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Open AccessArticle

Caffeine Consumption in Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey MenuCH

1
Center of Primary Care and Public Health (Unisanté), University of Lausanne, Route de la Corniche 10, 1010 Lausanne, Switzerland
2
Unit of Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Centre for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, University of Lausanne, 1008 Prilly-Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western Switzerland, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010028
Received: 2 December 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Caffeine is a natural psychostimulant with a potentially positive impact on health when consumed in moderation and a negative impact at high dose (>400 mg/day). So far, no study has examined self-reported caffeine consumption in Switzerland. Our objectives were to determine (1) the caffeine consumption per adult, (2) the main sources of caffeine intake in the Swiss diet, and (3) the timing of caffeine consumption during the day. We used data from the 2014–2015 national nutrition survey menuCH (adults aged 18 to 75 years old, n = 2057, weighted n = 4,627,878), consisting of two 24-h dietary recalls. Caffeine content in consumed foods was systematically assessed using laboratory analyses in samples of Swiss caffeinated beverages, information from food composition databases, and estimations from standard recipes. Mean (±SD) daily caffeine consumption per person and percentile 95 were 191 mg/day (±129) and 426 mg/day, respectively. We observed differences in mean caffeine consumption across age groups (18–34 y: 140 mg/day; 50–64 y: 228 mg/day), linguistic regions (German-speaking: 204 mg/day; French-speaking: 170 mg/day, Italian-speaking: 136 mg/day), and smoking status (never smokers: 171 mg/day; current smokers: 228 mg/day). The three main sources of caffeine intake were 1) coffee (83% of total caffeine intake), 2) tea (9%) and 3) soft drinks (4%). Caffeine consumption was highest between 06:00 and 09:00 (29%) and the circadian rhythm slightly differed across linguistic regions and age groups. The mean caffeine consumption in the Swiss adult population was similar to that reported in neighbouring countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine intake; Switzerland; national nutrition survey; coffee; tea; soft drinks caffeine intake; Switzerland; national nutrition survey; coffee; tea; soft drinks
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Rochat, C.; Eap, C.B.; Bochud, M.; Chatelan, A. Caffeine Consumption in Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey MenuCH. Nutrients 2020, 12, 28.

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