# Determination of Selected Texture Features on a Single-Layer Grinding Wheel Active Surface for Tracking Their Changes as a Result of Wear

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{TM}) software for ST analysis, watershed segmentation can isolate entire motifs or only elevations and pits without their surroundings. The main disadvantage of watershed segmentation for ST assessment of GWASs is the difference of the cut-off levels of individual extracted elements in both the analysis of motifs and the recognition of hills and cavities. Consequently, the height and volume parameters are not determined from a common reference surface. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the volume or the maximum height of two selected abrasive grains.

## 2. Research Methodology

- Grinding speed (for diameter ${d}_{s}=100\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}$): ${v}_{s}=20$–$40\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}$, which corresponds to the rotational speed range of the grinder spindle: $n=4000$–$8000\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{rev}/\mathrm{min}$;
- Feed speed: ${v}_{w}=1000$–$7500\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}/\mathrm{min}$;
- Grinding depth: ${a}_{e}=7$–$30\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$$(0.2$–$0.86\xb7{d}_{g})$.

#### Positioning of Measuring Surfaces

^{2}, the surface area of the repeating area (the area common to all four maps) was approximately 5.29 mm

^{2}. It accounted for approximately 94% of the measuring area.

## 3. Automatic Determination of the Cut-Off Level in the SPIP 6.4.2 Software

## 4. Calculation of the Average Level of the Binder

## 5. Comparison of Results Obtained Using Automatically Determined (AT) Cut-Off Level and the Developed Algorithm (OA)

## 6. Segmentation of Grains, Areas of Sticking, and Pores on GWAS Topographies

- Particles of type “particles”: particles with an area in the range $[100,2500]\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$,
- Particles of type “sticking”: particles with an area bigger than $2500\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$.

## 7. The Results of the Grinding Wheel Topography Tests During the Service Life

## 8. Conclusions

- Based on the measurement of the GWAS topography, it is possible to observe changes in the microgeometry of the grinding wheel occurring as a result of wear, and to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis based on horizontal, height, and volume characteristics.
- The developed methodology for GWAS measurement allowed for the measurement of a GWAS in approximately the same places on the grinding wheel at different stages of wear. For the four surveyed areas, the common area accounted for 94% of their area.
- The analysis of particles above the specified cut-off level and pores below the cut-off level provides quantitative information, including height and volume information, on such characteristic GWAS elements as: abrasive grains, cavities in the binder caused by grain breakout, and areas of sticking.
- When analyzing changes in the GWAS topography areas related to grains, deep cavities, and sticking areas associated with gumming up of GWAS, which occur as a result of wear, it is important that the same fragments of these elements are constantly separated at different stages of wear. The cut-off levels for particles and pores should be at the same position on the wheel.
- The developed algorithm for determining the average level of the binder, against which the cut-off levels for particles and pores were determined, allows one to obtain more useful information about particles and pores analyzed in terms of grinding wheel wear than the available algorithm of automatic determination of the cut-off level in commercial software.
- Among the particles, there are areas corresponding to abrasive grains and sticking areas corresponding to gumming up of the GWAS. The categorization of particles into “grains” and “sticking” was established based on the surface area of the particle. The limit value for grain differentiation and sticking in the case of a grinding wheel with grain number B35 was set at $2500\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$.
- For a grinding wheel with grinding speed ${v}_{s}=20\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}$ (for a maximum grinding wheel diameter of ${d}_{s}=100\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}$), feed rate of ${v}_{w}=4250\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}/\mathrm{min}$, and grinding depth of ${a}_{e}=10\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$, the largest volume of grains were broken in the initial period of the grinding wheel’s operation. The extraction of grains from the bond was most intense at the end of the grinding wheel’s life.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

AT | Automatically determined |

BAC | Bearing area curve |

cBN | Cubic boron nitride |

GWAS | Grinding wheel active surface |

ISO | International Standards Organization |

OA | Developed algorithm |

ST | Surface texture |

SLGW | Single-layer grinding wheel |

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**Figure 2.**Views of the grains observed directly on the InfiniteFocus microscope (

**a**,

**c**) and the same grains mapped by the replica (

**b**,

**d**).

**Figure 3.**Replicas’ production sites and measuring surfaces on the grinding wheel active surface (GWAS).

**Figure 4.**Views of the opposite corners of the topography maps, marked as A and B (left), obtained as a result of measuring corresponding areas on four replicas of $V1\xf7V4$ made at different stages of grinding wheel wear (right).

**Figure 5.**Maps of the new (

**a**) and used (

**b**,

**c**) grinding wheel topography and the corresponding areas of particles above the automatically determined cut-off level (

**d**–

**f**). The color palette is the same for all six images. Grinding parameters: ${v}_{s}=30$ m/s (for maximum grinding wheel diameter ${d}_{s}=100$ mm), tangential feed speed ${v}_{w}=4250$ mm/min, grinding depth ${a}_{e}=20\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$.

**Figure 7.**The areas of grains, binder, and cavities in the binder (

**a**), as well as their corresponding areas on the bearing area curve (

**b**) [68].

**Figure 8.**View of three maps analyzed at the same time to manually determine the cut-off level at different stages of wear; the area below the cut-off level is marked as blue.

**Figure 9.**Maps of the new (

**a**) and used (

**d**) grinding wheel topography and the corresponding areas of particles above the automatically determined cut-off level (

**b**,

**e**) and the cut-off level determined by the developed algorithm (

**c**,

**f**). The color palette is the same for all six images. Grinding parameters: ${v}_{s}=40\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}$ (for the maximum grinding wheel diameter ${d}_{s}=100\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}$), tangential feed speed ${v}_{w}=7500\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}/\mathrm{min}$, grinding depth ${a}_{e}=20\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$.

**Figure 10.**Maps of the new (

**a**) and used (

**d**) grinding wheel topography and the corresponding areas of particles above the automatically determined cut-off level (

**b**,

**e**) and the cut-off level determined by the developed algorithm (

**c**,

**f**). The color palette is the same for all six images. Grinding parameters: ${v}_{s}=20\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}$ (for the maximum grinding wheel diameter ${d}_{s}=100\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}$), tangential feed speed ${v}_{w}=4250\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}/\mathrm{min}$, grinding depth ${a}_{e}=10\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$.

**Figure 11.**An example of particle and pore segmentation from the measured topography: (

**a**) an image of a replica fragment with dimensions of $140\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$ × $140\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{m}$, (

**b**) the corresponding map of the topography, (

**c**) areas of particles above the cut-off level, (

**d**) separated particles, (

**e**) areas of pores below the cut-off level, and (

**f**) isolated pores.

**Figure 12.**Example of grain-type and stick-type particles: replica image (

**a**), topography map (

**b**), grain-type particles (blue), and stick-type particles (red) (

**c**).

**Figure 13.**GWAS topography maps (

**left**), corresponding particles maps above the cut-off level (

**center**), and pore maps (

**right**) for different values of the actual material loss ${V}^{\prime}$.

**Figure 14.**Grain volume (Vsum(g)), pore volume (Vsum(p)), and sticking area volume (Vsum(s)) per unit surface after removing different volumes of material.

Lens | ×20 |

Single imaging field | 0.71 mm × 0.54 mm |

Number of imaging fields in the X and Y axes | 4 × 5 |

Measurement area | 2.35 mm × 2.59 mm |

Analysis area | 2.25 mm × 2.50 mm |

Horizontal resolution | 5 μm |

Vertical resolution | 100 nm |

Sampling step | 0.44 μm × 0.44 μm |

**Table 2.**Mean value, standard deviation, and quartiles ${Q}_{1}$, ${Q}_{2}$, and ${Q}_{3}$ computed for the analyzed GWAS areas.

OA Error [%] | AT Error [%] | Improvement [%] | |
---|---|---|---|

mean | 9.35 | 57.64 | 48.29 |

std | 5.6 | 46.17 | 42.87 |

min | 0.67 | 14.76 | 7.61 |

Q_{1} | 5.34 | 25.85 | 14.94 |

Q_{2} | 9.17 | 43.92 | 34.75 |

Q_{3} | 13.95 | 80.36 | 71.24 |

max | 17.65 | 141.00 | 125.74 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Bazan, A.; Kawalec, A.; Rydzak, T.; Kubik, P.; Olko, A.
Determination of Selected Texture Features on a Single-Layer Grinding Wheel Active Surface for Tracking Their Changes as a Result of Wear. *Materials* **2021**, *14*, 6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010006

**AMA Style**

Bazan A, Kawalec A, Rydzak T, Kubik P, Olko A.
Determination of Selected Texture Features on a Single-Layer Grinding Wheel Active Surface for Tracking Their Changes as a Result of Wear. *Materials*. 2021; 14(1):6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010006

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Bazan, Anna, Andrzej Kawalec, Tomasz Rydzak, Paweł Kubik, and Adam Olko.
2021. "Determination of Selected Texture Features on a Single-Layer Grinding Wheel Active Surface for Tracking Their Changes as a Result of Wear" *Materials* 14, no. 1: 6.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010006