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Article

Red Bull Increases Heart Rate at Near Sea Level and Pulmonary Shunt Fraction at High Altitude in a Porcine Model

1
Department of General and Surgical Intensive Care, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3
Department for Pediatrics, Pediatrics III, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
4
Department for Pediatrics, Pediatrics I, Intensive Care Unit, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
5
Hanusch Hospital, 1140 Vienna, Austria
6
Institute for Sports, Alpine Medicine and Health Tourism, Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology GmbH, 6060 Hall in Tirol, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061738
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Red Bull energy drink is popular among athletes, students and drivers for stimulating effects or enhancing physical performance. In previous work, Red Bull has been shown to exert manifold cardiovascular effects at rest and during exercise. Red Bull with caffeine as the main ingredient increases blood pressure in resting individuals, probably due to an increased release of (nor)-epinephrine. Red Bull has been shown to alter heart rate or leaving it unchanged. Little is known about possible effects of caffeinated energy drinks on pulmonary ventilation/perfusion distribution at sea level or at altitude. Here, we hypothesized a possible alteration of pulmonary blood flow in ambient air and in hypoxia after Red Bull consumption. We subjected eight anesthetized piglets in normoxia (FiO2 = 0.21) and in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.13), respectively, to 10 mL/kg Red Bull ingestion. Another eight animals served as controls receiving an equivalent amount of saline. In addition to cardiovascular data, ventilation/perfusion distribution of the lung was assessed by using the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Heart rate increased in normoxic conditions but was not different from controls in acute short-term hypoxia after oral Red Bull ingestion in piglets. For the first time, we demonstrate an increased fraction of pulmonary shunt with unchanged distribution of pulmonary blood flow after Red Bull administration in acute short-term hypoxia. In summary, these findings do not oppose moderate consumption of caffeinated energy drinks even at altitude at rest and during exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: Red Bull energy drink; caffeine; taurine; hypoxia; ventilation/perfusion distribution; multiple inert gas elimination technique; piglets Red Bull energy drink; caffeine; taurine; hypoxia; ventilation/perfusion distribution; multiple inert gas elimination technique; piglets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Treml, B.; Schöpf, E.; Geiger, R.; Niederwanger, C.; Löckinger, A.; Kleinsasser, A.; Bachler, M. Red Bull Increases Heart Rate at Near Sea Level and Pulmonary Shunt Fraction at High Altitude in a Porcine Model. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1738. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061738

AMA Style

Treml B, Schöpf E, Geiger R, Niederwanger C, Löckinger A, Kleinsasser A, Bachler M. Red Bull Increases Heart Rate at Near Sea Level and Pulmonary Shunt Fraction at High Altitude in a Porcine Model. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1738. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061738

Chicago/Turabian Style

Treml, Benedikt, Elisabeth Schöpf, Ralf Geiger, Christian Niederwanger, Alexander Löckinger, Axel Kleinsasser, and Mirjam Bachler. 2020. "Red Bull Increases Heart Rate at Near Sea Level and Pulmonary Shunt Fraction at High Altitude in a Porcine Model" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1738. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061738

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