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Article

The Effect of Caffeine on the Risk and Progression of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis

by 1,2, 1,2,*,† and 3,4,5,*,†
1
Department of Neurology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei 23561, Taiwan
2
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
5
Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this study.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061860
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health)
Coffee and caffeine are speculated to be associated with the reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study aimed to investigate the disease-modifying potential of caffeine on PD, either for healthy people or patients, through a meta-analysis. The electronic databases were searched using terms related to PD and coffee and caffeinated food products. Articles were included only upon fulfillment of clear diagnostic criteria for PD and details regarding their caffeine content. Reference lists of relevant articles were reviewed to identify eligible studies not shortlisted using these terms. In total, the present study enrolled 13 studies, nine were categorized into a healthy cohort and the rest into a PD cohort. The individuals in the healthy cohort with regular caffeine consumption had a significantly lower risk of PD during follow-up evaluation (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.797, 95% CI = 0.748–0.849, p < 0.001). The outcomes of disease progression in PD cohorts included dyskinesia, motor fluctuation, symptom onset, and levodopa initiation. Individuals consuming caffeine presented a significantly lower rate of PD progression (HR = 0.834, 95% CI = 0.707–0.984, p = 0.03). In conclusion, caffeine modified disease risk and progression in PD, among both healthy individuals or those with PD. Potential biological benefits, such as those obtained from adenosine 2A receptor antagonism, may require further investigation for designing new drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; Parkinson’s disease; risk; progression; meta-analysis caffeine; Parkinson’s disease; risk; progression; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hong, C.T.; Chan, L.; Bai, C.-H. The Effect of Caffeine on the Risk and Progression of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1860. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061860

AMA Style

Hong CT, Chan L, Bai C-H. The Effect of Caffeine on the Risk and Progression of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1860. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061860

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hong, Chien T.; Chan, Lung; Bai, Chyi-Huey. 2020. "The Effect of Caffeine on the Risk and Progression of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1860. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061860

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