the last 28 days of experiment, animals received 30 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan by gavage. Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the atherogenic index of plasma. Exercise alone also decreased blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and renal lesions. An additive effect for reducing the atherogenic index of plasma and renal lesions was observed when both treatments were combined. It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters in type 2 (HFD/STZ) diabetic rats. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120779 - 30 Nov 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), [...] Read more.
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Prospective Study of Different Types of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110686 - 07 Nov 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Background and aim: This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. Methods: In 2006–2008, we used a validated food [...] Read more.
Background and aim: This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. Methods: In 2006–2008, we used a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake among 2295 health professionals with no previous history of heart disease. Subjects were subsequently followed until 2012 for incidence of CVD events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of total dietary fiber and different types of fiber. Linear regression models were also used to indicate the association of dietary fiber intakes with changes of cardiovascular risk factors during the follow-up. Results: Mean age of participants (42.8% men) was 38.2 ± 13.4, at baseline. Mean (SD) dietary intake of total fiber was 23.4 (8.9) g/day. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk score and dietary confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between intakes of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and CVD risk, in the highest compared to the lowest tertiles (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.83, HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09–0.41, and HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14–0.69, respectively). Inverse relations were observed between risk of CVD and dietary fiber from legumes, fruits and vegetables; however, dietary fiber intake from grain and nut sources was not related to risk of CVD. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that higher intakes of dietary fiber from different sources is associated with CVD events and modify its major risk-related factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100615 - 02 Oct 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the [...] Read more.
To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Synbiotics in Patients with Slow Transit Constipation: A Prospective Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100605 - 28 Sep 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Synbiotic intake may efficiently restore the balance of gut microbiota and improve gastrointestinal functions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a synbiotic in patients with slow transit constipation. A total of 100 patients with slow transit constipation were [...] Read more.
Synbiotic intake may efficiently restore the balance of gut microbiota and improve gastrointestinal functions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a synbiotic in patients with slow transit constipation. A total of 100 patients with slow transit constipation were randomized to receive either a synbiotic or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoints were the clinical remission and improvement rates at weeks 4 and 12. Stool frequency and consistency, colonic transit time (CTT), evacuation and abdominal symptoms, patient assessment of constipation symptoms, gastrointestinal quality-of-life index scores, satisfaction scores, and adverse events were also monitored. The clinical remission rates reached 37.5% at week 4 and 45.8% at week 12 in the treatment group, compared to 13.3% at week 4 and 16.7% at week 12 in the placebo group (p < 0.01 for both comparisons). Over 12 weeks, 64.6% of the patients who received the synbiotic experienced clinical improvement, compared to 29.2% of the patients in the placebo group (p < 0.01). During the intervention period, patients who were treated with the synbiotic exhibited increased stool frequency, improved stool consistency, decreased CTT, and improved constipation-related symptoms. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial suggested that dietary supplementation with a synbiotic improved evacuation-parameters-associated symptoms and colonic motility in patients with slow transit constipation (STC). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Early Post-Operative Soluble Dietary Fiber Enteral Nutrition for Colon Cancer
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090584 - 21 Sep 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
We examined colon cancer patients who received soluble dietary fiber enteral nutrition (SDFEN) to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of early SDFEN compared to EN. Sixty patients who were confirmed as having colon cancer with histologically and accepted radical resection of colon [...] Read more.
We examined colon cancer patients who received soluble dietary fiber enteral nutrition (SDFEN) to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of early SDFEN compared to EN. Sixty patients who were confirmed as having colon cancer with histologically and accepted radical resection of colon cancer were randomized into an SDFEN group and an EN group. The postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOH), days for first fecal passage, and the difference in nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory reaction between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. The statistical analyses were performed using the t-test and the chi square test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. After the nutrition support, differences in the levels of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin in each group were not statistically significant (p > 0.05); the levels of CD4+, IgA and IgM in the SDFEN group were higher than that of the EN group at seven days (p < 0.05); the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the SDFEN group were lower than that of the EN group at seven days (p < 0.05); and patients in the SDFEN group had a significantly shorter first flatus time than the EN group (p < 0.05). Early post-operative SDFEN used in colon cancer patients was feasible and beneficial in immune function and reducing inflammatory reaction, gastrointestinal function and speeding up the recovery. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Validity and Reproducibility of a Habitual Dietary Fibre Intake Short Food Frequency Questionnaire
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090558 - 10 Sep 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual’s dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food [...] Read more.
Low dietary fibre intake has been associated with poorer health outcomes, therefore having the ability to be able to quickly assess an individual’s dietary fibre intake would prove useful in clinical practice and for research purposes. Current dietary assessment methods such as food records and food frequency questionnaires are time-consuming and burdensome, and there are presently no published short dietary fibre intake questionnaires that can quantify an individual’s total habitual dietary fibre intake and classify individuals as low, moderate or high habitual dietary fibre consumers. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a habitual dietary fibre intake short food frequency questionnaire (DFI-FFQ) which can quickly and accurately classify individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intake. In this study the DFI-FFQ was validated against the Monash University comprehensive nutrition assessment questionnaire (CNAQ). Fifty-two healthy, normal weight male (n = 17) and female (n = 35) participants, aged between 21 and 61 years, completed the DFI-FFQ twice and the CNAQ once. All eligible participants completed the study, however the data from 46% of the participants were excluded from analysis secondary to misreporting. The DFI-FFQ cannot accurately quantify total habitual dietary fibre intakes, however, it is a quick, valid and reproducible tool in classifying individuals based on their habitual dietary fibre intakes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090549 - 07 Sep 2016
Cited by 14
Abstract
Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and [...] Read more.
Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet (“healthy diet”); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the “healthy diet” with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): −1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.03, −0.05) and TC (MD: −0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.47, −0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: −1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: −1.77 mU·mol/L2; 95% CI: −3.49, −0.05), TC (MD: −0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.56, −0.10) and LDL-c (MD: −0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.41, −0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: −0.89 kg; 95% CI: −1.56, −0.22), HbA1c (MD: −0.64%; 95% CI: −1.19, −0.09) and TG (MD: −0.70 mmol/L; 95% CI: −1.11, −0.29) were observed in the 100 g-oats group. In conclusion, short- and long-term oat intake had significant effects on controlling hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipid and reducing weight. Our study provided some supportive evidence for recommending oat as a good whole grain selection for overweight diabetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090531 - 30 Aug 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Consuming Oat Bran Mixed in Water before a Meal on Glycemic Responses in Healthy Humans—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090524 - 26 Aug 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Background: Viscous dietary fibers including oat β-glucan are one of the most effective classes of functional food ingredients for reducing postprandial blood glucose. The mechanism of action is thought to be via an increase in viscosity of the stomach contents that delays gastric [...] Read more.
Background: Viscous dietary fibers including oat β-glucan are one of the most effective classes of functional food ingredients for reducing postprandial blood glucose. The mechanism of action is thought to be via an increase in viscosity of the stomach contents that delays gastric emptying and reduces mixing of food with digestive enzymes, which, in turn, retards glucose absorption. Previous studies suggest that taking viscous fibers separate from a meal may not be effective in reducing postprandial glycemia. Methods: We aimed to re-assess the effect of consuming a preload of a commercially available oat-bran (4.5, 13.6 or 27.3 g) containing 22% of high molecular weight oat β-glucan (O22 (OatWell®22)) mixed in water before a test-meal of white bread on glycemic responses in 10 healthy humans. Results: We found a significant effect of dose on blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.006) with AUC after 27.3 g of O22 being significantly lower than white bread only. Linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat β-glucan reduced glucose AUC by 4.35% ± 1.20% (r = 0.507, p = 0.0008, n = 40) and peak rise by 6.57% ± 1.49% (r = 0.582, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: These data suggest the use of oat bran as nutritional preload strategy in the management of postprandial glycemia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080465 - 01 Aug 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin [...] Read more.
The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76–151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cell-Surface and Nuclear Receptors in the Colon as Targets for Bacterial Metabolites and Its Relevance to Colon Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080856 - 10 Aug 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
The symbiotic co-habitation of bacteria in the host colon is mutually beneficial to both partners. While the host provides the place and food for the bacteria to colonize and live, the bacteria in turn help the host in energy and nutritional homeostasis, development [...] Read more.
The symbiotic co-habitation of bacteria in the host colon is mutually beneficial to both partners. While the host provides the place and food for the bacteria to colonize and live, the bacteria in turn help the host in energy and nutritional homeostasis, development and maturation of the mucosal immune system, and protection against inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this review, we highlight the molecular mediators of the effective communication between the bacteria and the host, focusing on selective metabolites from the bacteria that serve as messengers to the host by acting through selective receptors in the host colon. These bacterial metabolites include the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate, the tryptophan degradation products indole-3-aldehyde, indole-3-acetic, acid and indole-3-propionic acid, and derivatives of endogenous bile acids. The targets for these bacterial products in the host include the cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109A and the nuclear receptors aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The chemical communication between these bacterial metabolite messengers and the host targets collectively has the ability to impact metabolism, gene expression, and epigenetics in colonic epithelial cells as well as in mucosal immune cells. The end result, for the most part, is the maintenance of optimal colonic health. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Role of Fiber in Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020161 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms in patients with colonic diverticula. There is some evidence that a high-fiber diet or supplemental fibers may reduce symptoms in SUDD patients and a high-fiber diet is commonly suggested for [...] Read more.
Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms in patients with colonic diverticula. There is some evidence that a high-fiber diet or supplemental fibers may reduce symptoms in SUDD patients and a high-fiber diet is commonly suggested for these patients. This systematic review aims to update the evidence on the efficacy of fiber treatment in SUDD, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and the prevention of acute diverticulitis. According to PRISMA, we identified studies on SUDD patients treated with fibers (PubMed and Scopus). The quality of these studies was evaluated by the Jadad scale. The main outcome measures were a reduction of abdominal symptoms and the prevention of acute diverticulitis. Nineteen studies were included, nine with dietary fiber and 10 with supplemental fiber, with a high heterogeneity concerning the quantity and quality of fibers employed. Single studies suggest that fibers, both dietary and supplemental, could be beneficial in SUDD, even if the quality is very low, with just one study yielding an optimal score. The presence of substantial methodological limitations, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic regimens employed, and the lack of ad hoc designed studies, did not permit a summary of the outcome measure. Thus, the benefit of dietary or supplemental fiber in SUDD patients still needs to be established. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCommentary
Toward a Personalized Approach in Prebiotics Research
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020092 - 26 Jan 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Recent characterization of the human microbiome and its influences on health have led to dramatic conceptual shifts in dietary bioactives research. Prebiotic foods that include many dietary fibers and resistant starches are perceived as beneficial for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota. This article [...] Read more.
Recent characterization of the human microbiome and its influences on health have led to dramatic conceptual shifts in dietary bioactives research. Prebiotic foods that include many dietary fibers and resistant starches are perceived as beneficial for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota. This article brings forward some current perspectives in prebiotic research to discuss why reporting of individual variations in response to interventions will be important to discern suitability of prebiotics as a disease prevention tool. Full article
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