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Article

Exploring the Association between Urine Caffeine Metabolites and Urine Flow Rate: A Cross-Sectional Study

by 1,2 and 1,2,3,*
1
Division of Family Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
2
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
3
Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092803
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 13 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Examination of urine excretion of caffeine metabolites has been a simple but common way to determine the metabolism and effect of caffeine, but the relationship between urinary metabolites and urine flow rate is less discussed. To explore the association between urinary caffeine metabolite levels and urine flow rate, 1571 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012 were enrolled in this study. We examined the association between urinary caffeine metabolites and urine flow rate with linear regression models. Separate models were constructed for males and females and for participants aged <60 and ≥60 years old. A positive association was found between concentrations of several urinary caffeine metabolites and urine flow rate. Three main metabolites, namely, paraxanthine, theobromine, and caffeine, showed significance across all subgroups. The number of caffeine metabolites that revealed flow-dependency was greater in males than in females and was also greater in the young than in the elderly. Nevertheless, the general weakness of NHANES data, a cross-sectional study, is that the collection is made at one single time point rather than a long-term study. In summary, urinary concentrations of several caffeine metabolites showed a positive relationship with the urine flow rate. The trend is more noticeable in males and in young subgroups. View Full-Text
Keywords: urine caffeine metabolites; urine flow rate urine caffeine metabolites; urine flow rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, S.E.; Chen, W.-L. Exploring the Association between Urine Caffeine Metabolites and Urine Flow Rate: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2803. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092803

AMA Style

Wu SE, Chen W-L. Exploring the Association between Urine Caffeine Metabolites and Urine Flow Rate: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2803. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092803

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Shou E., and Wei-Liang Chen. 2020. "Exploring the Association between Urine Caffeine Metabolites and Urine Flow Rate: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2803. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092803

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