Special Issue "Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 111653

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Raquel Abalo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (URJC), Alcorcón, 28922 Madrid, Spain
Interests: gastrointestinal motility; functional foods; cannabinoids; irritable bowel syndrome; nutraceuticals; enteric nervous system; brain–gut axis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide. Caffeine is present in coffee and many other beverages (tea, soft drinks) and is the most widely used central nervous system stimulant. However, caffeine and its metabolites may exert other relevant physiological effects on human health. Thus, preclinical, clinical, and epidemiologic studies on coffee, coffee derivatives, and caffeine effects on different aspects of human health are increasing. Evidence is accumulating suggesting that coffee drinking or caffeine supplementation may have a role in preventing cardiometabolic and endocrine disease, neuroinflammation, cancer, and even all-cause mortality. Other aspects are either less known or controversial, including the effects on the brain–gut axis, neurodevelopment, behavior, pain, muscle–skeletal health, skin or sexual function. Studies focusing on special populations (neonates, children, adolescents, athletes, elderly, pregnant and nonpregnant women), or interactions with other drugs and foods, are relatively scarce but of obvious interest. Other compounds present in coffee and other caffeinated food stuffs may affect caffeine´s physiological effects with a tremendous impact on health.

With the aim to offer a robust and critical updated view of the topic to the scientific community, any scientist or research group studying any aspect of coffee and caffeine effects on human health is welcome to contribute to this Special Issue entitled “Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health”. We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original preclinical and clinical research articles and up-to-date reviews (narrative and systematic reviews, as well as meta-analyses).

Prof. Raquel Abalo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Coffee
  • Caffeine
  • Brain–gut axis
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Pain
  • Cardiometabolic health

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092918 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide, and caffeine is its best-known component, present also in many other beverages (tea, soft drinks, energy drinks), foodstuffs (cocoa, chocolate, guarana), sport supplements and even medicines [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)

Research

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Article
Trait Energy and Fatigue Modify the Effects of Caffeine on Mood, Cognitive and Fine-Motor Task Performance: A Post-Hoc Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020412 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Multiple studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms influence the neurocognitive effects of caffeine. Using data collected from a double-blinded, within-participants, randomized, cross-over design, this study examined the effects of trait (long-standing pre-disposition) mental and physical energy and fatigue to changes in moods (Profile of [...] Read more.
Multiple studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms influence the neurocognitive effects of caffeine. Using data collected from a double-blinded, within-participants, randomized, cross-over design, this study examined the effects of trait (long-standing pre-disposition) mental and physical energy and fatigue to changes in moods (Profile of Mood Survey-Short Form (POMS-SF), state mental and physical energy and fatigue survey), cognitive (serial subtractions of 3 (SS3) and 7 (SS7)), and fine-motor task (nine-hole peg test) performance after consuming a caffeinated beverage and a non-caffeinated placebo. Results indicate that trait mental and physical fatigue and mental energy modified the effects of caffeine on vigor, tension-anxiety, physical, and mental fatigue. Additionally, we report that those who were high trait physical and mental fatigue and low-trait mental energy reported the greatest benefit of caffeine on the SS3 and SS7, while those who were high trait mental and physical fatigue reported the greatest benefit of consuming caffeine on fine-motor task performance. The results of our study suggest that trait mental and physical fatigue and mental energy modify the acute effects of caffeine among a group of healthy, young adults and should be measured and controlled for by researchers who choose to study the effects of caffeine on acute moods and cognitive and fine-motor task performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Article
Effects of a Low Dose of Caffeine Alone or as Part of a Green Coffee Extract, in a Rat Dietary Model of Lean Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease without Inflammation
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113240 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a highly prevalent condition without specific pharmacological treatment, characterized in the initial stages by hepatic steatosis. It was suggested that lipid infiltration in the liver might be reduced by caffeine through anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and fatty acid metabolism-related mechanisms. [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a highly prevalent condition without specific pharmacological treatment, characterized in the initial stages by hepatic steatosis. It was suggested that lipid infiltration in the liver might be reduced by caffeine through anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and fatty acid metabolism-related mechanisms. We investigated the effects of caffeine (CAF) and green coffee extract (GCE) on hepatic lipids in lean female rats with steatosis. For three months, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or a cocoa butter-based high-fat diet plus 10% liquid fructose. In the last month, the high-fat diet was supplemented or not with CAF or a GCE, providing 5 mg/kg of CAF. Plasma lipid levels and the hepatic expression of molecules involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Lipidomic analysis was performed in liver samples. The diet caused hepatic steatosis without obesity, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or hepatic insulin resistance. Neither CAF nor GCE alleviated hepatic steatosis, but GCE-treated rats showed lower hepatic triglyceride levels compared to the CAF group. The GCE effects could be related to reductions of hepatic (i) mTOR phosphorylation, leading to higher nuclear lipin-1 levels and limiting lipogenic gene expression; (ii) diacylglycerol levels; (iii) hexosylceramide/ceramide ratios; and (iv) very-low-density lipoprotein receptor expression. In conclusion, a low dose of CAF did not reduce hepatic steatosis in lean female rats, but the same dose provided as a green coffee extract led to lower liver triglyceride levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Article
Eurycoma longifolia—Infused Coffee—An Oral Toxicity Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103125 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Coffee infused with the additive Eurycoma longifolia, also known as Tongkat ali (TA), has become widely available in the Malaysian market. Safety evaluations for consumption of the products have been called for due to the herbal addition. This study investigates the acute, [...] Read more.
Coffee infused with the additive Eurycoma longifolia, also known as Tongkat ali (TA), has become widely available in the Malaysian market. Safety evaluations for consumption of the products have been called for due to the herbal addition. This study investigates the acute, subacute and chronic effects of a commercial TA coffee in Sprague Dawley rats when given in a single, repeated and prolonged dosage. The dosages of 0.005, 0.05, 0.30 and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) were used in the acute study and 0.14, 0.29 and 1 g/kg BW were used in the repeated dose studies. The in-life parameters measured were food and water intake, body weight and clinical observations. Blood were collected for hematology and clinical biochemistry analyses. All animals were subjected to full necropsies. Non-toxicity-related changes were observed in the food and water consumption parameters. Body weight showed normal increments and none of the animals had any clinical signs of toxicity. Microscopically assessed organ tissues did not reveal any abnormalities. There was significant decrease of platelet count in all the chronic study male treated groups. Significant elevation of renal profile parameters in both gender groups given 0.29 g/kg BW, along with liver and lipid profile elevation in some female groups of the chronic study were noted. No dose-dependent relationship was apparent in the dosage range tested, though these changes may suggest an initial safety indication to the TA coffee. The study concludes that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for this commercial TA coffee was 1 g/kg BW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Article
Exploring the Association between Urine Caffeine Metabolites and Urine Flow Rate: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092803 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Examination of urine excretion of caffeine metabolites has been a simple but common way to determine the metabolism and effect of caffeine, but the relationship between urinary metabolites and urine flow rate is less discussed. To explore the association between urinary caffeine metabolite [...] Read more.
Examination of urine excretion of caffeine metabolites has been a simple but common way to determine the metabolism and effect of caffeine, but the relationship between urinary metabolites and urine flow rate is less discussed. To explore the association between urinary caffeine metabolite levels and urine flow rate, 1571 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012 were enrolled in this study. We examined the association between urinary caffeine metabolites and urine flow rate with linear regression models. Separate models were constructed for males and females and for participants aged <60 and ≥60 years old. A positive association was found between concentrations of several urinary caffeine metabolites and urine flow rate. Three main metabolites, namely, paraxanthine, theobromine, and caffeine, showed significance across all subgroups. The number of caffeine metabolites that revealed flow-dependency was greater in males than in females and was also greater in the young than in the elderly. Nevertheless, the general weakness of NHANES data, a cross-sectional study, is that the collection is made at one single time point rather than a long-term study. In summary, urinary concentrations of several caffeine metabolites showed a positive relationship with the urine flow rate. The trend is more noticeable in males and in young subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Coffee Intake and Neurocognitive Performance in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH)
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092532 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide. Previous research has demonstrated its neuroprotective effects in the elderly. People coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) experience an accelerated aging process and cognitive impairment, which significantly impair quality [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide. Previous research has demonstrated its neuroprotective effects in the elderly. People coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) experience an accelerated aging process and cognitive impairment, which significantly impair quality of life and may affect disease-related dimensions such as treatment adherence. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between regular coffee intake and neurocognitive performance (NCP) in HIV-HCV coinfected people. We used data from 139 coinfected patients who participated in both the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort and the HEPAVIH-Psy cross-sectional survey. Linear regression models adjusting for potential sociodemographic (age, gender, educational level), clinical (liver disease status, ongoing HCV treatment, HIV viral load, major depressive disorder) and socio-behavioural (cannabis use) correlates of NCP were used. Our results showed significant, positive associations between elevated coffee intake (ECI) (three or more cups of coffee per day) and NCP in verbal fluency, psychomotor speed (coding) and executive functioning. ECI might therefore preserve neurocognitive functioning in people living with HIV and HCV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Effects of Habitual Caffeine Intake, Physical Activity Levels, and Sedentary Behavior on the Inflammatory Status in a Healthy Population
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2325; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082325 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2928
Abstract
Low-grade chronic inflammation is associated with many chronic diseases and pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of regular caffeine intake, physical activity levels, and sedentary behavior on the inflammatory status in healthy participants. In total, 112 [...] Read more.
Low-grade chronic inflammation is associated with many chronic diseases and pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of regular caffeine intake, physical activity levels, and sedentary behavior on the inflammatory status in healthy participants. In total, 112 men and 132 women aged 18 to 55 years and belonging to the staff and student population of the University of the Balearic Islands volunteered to participate in this descriptive cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers were measured. Weight, height, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were determined. Caffeine intake, physical activity levels and sitting time, and diet quality were determined using questionnaires. Statistical regression analysis showed that caffeine intake was a negative predictor of C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.001). Body fat percentage was positively associated with CRP (p < 0.001) and inversely associated with adiponectin (p = 0.032) and interleukin (IL)-10 levels (p = 0.001). Visceral fat was the main predictor for IL-6 (p < 0.001) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.001). Sitting time was found to be the main, inverse, predictor for IL-10 (p < 0.001), and a positive predictor for TNF-α (p < 0.001). In conclusion, regular caffeine consumption induced very limited anti-inflammatory effects. Sedentary behavior and body fat accumulation induced significant pro-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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The Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Consumption on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis-Related Fatigue
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082262 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
Background: Coffee and caffeine are considered to have beneficial effects in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that can lead to disability and chronic fatigue. Methods: In the present study the preference in [...] Read more.
Background: Coffee and caffeine are considered to have beneficial effects in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that can lead to disability and chronic fatigue. Methods: In the present study the preference in terms of coffee and caffeine consumption in patients with MS was assessed. In total the opinions of 124 MS patients were explored with a questionnaire, which was developed to investigate the consumption behavior and associated beneficial and harmful effects of coffee and caffeine concerning symptoms of fatigue. Results: Our study showed that 37.1% of the included patients experience severe symptoms of fatigue. In our cohort, fatigue was not related to age, type of diagnosis or duration of the disease. The effects of coffee did not differ between MS patients with and without fatigue. Very few side effects linked to coffee consumption were reported, and we could demonstrate that coffee consumption had no negative impact on quality of sleep. A positive effect on everyday life was observed particularly among patients with a mid-level expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The strongest effects of coffee consumption were observed regarding a better ability to concentrate while fulfilling tasks, an expanded attention span and a better structured daily routine. Conclusions: Since coffee showed no severe side effects and in the absence of an effective fatigue therapy, coffee consumption might be a therapeutic approach for selected patients with MS-related fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Article
Translation and Validation of the Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire in Brazil (CaffEQ-BR)
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082248 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
Caffeine is the world’s most commonly used stimulant of the central nervous system. Caffeine is present in coffee and other beverages such as tea, soft drinks, and cocoa-based foods. The caffeine expectancy questionnaire was developed to investigate the effects of caffeine expectations and [...] Read more.
Caffeine is the world’s most commonly used stimulant of the central nervous system. Caffeine is present in coffee and other beverages such as tea, soft drinks, and cocoa-based foods. The caffeine expectancy questionnaire was developed to investigate the effects of caffeine expectations and thus contribute to knowledge about its usage and subjective effects (response expectancies). This study aimed to evaluate caffeine expectation psychometrically in a sample of the Brazilian population. The original version of the “Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CaffEQ)” was translated and validated into Brazilian-Portuguese and adapted to Brazilian culture to be used in the Brazilian adult (19–59 y) population. After the translation and back-translation processes of the original CaffEQ questionnaire, the content and semantic validation were performed by a group of experts. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the questionnaire consists of 47 items, in seven factors, which assess subjective perceptions about the effects of caffeine. Interobserver reproducibility and internal consistency of the questionnaire were tested with a convenience sample (n = 50) of Brazilian adult consumers of caffeine sources, who completed the Brazilian CaffEQ (CaffEQ-BR) on two occasions separated by 24 h. All of the 47 questions were adequate regarding reliability, clarity, and comprehension. Psychometric properties could be replicated consistently. Appropriate internal consistency and validation were confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha (α) 0.948, and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.976 was observed. The CaffEQ-BR was applied using a web-based platform to a convenience sample of Brazilian adults from all 27 Brazilian states (n = 4202 participants), along with measures of sociodemographic and caffeine consumption data. Factor validity was verified by confirmatory factor analysis. The seven factors presented a good fit for Root Mean Square Error of Approximation—RMSEA = 0.0332 (95% CI: 0.0290–0.0375). By confirming the validity and reliability of CaffEQ-BR, a useful tool is now available to assess caffeine expectations in the Brazilian adult population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Article
Interactions of Habitual Coffee Consumption by Genetic Polymorphisms with the Risk of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Combined
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082228 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Habitual coffee consumption and its association with health outcomes may be modified by genetic variation. Adults aged 40 to 69 years who participated in the Korea Association Resource (KARE) study were included in this study. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on [...] Read more.
Habitual coffee consumption and its association with health outcomes may be modified by genetic variation. Adults aged 40 to 69 years who participated in the Korea Association Resource (KARE) study were included in this study. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on coffee consumption in 7868 Korean adults, and examined whether the association between coffee consumption and the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined was modified by the genetic variations in 4054 adults. In the GWAS for coffee consumption, a total of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24.11-13 (rs2074356, rs11066015, rs12229654, rs11065828, and rs79105258) were selected and used to calculate weighted genetic risk scores. Individuals who had a larger number of minor alleles for these five SNPs had higher genetic risk scores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the association. During the 12 years of follow-up, a total of 2468 (60.9%) and 480 (11.8%) participants were diagnosed as prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Compared with non-black-coffee consumers, the OR (95% CI) for ≥2 cups/day by black-coffee consumers was 0.61 (0.38–0.95; p for trend = 0.023). Similarly, sugared coffee showed an inverse association. We found a potential interaction by the genetic variations related to black-coffee consumption, suggesting a stronger association among individuals with higher genetic risk scores compared to those with lower scores; the ORs (95% CIs) were 0.36 (0.15–0.88) for individuals with 5 to 10 points and 0.87 (0.46–1.66) for those with 0 points. Our study suggests that habitual coffee consumption was related to genetic polymorphisms and modified the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined in a sample of the Korean population. The mechanisms between coffee-related genetic variation and the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined warrant further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Article
The Effect of Caffeine on the Risk and Progression of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061860 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5285
Abstract
Coffee and caffeine are speculated to be associated with the reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study aimed to investigate the disease-modifying potential of caffeine on PD, either for healthy people or patients, through a meta-analysis. The electronic databases were searched [...] Read more.
Coffee and caffeine are speculated to be associated with the reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study aimed to investigate the disease-modifying potential of caffeine on PD, either for healthy people or patients, through a meta-analysis. The electronic databases were searched using terms related to PD and coffee and caffeinated food products. Articles were included only upon fulfillment of clear diagnostic criteria for PD and details regarding their caffeine content. Reference lists of relevant articles were reviewed to identify eligible studies not shortlisted using these terms. In total, the present study enrolled 13 studies, nine were categorized into a healthy cohort and the rest into a PD cohort. The individuals in the healthy cohort with regular caffeine consumption had a significantly lower risk of PD during follow-up evaluation (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.797, 95% CI = 0.748–0.849, p < 0.001). The outcomes of disease progression in PD cohorts included dyskinesia, motor fluctuation, symptom onset, and levodopa initiation. Individuals consuming caffeine presented a significantly lower rate of PD progression (HR = 0.834, 95% CI = 0.707–0.984, p = 0.03). In conclusion, caffeine modified disease risk and progression in PD, among both healthy individuals or those with PD. Potential biological benefits, such as those obtained from adenosine 2A receptor antagonism, may require further investigation for designing new drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Article
Red Bull Increases Heart Rate at Near Sea Level and Pulmonary Shunt Fraction at High Altitude in a Porcine Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061738 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Red Bull energy drink is popular among athletes, students and drivers for stimulating effects or enhancing physical performance. In previous work, Red Bull has been shown to exert manifold cardiovascular effects at rest and during exercise. Red Bull with caffeine as the main [...] Read more.
Red Bull energy drink is popular among athletes, students and drivers for stimulating effects or enhancing physical performance. In previous work, Red Bull has been shown to exert manifold cardiovascular effects at rest and during exercise. Red Bull with caffeine as the main ingredient increases blood pressure in resting individuals, probably due to an increased release of (nor)-epinephrine. Red Bull has been shown to alter heart rate or leaving it unchanged. Little is known about possible effects of caffeinated energy drinks on pulmonary ventilation/perfusion distribution at sea level or at altitude. Here, we hypothesized a possible alteration of pulmonary blood flow in ambient air and in hypoxia after Red Bull consumption. We subjected eight anesthetized piglets in normoxia (FiO2 = 0.21) and in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.13), respectively, to 10 mL/kg Red Bull ingestion. Another eight animals served as controls receiving an equivalent amount of saline. In addition to cardiovascular data, ventilation/perfusion distribution of the lung was assessed by using the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Heart rate increased in normoxic conditions but was not different from controls in acute short-term hypoxia after oral Red Bull ingestion in piglets. For the first time, we demonstrate an increased fraction of pulmonary shunt with unchanged distribution of pulmonary blood flow after Red Bull administration in acute short-term hypoxia. In summary, these findings do not oppose moderate consumption of caffeinated energy drinks even at altitude at rest and during exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Interaction between Coffee Drinking and TRIB1 rs17321515 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on Coronary Heart Disease in a Taiwanese Population
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051301 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
A complex interplay of several genetic and lifestyle factors influence coronary heart disease (CHD). We determined the interaction between coffee consumption and the tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1) rs17321515 variant on coronary heart disease (CHD). Data on CHD were obtained from the [...] Read more.
A complex interplay of several genetic and lifestyle factors influence coronary heart disease (CHD). We determined the interaction between coffee consumption and the tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1) rs17321515 variant on coronary heart disease (CHD). Data on CHD were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) while genotype data were collected from the Taiwan Biobank (TWB) Database. From the linked electronic health record data, 1116 individuals were identified with CHD while 7853 were control individuals. Coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of CHD. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.84 (0.72–0.99). Association of CHD with the TRIB1 rs17321515 variant was not significant. The OR (95% CI) was 1.01 (0.72–0.99). There was an interaction between TRIB1 rs17321515 and coffee consumption on CHD risk (p for interaction = 0.0330). After stratification by rs17321515 genotypes, coffee drinking remained significantly associated with a lower risk of CHD only among participants with GG genotype (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45–0.85). In conclusion, consumption of coffee was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CHD among Taiwanese adults with the TRIB1 GG genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Article
Effects of Coffee Intake on Dyslipidemia Risk According to Genetic Variants in the ADORA Gene Family among Korean Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020493 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Current evidence on the effects of coffee intake on cardiovascular diseases is not consistent, in part contributed by the genetic variability of the study subjects. While adenosine receptors (ADORAs) are involved in caffeine signaling, it remains unknown how genetic variations at the ADORA [...] Read more.
Current evidence on the effects of coffee intake on cardiovascular diseases is not consistent, in part contributed by the genetic variability of the study subjects. While adenosine receptors (ADORAs) are involved in caffeine signaling, it remains unknown how genetic variations at the ADORA loci correlate the coffee intake with cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the associations of coffee intake with dyslipidemia risk depending on genetic variants in the ADORA gene family. The study involved a population-based cohort of 4898 Korean subjects. Consumption of more than or equal to a cup of coffee per day was associated with lower dyslipidemia risk in females carrying the ADORA2B minor allele rs2779212 (OR: 0.645, 95% CI: 0.506–0.823), but not in those with the major allele. At the ADORA2A locus, male subjects with the minor allele of rs5760423 showed instead an increased risk of dyslipidemia when consuming more than or equal to a cup of coffee per day (OR: 1.352, 95% CI: 1.014–1.802). The effect of coffee intake on dyslipidemia risk differs depending on genetic variants at the ADORA loci in a sex-specific manner. Our study suggests that a dietary guideline for coffee intake in the prevention and management of dyslipidemia ought to consider ADORA-related biomarkers carefully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Acute Caffeine Intake Enhances Mean Power Output and Bar Velocity during the Bench Press Throw in Athletes Habituated to Caffeine
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020406 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3158
Abstract
Background: The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on power output and bar velocity during an explosive bench press throw in athletes habituated to caffeine. Methods: Twelve resistance trained individuals habituated to caffeine ingestion participated in [...] Read more.
Background: The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on power output and bar velocity during an explosive bench press throw in athletes habituated to caffeine. Methods: Twelve resistance trained individuals habituated to caffeine ingestion participated in a randomized double-blind experimental design. Each participant performed three identical experimental sessions 60 min after the intake of a placebo, 3, and 6 mg/kg/b.m. of caffeine. In each experimental session, the participants performed 5 sets of 2 repetitions of the bench press throw (with a load equivalent to 30% repetition maximum (RM), measured in a familiarization trial) on a Smith machine, while bar velocity and power output were registered with a rotatory encoder. Results: In comparison to the placebo, the intake of caffeine increased mean bar velocity during 5 sets of the bench press throw (1.37 ± 0.05 vs. 1.41 ± 0.05 and 1.41 ± 0.06 m/s for placebo, 3, and 6 mg/kg/b.m., respectively; p < 0.01), as well as mean power output (545 ± 117 vs. 562 ± 118 and 560 ± 107 W; p < 0.01). However, caffeine was not effective at increasing peak velocity (p = 0.09) nor peak power output (p = 0.07) during the explosive exercise. Conclusion: The acute doses of caffeine before resistance exercise may increase mean power output and mean bar velocity during the bench press throw training session in a group of habitual caffeine users. Thus, caffeine prior to ballistic exercises enhances performance during a power-specific resistance training session. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Caffeine Consumption in Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey MenuCH
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010028 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Caffeine is a natural psychostimulant with a potentially positive impact on health when consumed in moderation and a negative impact at high dose (>400 mg/day). So far, no study has examined self-reported caffeine consumption in Switzerland. Our objectives were to determine (1) the [...] Read more.
Caffeine is a natural psychostimulant with a potentially positive impact on health when consumed in moderation and a negative impact at high dose (>400 mg/day). So far, no study has examined self-reported caffeine consumption in Switzerland. Our objectives were to determine (1) the caffeine consumption per adult, (2) the main sources of caffeine intake in the Swiss diet, and (3) the timing of caffeine consumption during the day. We used data from the 2014–2015 national nutrition survey menuCH (adults aged 18 to 75 years old, n = 2057, weighted n = 4,627,878), consisting of two 24-h dietary recalls. Caffeine content in consumed foods was systematically assessed using laboratory analyses in samples of Swiss caffeinated beverages, information from food composition databases, and estimations from standard recipes. Mean (±SD) daily caffeine consumption per person and percentile 95 were 191 mg/day (±129) and 426 mg/day, respectively. We observed differences in mean caffeine consumption across age groups (18–34 y: 140 mg/day; 50–64 y: 228 mg/day), linguistic regions (German-speaking: 204 mg/day; French-speaking: 170 mg/day, Italian-speaking: 136 mg/day), and smoking status (never smokers: 171 mg/day; current smokers: 228 mg/day). The three main sources of caffeine intake were 1) coffee (83% of total caffeine intake), 2) tea (9%) and 3) soft drinks (4%). Caffeine consumption was highest between 06:00 and 09:00 (29%) and the circadian rhythm slightly differed across linguistic regions and age groups. The mean caffeine consumption in the Swiss adult population was similar to that reported in neighbouring countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Review

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Review
Effects of Coffee and Its Components on the Gastrointestinal Tract and the Brain–Gut Axis
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010088 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 15834
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of thousands of bioactive compounds, and some of them have numerous potential health-promoting properties that have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, with [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of thousands of bioactive compounds, and some of them have numerous potential health-promoting properties that have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, with relatively much less attention given to other body systems, such as the gastrointestinal tract and its particular connection with the brain, known as the brain–gut axis. This narrative review provides an overview of the effect of coffee brew; its by-products; and its components on the gastrointestinal mucosa (mainly involved in permeability, secretion, and proliferation), the neural and non-neural components of the gut wall responsible for its motor function, and the brain–gut axis. Despite in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies having shown that coffee may exert multiple effects on the digestive tract, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects on the mucosa, and pro-motility effects on the external muscle layers, much is still surprisingly unknown. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of action of certain health-promoting properties of coffee on the gastrointestinal tract and to transfer this knowledge to the industry to develop functional foods to improve the gastrointestinal and brain–gut axis health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Review
Effect of Caffeine Consumption on the Risk for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: Sex Differences in Human
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103080 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4745
Abstract
Caffeine occurs naturally in various foods, such as coffee, tea, and cocoa, and it has been used safely as a mild stimulant for a long time. However, excessive caffeine consumption (1~1.5 g/day) can cause caffeine poisoning (caffeinism), which includes symptoms such as anxiety, [...] Read more.
Caffeine occurs naturally in various foods, such as coffee, tea, and cocoa, and it has been used safely as a mild stimulant for a long time. However, excessive caffeine consumption (1~1.5 g/day) can cause caffeine poisoning (caffeinism), which includes symptoms such as anxiety, agitation, insomnia, and gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the effect of caffeine consumption as a protective factor or risk factor for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Currently, the importance of personalized medicine is being emphasized, and research on sex/gender differences needs to be conducted. Our review focuses on the effect of caffeine consumption on several neurological and psychiatric disorders with respect to sex differences to provide a better understanding of caffeine use as a risk or protective factor for those disorders. The findings may help establish new strategies for developing sex-specific caffeine therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Review
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caffeine Implications on the Eukaryotic Cell
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082440 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Caffeine–a methylxanthine analogue of the purine bases adenine and guanine–is by far the most consumed neuro-stimulant, being the active principle of widely consumed beverages such as coffee, tea, hot chocolate, and cola. While the best-known action of caffeine is to prevent sleepiness by [...] Read more.
Caffeine–a methylxanthine analogue of the purine bases adenine and guanine–is by far the most consumed neuro-stimulant, being the active principle of widely consumed beverages such as coffee, tea, hot chocolate, and cola. While the best-known action of caffeine is to prevent sleepiness by blocking the adenosine receptors, caffeine exerts a pleiotropic effect on cells, which lead to the activation or inhibition of various cell integrity pathways. The aim of this review is to present the main studies set to investigate the effects of caffeine on cells using the model eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, highlighting the caffeine synergy with external cell stressors, such as irradiation or exposure to various chemical hazards, including cigarette smoke or chemical carcinogens. The review also focuses on the importance of caffeine-related yeast phenotypes used to resolve molecular mechanisms involved in cell signaling through conserved pathways, such as target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling, Pkc1-Mpk1 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, or Ras/cAMP protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Review
The Ambiguous Role of Caffeine in Migraine Headache: From Trigger to Treatment
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082259 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 11980
Abstract
Migraine is a chronic disorder, and caffeine has been linked with migraine for many years, on the one hand as a trigger, and on the other hand as a cure. As most of the population, including migraineurs, consume a considerable amount of caffeine [...] Read more.
Migraine is a chronic disorder, and caffeine has been linked with migraine for many years, on the one hand as a trigger, and on the other hand as a cure. As most of the population, including migraineurs, consume a considerable amount of caffeine daily, a question arises as to whether it influences their headaches. Indeed, drinking coffee before a migraine attack may not be a real headache trigger, but a consequence of premonitory symptoms, including yawning, diminished energy levels, and sleepiness that may herald a headache. Here, we aim to summarize the available evidence on the relationship between caffeine and migraines. Articles concerning this topic published up to June 2020 were retrieved by searching clinical databases, and all types of studies were included. We identified 21 studies investigating the prevalence of caffeine/caffeine withdrawal as a migraine trigger and 7 studies evaluating caffeine in acute migraine treatment. Among them, in 17 studies, caffeine/caffeine withdrawal was found to be a migraine trigger in a small percentage of participants (ranging from 2% to 30%), while all treatment studies found caffeine to be safe and effective in acute migraine treatment, mostly in combination with other analgesics. Overall, based on our review of the current literature, there is insufficient evidence to recommend caffeine cessation to all migraine patients, but it should be highlighted that caffeine overuse may lead to migraine chronification, and sudden caffeine withdrawal may trigger migraine attacks. Migraine sufferers should be aware of the amount of caffeine they consume and not exceed 200 mg daily. If they wish to continue drinking caffeinated beverages, they should keep their daily intake as consistent as possible to avoid withdrawal headache. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Review
Health Effects of Coffee: Mechanism Unraveled?
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061842 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 39302
Abstract
The association of habitual coffee consumption with a lower risk of diseases, like type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, certain cancer types, or with reduced all-cause mortality, has been confirmed in prospective cohort studies in many regions of the world. The molecular [...] Read more.
The association of habitual coffee consumption with a lower risk of diseases, like type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, certain cancer types, or with reduced all-cause mortality, has been confirmed in prospective cohort studies in many regions of the world. The molecular mechanism is still unresolved. The radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of coffee constituents is too weak to account for such effects. We argue here that coffee as a plant food has similar beneficial properties to many vegetables and fruits. Recent studies have identified a health promoting mechanism common to coffee, vegetables and fruits, i.e., the activation of an adaptive cellular response characterized by the upregulation of proteins involved in cell protection, notably antioxidant, detoxifying and repair enzymes. Key to this response is the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2) system by phenolic phytochemicals, which induces the expression of cell defense genes. Coffee plays a dominant role in that regard because it is the major dietary source of phenolic acids and polyphenols in the developed world. A possible supportive action may be the modulation of the gut microbiota by non-digested prebiotic constituents of coffee, but the available data are still scarce. We conclude that coffee employs similar pathways of promoting health as assumed for other vegetables and fruits. Coffee beans may be viewed as healthy vegetable food and a main supplier of dietary phenolic phytochemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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Review
Coffee Consumption and C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051349 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
Coffee contains bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, and its consumption may reduce c-reactive protein (CRP) levels, a biomarker of chronic inflammation. A previous meta-analysis reported no overall association between blood CRP level and coffee consumption by modeling the coffee consumption in categories, with [...] Read more.
Coffee contains bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, and its consumption may reduce c-reactive protein (CRP) levels, a biomarker of chronic inflammation. A previous meta-analysis reported no overall association between blood CRP level and coffee consumption by modeling the coffee consumption in categories, with substantial heterogeneity. However, the coffee cup volume was not considered. We conducted a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis investigating the association between coffee consumption and CRP levels reported in previous observational studies. A dose–response meta-analysis was conducted by mixed-effects meta-regression models using the volume of coffee consumed as metric. Eleven studies from three continents were identified using the PubMed database, totaling 61,047 participants. Three studies with the largest sample sizes observed a statistically significant association between coffee and CRP levels, which was inverse among European and United States (US) women and Japanese men (1.3–5.5% decrease in CRP per 100 mL of coffee consumed) and positive among European men (2.2% increase). Other studies showed no statistically significant associations. When all studies were combined in the dose–response meta-analysis, no statistically significant associations were observed among all participants or when stratified by gender or geographic location, reflecting the conflicting associations reported in the included studies. Further studies are warranted to explore these inconsistent associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
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