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Open AccessArticle

Caloric and Macronutrient Intake Differ with Circadian Phase and between Lean and Overweight Young Adults

Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 221 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, 18 Innovation Walk, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
Center for Clinical Investigation, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Department of Physiology, University of Murcia and Research Biomedical Institute of Murcia (IMIB), 30100 Murcia, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 587;
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Nutrition, and Human Health)
The timing of caloric intake is a risk factor for excess weight and disease. Growing evidence suggests, however, that the impact of caloric consumption on metabolic health depends on its circadian phase, not clock hour. The objective of the current study was to identify how individuals consume calories and macronutrients relative to circadian phase in real-world settings. Young adults (n = 106; aged 19 ± 1 years; 45 females) photographically recorded the timing and content of all calories for seven consecutive days using a smartphone application during a 30-day study. Circadian phase was determined from in-laboratory assessment of dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). Meals were assigned a circadian phase relative to each participant’s DLMO (0°, ~23:17 h) and binned into 60° bins. Lean (n = 68; 15 females) and non-lean (n = 38, 30 females) body composition was determined via bioelectrical impedance. The DLMO time range was ~10 h, allowing separation of clock time and circadian phase. Eating occurred at all circadian phases, with significant circadian rhythmicity (p < 0.0001) and highest caloric intake at ~300° (~1900 h). The non-lean group ate 8% more of their daily calories at an evening circadian phase (300°) than the lean group (p = 0.007). Consumption of carbohydrates and proteins followed circadian patterns (p < 0.0001) and non-lean participants ate 13% more carbohydrates at 240° (~1500 h) than the lean group (p = 0.004). There were no significant differences when caloric intake was referenced to local clock time or sleep onset time (p > 0.05). Interventions targeting the circadian timing of calories and macronutrients for weight management should be tested. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolism; sleep duration; body composition; caloric intake; melatonin metabolism; sleep duration; body composition; caloric intake; melatonin
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McHill, A.W.; Czeisler, C.A.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Keating, L.; Barger, L.K.; Garaulet, M.; Scheer, F.A.J.L.; Klerman, E.B. Caloric and Macronutrient Intake Differ with Circadian Phase and between Lean and Overweight Young Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 587.

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