Next Article in Journal
The Gut Microbiota in Celiac Disease and probiotics
Next Article in Special Issue
Hypnotic Effects of Lactobacillus fermentum PS150TM on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
The Metabolic Concept of Meal Sequence vs. Satiety: Glycemic and Oxidative Responses with Reference to Inflammation Risk, Protective Principles and Mediterranean Diet
Previous Article in Special Issue
Micronutrient Inadequacy in Short Sleep: Analysis of the NHANES 2005–2016
Open AccessArticle

Association between Macronutrient Intake and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: An Iso-Caloric Substitution Analysis from the North West Adelaide Health Study

1
Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park 5042, SA, Australia
2
The Appleton Institute, CQ University Australia, Adelaide 5034, SA, Australia
3
School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQ University Australia Adelaide Campus, Adelaide 5034, SA, Australia
4
Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, SA, Australia
5
The Health Observatory, Discipline of Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, University of Adelaide 5011, SA, Australia
6
Freemason’s Centre for Men’s Health, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, SA, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102374
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 21 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 5 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Epidemiological evidence on the association between macronutrient intake and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is scarce. Using data from the North West Adelaide Health Study, we aimed to determine the association between iso-caloric substitution of macronutrients and EDS. Data from 1997 adults aged ≥ 24 years were analyzed. Daytime sleepiness was measured using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, a score ≥ 11 was considered EDS. Dietary intake data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire. We determined absolute and relative energy intake based on consumption of saturated and unsaturated fats, protein, and carbohydrate. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine the associations using log-binomial logistic regression with and without iso-caloric substitution methods, and models were adjusted for confounders. The prevalence of EDS in the sample was 10.6%. After adjusting for potential confounders, substituting 5% energy intake from protein with an equal amount of saturated fat (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.00–2.45) and carbohydrate (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.92–1.65) increased the odds of EDS. When carbohydrate was substituted with saturated fat (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.93–1.59), the odds of EDS were increased. The odds of EDS were lower when saturated fat was substituted with unsaturated fat (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.51–1.06), protein (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41–0.99) or carbohydrate (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.57–1.08). While these results were consistent over different iso-caloric substitution methods, inconsistent results were found with standard regression. While substitution of fat and carbohydrate with protein was inversely associated with EDS, substitution of protein with fat and carbohydrate was positively associated with EDS. Randomized trials are needed to confirm if dietary interventions can be used to improve daytime alertness in those with EDS.
Keywords: fat; saturated fat; unsaturated fat; carbohydrate; protein; substitution analysis; sleepiness; excessive daytime sleepiness fat; saturated fat; unsaturated fat; carbohydrate; protein; substitution analysis; sleepiness; excessive daytime sleepiness
MDPI and ACS Style

Melaku, Y.A.; Reynolds, A.C.; Gill, T.K.; Appleton, S.; Adams, R. Association between Macronutrient Intake and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: An Iso-Caloric Substitution Analysis from the North West Adelaide Health Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2374.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop