Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 144269

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
Interests: plant biology; plant stress physiology; plant resistance against different stresses; abiotic and biotic stresses; heavy metal stresses; phytohormones; plant autophagy; plant biotechnology; plant genome editing; CRISPR/Cas9; nanoparticles; plant-bacteria interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants under natural conditions often face multiple stresses, including drought, salinity, temperature extremes, submergence stress, bacteria, viruses, fungi, insects, etc. These biotic and abiotic stresses negatively influence plant growth and productivity. Recently, various approaches have been used to overcome stresses in plants. It is necessary to evaluate and explore how diverse molecular techniques can be applied to different biological studies for improving biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This will help reduce production losses and increase crop tolerance to various stresses. It is now the time to make a difference by developing plants that can withstand biotic and abiotic stresses.

Dr. Hakim Manghwar
Dr. Wajid Zaman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Life is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant abiotic stress tolerance
  • drought
  • salinity
  • cold
  • heat
  • submergence
  • waterlogging
  • heavy metals stress
  • climate changes
  • oxidative stress
  • lighting damage
  • plant biotic stress tolerance
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • fungi
  • insects

Published Papers (59 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

6 pages, 542 KiB  
Editorial
Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
by Hakim Manghwar and Wajid Zaman
Life 2024, 14(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14030372 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 980
Abstract
In the complex field of plant science, knowledge of the many difficulties that plants encounter from both living and non-living stresses is essential for maintaining biodiversity and managing natural resources in a sustainable manner, in addition to guaranteeing global food security [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

18 pages, 2822 KiB  
Article
Screening and Selection of Drought-Tolerant High-Yielding Chickpea Genotypes Based on Physio-Biochemical Selection Indices and Yield Trials
by Prakash N. Tiwari, Sharad Tiwari, Swapnil Sapre, Anita Babbar, Niraj Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari and Manoj Kumar Tripathi
Life 2023, 13(6), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061405 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Chickpea production is seriously hampered by drought stress, which could be a great threat in the future for food security in developing countries. The present investigation aimed to screen the drought-tolerant response of forty desi chickpea genotypes against drought stress through various physio-biochemical [...] Read more.
Chickpea production is seriously hampered by drought stress, which could be a great threat in the future for food security in developing countries. The present investigation aimed to screen the drought-tolerant response of forty desi chickpea genotypes against drought stress through various physio-biochemical selection indices and yield-attributing traits. Principle component-based biplot analysis recognized PG205, JG2016-44, JG63, and JG24 as tolerant genotypes based on physiological selection indices. These genotypes retained higher relative water content, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, and photosynthetic rate. ICC4958, JG11, JAKI9218, JG16, JG63, and PG205 were selected as tolerant genotypes based on biochemical selection indices. These genotypes sustained higher chlorophyll, sugar and proline content with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. With respect to yield trials, JAKI9218, JG11, JG16, and ICC4958 had higher seed yield per plant, numbers of pods, and biological yield per plant. Finally, JG11, JAKI9218, ICC4958, JG16, JG63, and PG205 were selected as tolerant genotypes based on cumulative physio-biochemical selection indices and yield response. These identified drought-tolerant genotypes may be further employed in climate-smart chickpea breeding programs for sustainable production under a changing climate scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
Zn Fertilizer and Mycorrhizal Inoculation Effect on Bread Wheat Cultivar Grown under Water Deficit
by Neila Abdi, Angeline Van Biljon, Chrisna Steyn and Maryke Labuschagne
Life 2023, 13(5), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13051078 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
During drought stress, many enzymes are inactivated in plants due to Zn deficiency. Zn application and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF)–wheat symbiosis reportedly improve the tolerance of plants to drought stress. This study was done to investigate the effect of Zn and AMF on [...] Read more.
During drought stress, many enzymes are inactivated in plants due to Zn deficiency. Zn application and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF)–wheat symbiosis reportedly improve the tolerance of plants to drought stress. This study was done to investigate the effect of Zn and AMF on plant growth, yield attributes, relative water content (RWC), harvest index (HI), photosynthetic activity, solute accumulation, glycine betaine (GB) accumulation, antioxidant activities [(catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and ionic attributes in a bread wheat cultivar (SST806) under drought-stress in plants grown under greenhouse conditions. Zn application and AMF inoculation, separately and combined, enhanced all plant growth parameters and yield. Root dry weight (RDW) was increased by 25, 30, and 46% for these three treatments, respectively, under drought conditions compared to the control treatment. Overall, Zn application, AMF inoculation, and their combination increased protein content, RWC, and harvest index (HI) under drought stress. However, AMF inoculation improved proline content more than Zn application under the same conditions. Regarding GB accumulation, AMF, Zn, and the combination of Zn and AMF increased GB under drought compared to well-watered conditions by 31.71, 10.36, and 70.70%, respectively. For the antioxidant defense, AMF inoculation and Zn application improved SOD and CAT activity by 58 and 56%, respectively. This study showed that Zn and/or AMF increased antioxidant levels and ionic attributes under abiotic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1543 KiB  
Article
EDTA and IAA Ameliorates Phytoextraction Potential and Growth of Sunflower by Mitigating Cu-Induced Morphological and Biochemical Injuries
by Naila Shah, Muhammad Irshad, Anwar Hussain, Muhammad Qadir, Waheed Murad, Asif Khan, Muhammad Awais, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei and Sajid Ali
Life 2023, 13(3), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030759 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
As an essential micronutrient, copper is vital for normal growth and development of plants, however, its accumulation in soil exerts a severe negative impact on the agronomic characteristics and yield of the crop plants. Phytoextraction is a low-cost method for restoring soil fertility [...] Read more.
As an essential micronutrient, copper is vital for normal growth and development of plants, however, its accumulation in soil exerts a severe negative impact on the agronomic characteristics and yield of the crop plants. Phytoextraction is a low-cost method for restoring soil fertility and avoiding losses due to heavy metal contamination. We found that using EDTA and IAA together improved sunflower hyperaccumulation capacity. Sunflowers were cultivated under various levels of Cu (0 (control), 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of soil) and treated with EDTA alone or combined with IAA. The results revealed that the amended treatment significantly enhanced the absorption and accumulation of Cu in the sunflowers. Furthermore, the various doses of Cu significantly reduced the root and shoot growth of sunflowers in a concentration-dependent manner by impairing the chlorophyll content, hormones (indole 3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid), flavonoids, phenolics, and antioxidant response. The injurious effect of Cu was reduced by the addition of EDTA alone, and the supplementation of IAA led to a significant restoration of shoot growth (~70%) and root growth (~13%) as compared to the plant treated with Cu alone. Moreover, significantly higher levels of chlorophyll content, GA3, endogenous IAA, and flavonoids were recorded, indicating the effectiveness of the treatment in ameliorating plant health. The results also showed considerable restoration of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in plants treated with EDTA and IAA. These results are suggestive that application of EDTA and IAA enhances the Cu absorption potential of sunflower and increases its tolerance to copper, which may not only serve as a better technique for phytoextraction of Cu, but also to bring Cu contaminated soil under cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1578 KiB  
Article
Current Epidemic Situation and Control Status of Citrus Huanglongbing in Guangdong China: The Space–Time Pattern Analysis of Specific Orchards
by Jingtian Zhang, Yangyang Liu, Jie Gao, Chunfen Yuan, Xuanlin Zhan, Xiaoqing Cui, Zheng Zheng, Xiaoling Deng and Meirong Xu
Life 2023, 13(3), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030749 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most harmful bacterial disease in citrus production in the world, and has been seriously ravaging the citrus groves of South China since the 1930s. The surveillance of the epidemiological characteristics of HLB is of utmost priority for citrus production [...] Read more.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most harmful bacterial disease in citrus production in the world, and has been seriously ravaging the citrus groves of South China since the 1930s. The surveillance of the epidemiological characteristics of HLB is of utmost priority for citrus production in this region. In order to explore the effects of disease control measures, analyses on the space–time statistical features of the HLB epidemic, from 2019 to 2021, within six orchards in the Guangdong province are presented. Overall, the number of citrus plants in the orchards usually slightly decreased year by year. The reduction was mainly related to the level of plant susceptibility, which is correlated with citrus varieties. The maximum disease severity (incidence and race increment) was correlated with the awareness of this disease and the management intensity applied by the manager. A higher disease index was found in the conventional management orchards than in the comprehensive prevention and control orchards. Proper insect-protective screen houses can effectively prevent the epidemic of HLB, without affecting the fruit quality, and can also aid with higher yields. A high correlation was found between the geometry and topography of orchards and the HLB epidemic due to the wind direction from May to September and the Asia citrus psyllid activity characteristics. For flat orchards, the incidence of HLB in the north and entrance areas was higher than that in the southwest. In the mountain area, the incidence of the windward side in the south was higher than that of the leeward side in the north. Diseased trees tended to have an edge effect in the grove, whereas the trees of the same disease scale were found clustered in their distribution. These results allow a better understanding of HLB epidemiology and provide guidance for the early warning of HLB in new groves in areas that are severely affected by this disease. Furthermore, they also provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive prevention and control of HLB in old groves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2384 KiB  
Article
Characterization of AtBAG2 as a Novel Molecular Chaperone
by Chang Ho Kang, Jae Hyeok Lee, Yeon-Ju Kim, Cha Young Kim, Soo In Lee, Jong Chan Hong and Chae Oh Lim
Life 2023, 13(3), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030687 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Bcl-2-associated anthanogene (BAG) family proteins regulate plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the function and precise mechanism of action of each individual BAG protein are not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and molecular functions of the Arabidopsis [...] Read more.
Bcl-2-associated anthanogene (BAG) family proteins regulate plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the function and precise mechanism of action of each individual BAG protein are not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and molecular functions of the Arabidopsis thaliana BAG2 (AtBAG2) protein, and elucidated its physiological role under stress conditions using mutant plants and transgenic yeast strains. The T-DNA insertion atbag2 mutant plants were highly susceptible to heat shock, whereas transgenic yeast strains ectopically expressing AtBAG2 exhibited outstanding thermotolerance. Moreover, a biochemical analysis of GST-fused recombinant proteins produced in bacteria revealed that AtBAG2 exhibits molecular chaperone activity, which could be attributed to its BAG domain. The relevance of the molecular chaperone function of AtBAG2 to the cellular heat stress response was confirmed using yeast transformants, and the experimental results showed that overexpression of the AtBAG2 sequence encoding only the BAG domain was sufficient to impart thermotolerance. Overall, these results suggest that the BAG domain-dependent molecular chaperone activity of AtBAG2 is indispensable for the heat stress response of Arabidopsis. This is the first report demonstrating the role of AtBAG2 as a sole molecular chaperone in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2402 KiB  
Article
Drought Tolerance Assessment of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench) Accessions Based on Leaf Gas Exchange and Chlorophyll Fluorescence
by Sonto Silindile Mkhabela, Hussein Shimelis, Abe Shegro Gerrano and Jacob Mashilo
Life 2023, 13(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030682 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Physiological and complementary phenotypic traits are essential in the selection of drought-adapted crop genotypes. Understanding the physiological response of diverse okra genotypes under drought stress conditions is critical to the selection of drought-tolerant accessions for production or breeding. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Physiological and complementary phenotypic traits are essential in the selection of drought-adapted crop genotypes. Understanding the physiological response of diverse okra genotypes under drought stress conditions is critical to the selection of drought-tolerant accessions for production or breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of drought tolerance in preliminarily selected okra accessions based on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence to determine best-performing genotypes for drought-tolerance breeding. Twenty-six genetically diverse okra accessions were screened under non-stressed (NS) and drought-stressed (DS) conditions under a controlled glasshouse environment using a 13 × 2 alpha lattice design in three replicates, in two growing seasons. Data were subjected to statistical analyses using various procedures. A significant genotype × water condition interaction effect was recorded for transpiration rate (T), net CO2 assimilation (A), intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi), instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEins), minimum fluorescence (Fo′), maximum fluorescence (Fm′), maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv′/Fm′), the effective quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (ɸPSII), photochemical quenching (qP), nonphotochemical quenching (qN) and relative measure of electron transport to oxygen molecules (ETR/A). The results suggested variable drought tolerance of the studied okra accessions for selection. Seven principal components (PCs) contributing to 82% of the total variation for assessed physiological traits were identified under DS conditions. Leaf gas exchange parameters, T, A and WUEi, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as the ɸPSII, Fv′/Fm′, qP, qN, ETR and ETR/A had high loading scores and correlated with WUEi, the ɸPSII, qP and ETR under DS conditions. The study found that optimal gas exchange and photoprotection enhance drought adaptation in the assessed okra genotypes and tested water regimes. Using the physiological variables, the study identified drought-tolerant accessions, namely LS05, LS06, LS07 and LS08 based on high A, T, Fm′, Fv′/Fm′ and ETR, and LS10, LS11, LS18 and LS23 based on high AES, Ci, Ci/Ca, WUEi, WUEins, ɸPSII and AES. The selected genotypes are high-yielding (≥5 g/plant) under drought stress conditions and will complement phenotypic data and guide breeding for water-limited agro-ecologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3416 KiB  
Article
Testing the Single and Combined Effect of Kaolin and Spinosad against Bactrocera oleae and Its Natural Antagonist Insects in an Organic Olive Grove
by Veronica Vizzarri, Luca Lombardo, Carmine Novellis, Pierluigi Rizzo, Massimiliano Pellegrino, Giuseppe Cruceli, Gianluca Godino, Francesco Zaffina and Annamaria Ienco
Life 2023, 13(3), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030607 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
The presence and infestation level of Bactrocera oleae was monitored in an organic olive orchard divided into differently treated parcels with kaolin (K), spinosad (S) and with kaolin and spinosad (K + S) in alternate rows. The treatments did not seem to affect [...] Read more.
The presence and infestation level of Bactrocera oleae was monitored in an organic olive orchard divided into differently treated parcels with kaolin (K), spinosad (S) and with kaolin and spinosad (K + S) in alternate rows. The treatments did not seem to affect olive fruit fly population dynamics, while statistically significant protective effects were recorded against total and harmful infestation, but not against the active one. Eventually, neither kaolin nor spinosad were shown to have a particular detrimental effect against naturally occurring B. oleae parasitoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
The Modification of Cell Wall Properties Is Involved in the Growth Inhibition of Rice Coleoptiles Induced by Lead Stress
by Kazuyuki Wakabayashi, Kouichi Soga, Takayuki Hoson and Harue Masuda
Life 2023, 13(2), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020471 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Lead (Pb) is a widespread heavy metal pollutant that interferes with plant growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pb on the mechanical and chemical properties of cell walls and on the growth of coleoptiles of rice (Oryza sativa L.) [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb) is a widespread heavy metal pollutant that interferes with plant growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pb on the mechanical and chemical properties of cell walls and on the growth of coleoptiles of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in the air (on moistened filter paper) and underwater (submerged condition). Coleoptile growth of air-grown seedlings was reduced by 40% by the 3 mM Pb treatment, while that of water-grown ones was reduced by 50% by the 0.5 mM Pb. Although the effective concentration of Pb for growth inhibition of air-grown coleoptiles was much higher than that of water-grown ones, Pb treatment significantly decreased the mechanical extensibility of the cell wall in air- and water-grown coleoptiles, when it inhibited their growth. Among the chemical components of coleoptile cell walls, the amounts of cell wall polysaccharides per unit fresh weight and unit length of coleoptile, which represent the thickness of the cell wall, were significantly increased in response to the Pb treatment (3 mM and 0.5 mM Pb for air- and water-grown seedlings, respectively), while the levels of cell wall-bound diferulic acids (DFAs) and ferulic acids (FAs) slightly decreased. These results indicate that Pb treatment increased the thickness of the cell wall but not the phenolic acid-mediated cross-linking structures within the cell wall in air- and water-grown coleoptiles. The Pb-induced cell wall thickening probably causes the mechanical stiffening of the cell wall and thus decreases cell wall extensibility. Such modifications of cell wall properties may be associated with the inhibition of coleoptile growth. The results of this study provide a new finding that Pb-induced cell wall remodeling contributes to the regulation of plant growth under Pb stress conditions via the modification of the mechanical property of the cell wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2016 KiB  
Article
Growth Stage-, Organ- and Time-Dependent Salt Tolerance of Halophyte Tripolium pannonicum (Jacq.) Dobrocz.
by Agnieszka Ludwiczak, Anna Ciarkowska, Ahmad Rajabi Dehnavi, Stefany Cárdenas-Pérez and Agnieszka Piernik
Life 2023, 13(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020462 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Tripolium pannonicum (Jacq.) Dobrocz. is a member of the diverse group of halophytes with the potential for the desalination and reclamation of degraded land. The adaptive processes of T. pannonicum to salinity habitats are still not well recognized. Therefore, we evaluated the effect [...] Read more.
Tripolium pannonicum (Jacq.) Dobrocz. is a member of the diverse group of halophytes with the potential for the desalination and reclamation of degraded land. The adaptive processes of T. pannonicum to salinity habitats are still not well recognized. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of NaCl (0, 200, 400, and 800 mM) on: (1) two plant growth stages, (2) the activity of antioxidant enzymes and concentration of H2O2 and the proline in roots, stems, and leaves, and (3) the effect of long- and short-term salt stress on physiological responses. Germination, pot experiments, and a biochemical analysis were performed. The effective T. pannonicum’s seed germination was achieved in the control. We demonstrated that halophyte’s organs do not simply tolerate high-salt conditions. The activities of APX, POD, and catalase observed at 400 mM and 800 mM NaCl were varied between organs and revealed the following pattern: root > leaves > stem. Proline was preferentially accumulated in leaves that were more salt-tolerant than other organs. Salt stress enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes and concentrations of salinity stress indicators in a time-dependent manner. Our study has indicated that salt tolerance is a complex mechanism that depends on the growth phase, organs, and duration of salinity exposure. The results have potential for further proteomic and metabolomic analyses of adaptive salt tolerance processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 4395 KiB  
Article
Examination of Different Sporidium Numbers of Ustilago maydis Infection on Two Hungarian Sweet Corn Hybrids’ Characteristics at Vegetative and Generative Stages
by Lóránt Szőke, Makoena Joyce Moloi, Dávid Kaczur, László Radócz and Brigitta Tóth
Life 2023, 13(2), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020433 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Corn smut is one of the major diseases in corn production. The cob infection causes high economic and quality loss. This research investigated the effects of three different concentrations of corn smut infection (2500, 5000, and 10,000 sporidia/mL) on two Hungarian sweet corn [...] Read more.
Corn smut is one of the major diseases in corn production. The cob infection causes high economic and quality loss. This research investigated the effects of three different concentrations of corn smut infection (2500, 5000, and 10,000 sporidia/mL) on two Hungarian sweet corn hybrids (Desszert 73 and Noa). Plants were infected at the vegetative (V4–V5) and the generative (V7) stages. The effects of the corn smut infection were evaluated at 7 and 14 days after the pathogen infection (DAPI) at vegetative and at 21 DAPI at generative stages. The photosynthetic pigments (relative chlorophyll, chlorophyll-a and b, and carotenoids), malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline concentration, activities of the antioxidant enzymes [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], morphological characteristics (plant height, stem and cob diameter, cob length, cob and kernel weights), mineral contents (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr, and Zn), and quality parameters (dry matter, fiber, fat, ash, nitrogen, and protein) were measured. At both sampling times (7 and 14 DAPI) in both hybrids, the corn smut infection reduced the photosynthetic pigments (relative chlorophyll, chlorophylls-a, and b, and carotenoids) irrespective of the spore concentration. Under the same conditions, the MDA and proline contents, as well as the activities of APX, POX, and SOD increased at both sampling times. The negative effects of the corn smut infection were also observed at the generative stage. Only the 10,000 sporidia/mL of corn smut caused symptoms (tumor growth) on the cobs of both hybrids at 21 DAPI. Similarly, this treatment impacted adversely the cob characteristics (reduced cob length, kernel weight, and 100 grains fresh and dry weight) for both hybrids. In addition, crude fat and protein content, Mg, and Mn concentration of grains also decreased in both hybrids while the concentration of Al and Ca increased. Based on these results, the sweet corn hybrids were more susceptible to corn smut at the vegetative stage than at the generative stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 11575 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Potentiality of Native Actinobacteria to Combat the Chilli Fruit Rot Pathogens under Post-Harvest Pathosystem
by Rajamuthu Renuka, Kupusamy Prabakar, Rangasamy Anandham, Lakshmanan Pugalendhi, Lingam Rajendran, Thiruvengadam Raguchander and Gandhi Karthikeyan
Life 2023, 13(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020426 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Chilli is an universal spice cum solanaceous vegetable crop rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, capsaicin and capsanthin. Its cultivation is highly threatened by fruit rot disease which cause yield loss as high as 80–100% under congenial environment conditions. Currently actinobacteria are considered [...] Read more.
Chilli is an universal spice cum solanaceous vegetable crop rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, capsaicin and capsanthin. Its cultivation is highly threatened by fruit rot disease which cause yield loss as high as 80–100% under congenial environment conditions. Currently actinobacteria are considered as eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic fungicides at pre and post-harvest pathosystems. Hence, this research work focuses on the exploitation of rhizospheric, phyllospheric and endophytic actinobacteria associated with chilli plants for their antagonistic activity against fruit rot pathogens viz., Colletotrichum scovillei, Colletotrichum truncatum and Fusarium oxysporum. In vitro bioassays revealed that the actinobacterial isolate AR26 was found to be the most potent antagonist with multifarious biocontrol mechanisms such as production of volatile, non-volatile, thermostable compounds, siderophores, extracellular lytic enzymes. 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that the isolate AR26 belongs to Streptomyces tuirus. The results of detached fruit assay revealed that application of liquid bio-formulation of Stretomyces tuirus @ 10 mL/L concentration completely inhibited the development of fruit rot symptoms in pepper fruits compared to methanol extracts. Hence, the present research work have a great scope for evaluating the biocontrol potential of native S. tuirus AR26 against chilli fruit rot disease under field condition as well against a broad spectrum of post-harvest plant pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4044 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Anatomical Responses of Faba Bean Plants Infected with Chocolate Spot Disease to Chemical Inducers
by Rasha M. Alnefaie, Sahar A. EL-Sayed, Amany A. Ramadan, Ahmed I. Elmezien, Ahmed M. El-Taher, Timothy O. Randhir and Ahmed Bondok
Life 2023, 13(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020392 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Plant diseases are biotic stresses that restrict crop plants’ ability to develop and produce. Numerous foliar diseases, such as chocolate spots, can cause significant production losses in Vicia faba plants. Certain chemical inducers, including salicylic acid (SA), oxalic acid (OA), nicotinic acid (NA), [...] Read more.
Plant diseases are biotic stresses that restrict crop plants’ ability to develop and produce. Numerous foliar diseases, such as chocolate spots, can cause significant production losses in Vicia faba plants. Certain chemical inducers, including salicylic acid (SA), oxalic acid (OA), nicotinic acid (NA), and benzoic acid (BA), were used in this study to assess efficacy in controlling these diseases. A foliar spray of these phenolic acids was used to manage the impacts of the biotic stress resulting from disease incidence. All tested chemical inducers resulted in a significant decrease in disease severity. They also enhanced the defense system of treated plants through increasing antioxidant enzyme activity (Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, β-1, 3-glucanase, and chitinase) compared to the corresponding control. Healthy leaves of faba plants recorded the lowest (p < 0.05) values of all antioxidant activities compared to those plants infected by Botrytis fabae. Moreover, the separation of proteins using SDS-PAGE showed slight differences among treatments. Furthermore, foliar spray with natural organic acids reduced the adverse effects of fungal infection by expediting recovery. The SA (5 mM) treatment produced a pronounced increase in the upper, lower epidermis, palisade thickness, spongy tissues, midrib zone, length, and width of vascular bundle. The foliar application with other treatments resulted in a slight increase in the thickness of the examined layers, especially by benzoic acid. In general, all tested chemical inducers could alleviate the adverse effects of the biotic stress on faba bean plants infected by Botrytis fabae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
The Role of Heat Acclimation in Thermotolerance of Chickpea Cultivars: Changes in Photochemical and Biochemical Responses
by Özlem Arslan
Life 2023, 13(1), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010233 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat stress on the physiological and biochemical responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.; Diyar and Küsmen-99) cultivars that are both heat acclimated and non-acclimated. The seedlings were grown in soil for 15 days [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat stress on the physiological and biochemical responses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.; Diyar and Küsmen-99) cultivars that are both heat acclimated and non-acclimated. The seedlings were grown in soil for 15 days and then exposed to heat stress (35 °C, 5 days) after heat acclimation (30 °C, 2 days) or non-acclimation (25 °C, 2 days). Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) measurements were analyzed using the JIP test. Heat acclimation had no significant effect on ChlF parameters. Seedlings exposed to higher temperatures by acclimation were more tolerant in terms of ChlF parameters and Diyar had a better photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII). Heat stress resulted in a decrease in electron transport efficiency, quantum yield, photosynthetic performance, and driving force in both chickpea cultivars, while K-band, L-band, and quantum yield of dissipation increased, especially in the non-acclimated cultivars. Additionally, ion leakage (RLR), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and H2O2 synthesis increased in the cultivars, while water content (RWC), chlorophyll (a + b) content, and carotenoid content of the cultivars decreased. On the other hand, the cultivars attempted to eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the content of anthocyanins and flavonoids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and POD) under heat stress. Heat acclimation alleviated the negative effects of heat stress on each cultivar’s water content, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, membrane damage, photosynthetic activity, and antioxidant defense systems. The results of this study showed that, by providing heat acclimation more effectively, Diyar was better able to cope with the biochemical and physiological alterations that could be resulted from heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1662 KiB  
Article
Comparative Proteomics Analysis between Maize and Sorghum Uncovers Important Proteins and Metabolic Pathways Mediating Drought Tolerance
by Ali Elnaeim Elbasheir Ali, Lizex Hollenbach Husselmann, David L. Tabb and Ndiko Ludidi
Life 2023, 13(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010170 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2886
Abstract
Drought severely affects crop yield and yield stability. Maize and sorghum are major crops in Africa and globally, and both are negatively impacted by drought. However, sorghum has a better ability to withstand drought than maize. Consequently, this study identifies differences between maize [...] Read more.
Drought severely affects crop yield and yield stability. Maize and sorghum are major crops in Africa and globally, and both are negatively impacted by drought. However, sorghum has a better ability to withstand drought than maize. Consequently, this study identifies differences between maize and sorghum grown in water deficit conditions, and identifies proteins associated with drought tolerance in these plant species. Leaf relative water content and proline content were measured, and label-free proteomics analysis was carried out to identify differences in protein expression in the two species in response to water deficit. Water deficit enhanced the proline accumulation in sorghum roots to a higher degree than in maize, and this higher accumulation was associated with enhanced water retention in sorghum. Proteomic analyses identified proteins with differing expression patterns between the two species, revealing key metabolic pathways that explain the better drought tolerance of sorghum than maize. These proteins include phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases, indole-3-acetaldehyde oxidase, sucrose synthase and phenol/catechol oxidase. This study highlights the importance of phenylpropanoids, sucrose, melanin-related metabolites and indole acetic acid (auxin) as determinants of the differences in drought stress tolerance between maize and sorghum. The selection of maize and sorghum genotypes with enhanced expression of the genes encoding these differentially expressed proteins, or genetically engineering maize and sorghum to increase the expression of such genes, can be used as strategies for the production of maize and sorghum varieties with improved drought tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 8991 KiB  
Article
Role of Sodium Nitroprusside on Potential Mitigation of Salt Stress in Centaury (Centaurium erythraea Rafn) Shoots Grown In Vitro
by Milana Trifunović-Momčilov, Nikola Stamenković, Marija Đurić, Snežana Milošević, Marija Marković, Zlatko Giba and Angelina Subotić
Life 2023, 13(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010154 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Soil salinity is one of the most common abiotic stressors that affects plant growth and development. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO), on the physiological response of common centaury [...] Read more.
Soil salinity is one of the most common abiotic stressors that affects plant growth and development. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO), on the physiological response of common centaury (Centaurium erythraea) shoots grown under stress conditions caused by sodium chloride (NaCl) in vitro. Centaury shoots were first grown on nutrient medium containing different SNP concentrations (50, 100 and 250 μM) during the pretreatment phase. After three weeks, the shoots were transferred to nutrient media supplemented with NaCl (150 mM) and/or SNP (50, 100 or 250 μM) for one week. The results showed that salinity decreased photosynthetic pigments, total phenolic content and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) concentration. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX), were also reduced under salt stress. However, MDA concentration was decreased, while H2O2 and proline content did not drastically change under the stress conditions caused by NaCl. Exogenous application of SNP altered the biochemical parameters of centaury shoots grown under salt stress. In this case, increased photosynthetic pigment content, total phenolics and proline content were noted, with reduced MDA, but not H2O2, concentration was observed. In addition, the exogenous application of SNP increased the degree of DPPH reduction as well as SOD, CAT and POX activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2596 KiB  
Article
DsDBF1, a Type A-5 DREB Gene, Identified and Characterized in the Moss Dicranum scoparium
by Alfred O. Onele, Anastasia B. Mazina, Ilya Y. Leksin and Farida V. Minibayeva
Life 2023, 13(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010090 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Plant dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles during stress tolerance by regulating the expression of numerous genes involved in stresses. DREB TFs have been extensively studied in a variety of angiosperms and bryophytes. To date, no information on the [...] Read more.
Plant dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles during stress tolerance by regulating the expression of numerous genes involved in stresses. DREB TFs have been extensively studied in a variety of angiosperms and bryophytes. To date, no information on the identification and characterization of DREB TFs in Dicranum scoparium has been reported. In this study, a new DBF1 gene from D. scoparium was identified by cloning and sequencing. Analysis of the conserved domain and physicochemical properties revealed that DsDBF1 protein has a classic AP2 domain encoding a 238 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 26 kDa and a pI of 5.98. Subcellular prediction suggested that DsDBF1 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that DsDBF1 belongs to group A-5 DREBs. Expression analysis by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that DsDBF1 was significantly upregulated in response to abiotic stresses such as desiccation/rehydration, exposure to paraquat, CdCl2, high and freezing temperatures. Taken together, our data suggest that DsDBF1 could be a promising gene candidate to improve stress tolerance in crop plants, and the characterization of TFs of a stress tolerant moss such as D. scoparium provides a better understanding of plant adaptation mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2392 KiB  
Article
Unravelling the Morphological, Physiological, and Phytochemical Responses in Centella asiatica L. Urban to Incremental Salinity Stress
by Hai Ly Hoang and Hafeezur Rehman
Life 2023, 13(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010061 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
Centella asiatica L. as a traditional medicinal plant is popular in several Asian countries and characterized by the presence of phytochemicals, such as phenolics and flavonoids. Soil salinity can affect the growth and phytochemical composition in this plant species. In this study, the [...] Read more.
Centella asiatica L. as a traditional medicinal plant is popular in several Asian countries and characterized by the presence of phytochemicals, such as phenolics and flavonoids. Soil salinity can affect the growth and phytochemical composition in this plant species. In this study, the effects of incremental soil salinity (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM NaCl) on growth, physiological characteristics, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, including the antioxidant activity of Centella asiatica L., were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Salinity stress reduced growth, biomass production, and total chlorophyll contents, while increasing electrolyte leakage, Na+ and Cl contents in the shoots and roots. With the increase of salt concentration, total phenolic, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities were increased. The results showed that centella can tolerate saline conditions up to 100 mM NaCl. Na+ exclusion from the roots, and that increases of phytochemical content in the shoots were related to the salt tolerance of this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Effects of Vertically Heterogeneous Soil Salinity on Genetic Polymorphism and Productivity of the Widespread Halophyte Bassia prostrata
by Elena Shuyskaya, Kristina Toderich, Alexander Kolesnikov, Maria Prokofieva and Marina Lebedeva
Life 2023, 13(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010056 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
Salinity is one of the environmental factors that affects both productivity and genetic diversity in plant species. Within the soil profile, salinity is a dynamic indicator and significantly changes with depth. The present study examined the effects of the vertical heterogeneity of soil [...] Read more.
Salinity is one of the environmental factors that affects both productivity and genetic diversity in plant species. Within the soil profile, salinity is a dynamic indicator and significantly changes with depth. The present study examined the effects of the vertical heterogeneity of soil salinity chemistry on the plant height, fresh and dry biomass accumulation, water content, level of genetic polymorphism, and observed and expected heterozygosity in seven populations of halophyte Bassia prostrata in natural habitats. Soil salinity ranged from slight (Ssalts = 0.11–0.25%) to extreme (Ssalts = 1.35–2.57%). The main contributors to salinity were Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Multivariate analysis revealed that biomass accumulation is positively affected by moderate/high salinity in 20–60 cm soil layers, which may be associated with the salt required for the optimal growth of the halophyte B. prostrata. The formation of seed genetic diversity is negatively affected by slight/moderate salinity in the 0–40 cm layers. An increase in divalent ion content can reduce genetic diversity and increase the local adaptation of B. prostrata to magnesium–calcium sulfate salinity. The effect of the in-depth distribution of soil salinity on productivity and genetic diversity may be related to seasonal variables during biomass accumulation (summer) and seed formation (autumn). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1521 KiB  
Article
Influence of Mineral Treatment, Plant Growth Regulators and Artificial Light on the Growth of Jewel Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. cv. Jewel) In Vitro
by Rima N. Kirakosyan, Elena A. Kalashnikova, Halid G. Abubakarov, Nikolay N. Sleptsov, Yuliya A. Dudina, Sulukhan K. Temirbekova, Quyet V. Khuat, Vladimir I. Trukhachev and Anton V. Sumin
Life 2023, 13(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010052 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam), a member of the bindweed family (Convolvulaceae Juss.), is well known for its food, medicinal, and industrial values. It is estimated that more than 7000 sweet potato cultivars have been bred to date. Jewel sweet [...] Read more.
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam), a member of the bindweed family (Convolvulaceae Juss.), is well known for its food, medicinal, and industrial values. It is estimated that more than 7000 sweet potato cultivars have been bred to date. Jewel sweet potato (I. batatas Lam cv. Jewel) is one of the most popular cultivars of sweet potato grown today because of its high nutritional value, delicious taste, and is suitable for all processing methods. However, little is known about the micropropagation of jewel sweet potato. The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of three important factors, including culture medium, plant growth regulators (PGRs), and artificial light sources, on the induction, proliferation, and growth of in vitro I. batatas ‘Jewel’ shoots obtained from the axillary bud and shoot tip explants. The different Murashige and Skoog (MS) salt levels (33%, 50%, 100%, and 150%) were used to study the influence of mineral treatment. To assess the influence of PGRs, we used 0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) combined with various cytokinins, including 0.5–2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0.5–2.0 mg/L kinetin (Kn), and 0.1–1.0 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). On the other hand, the in vitro shoots were cultivated in a light room with different lighting conditions. Three lighting treatments (differences in the ratio between the red (R) and blue (B) spectra) were used. Research results have shown that the medium containing 50% MS salt concentration supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP or 0.5 mg/L Kn combined with 0.5 mg/L IAA was the most suitable for induction, proliferation, and growth of in vitro jewel sweet potato shoots. On the other hand, stem pieces bearing the axillary buds’ explants were determined to be suitable for the shoot induction. Using artificial light with different blue/red ratios also had a significant effect on the growth of explants and stimulates shoot or root formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3500 KiB  
Article
Hydropriming and Osmotic Priming Induce Resistance against Aspergillus niger in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Activating β-1, 3-glucanase, Chitinase, and Thaumatin-like Protein Genes
by Summia Gul, Amjad Hussain, Qurban Ali, Intikhab Alam, Rana M. Alshegaihi, Qinglin Meng, Wajid Zaman, Hakim Manghwar and Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis
Life 2022, 12(12), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122061 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Priming is used as a method to improve plant growth and alleviate the detrimental effects of pathogens. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different priming methods in the context of resistance to Aspergillus niger in wheat (Triticum aestivum [...] Read more.
Priming is used as a method to improve plant growth and alleviate the detrimental effects of pathogens. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different priming methods in the context of resistance to Aspergillus niger in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we show that different priming treatments—viz., hydropriming, osmotic priming, halopriming, and hormonal priming techniques can induce disease resistance by improving the biochemical contents of wheat, including chlorophyll, protein, proline, and sugar. In addition, physiological parameters—such as root length, shoot length, fresh and dry root/shoot ratios, and relative water content were positively affected by these priming methods. In essence, hydropriming and osmotic priming treatments were found to be more potent for enhancing wheat biochemical contents, along with all the physiological parameters, and for reducing disease severity. Hydropriming and osmotic priming significantly decreased disease severity, by 70.59–75.00% and 64.71–88.33%, respectively. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analyses of potentially important pathogenesis-related (PR)-protein genes (Thaumatin-like protein (TLP), chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase) in primed plants were evaluated: β-1,3-glucanase was most highly expressed in all primed plants; Chitinase and TLP exhibited higher expression in hormonal-, halo-, osmotic-, and hydro-primed plants, respectively. These results suggest that the higher expression of β-1,3-glucanase, TLP, and chitinase after hydropriming and osmotic priming may increase disease resistance in wheat. Our study demonstrates the greater potential of hydropriming and osmotic priming for alleviating stress caused by A. niger inoculation, and enhancing resistance to it, in addition to significantly improving plant growth. Thus, these priming methods could be beneficial for better plant growth and disease resistance in other plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 993 KiB  
Article
From Biodiversity to Musketry: Detection of Plant Diversity in Pre-Industrial Peloponnese during the Flora Graeca Expedition
by Chrysanthi Chimona, Sophia Papadopoulou, Foteini Kolyva, Maria Mina and Sophia Rhizopoulou
Life 2022, 12(12), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12121957 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
As the interest in natural, sustainable ecosystems arises in many fields, wild plant diversity is reconsidered. The present study is based on extant literature evidence from the journey of John Sibthorp (Professor of Botany, Oxford University) to Peloponnese (Greece) in pre-industrial time. In [...] Read more.
As the interest in natural, sustainable ecosystems arises in many fields, wild plant diversity is reconsidered. The present study is based on extant literature evidence from the journey of John Sibthorp (Professor of Botany, Oxford University) to Peloponnese (Greece) in pre-industrial time. In the year 1795, Peloponnese was a botanically unknown region, very dangerous for travellers and under civil unrest, in conjuncture with a pre-rebellion period. Our study reveals approximately 200 wild plant taxa that were collected from Peloponnese localities in 1795, transported to Oxford University (UK), and quoted in the magnificent edition Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana of the 19th century. Moreover, these plants currently constitute a living collection in Peloponnese, confirmed according to updated data on the vascular Flora of Greece. The presented lists constitute a source of information for plant biologists, linking the past to the present, shedding light on the study of adaptive traits of wild Mediterranean plants and revealing the temporal dimension of natural history. Nowadays, increasing and thorough understanding of the considered plants’ functionality to abiotic and biotic environmental stimuli provides a new framework of sustainability and management options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 3645 KiB  
Article
Effects of Salt Stress on the Antioxidant Activity and Malondialdehyde, Solution Protein, Proline, and Chlorophyll Contents of Three Malus Species
by Dajiang Wang, Yuan Gao, Simiao Sun, Xiang Lu, Qingshan Li, Lianwen Li, Kun Wang and Jihong Liu
Life 2022, 12(11), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111929 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Understanding the different physiological responses of Malus species under salt stress in the seedling stages will be useful in breeding salt-tolerant dwarfing apple rootstocks. Seedlings of Malus Zumi (Mats.) Rehd. (M. zumi), Malus sieversii (Led.) Roem. (M. sieversii), and [...] Read more.
Understanding the different physiological responses of Malus species under salt stress in the seedling stages will be useful in breeding salt-tolerant dwarfing apple rootstocks. Seedlings of Malus Zumi (Mats.) Rehd. (M. zumi), Malus sieversii (Led.) Roem. (M. sieversii), and Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. (M. baccata) were treated with solution of 0, 0.20%, 0.40%, and 0.60% salinity. Physiological parameters of their leaves and roots were measured at 0 d, 4 d, 8 d and 12 d after salinity treatments. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), solution protein (SP), and proline (PRO) initially increased and then decreased. The activities and contents of these parameters were higher in the 0.40% and 0.60% NaCl treatments than in the 0.20% treatment and in the 0% control. M. zumi was the most resistant to salt stress, showing the lowest content of MDA in the leaves and roots, which increased slightly under salt stress. M. baccata had the highest increase in both the content and proportion of MDA. High enzyme activity was shown to play an important role in the salt resistance of M. zumi. Moreover, it can be speculated that there are other substances that also play a major role. We found that osmotic regulation played a key role in response to salt stress for M. baccata even though it was sensitive to salt stress. For M. sieversii, both the osmotic regulation and enzymatic antioxidants were observed to play a major role in mitigating salt stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 10934 KiB  
Article
Melatonin in Micro-Tom Tomato: Improved Drought Tolerance via the Regulation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus, Membrane Stability, Osmoprotectants, and Root System
by Naveed Mushtaq, Shahid Iqbal, Faisal Hayat, Abdul Raziq, Asma Ayaz and Wajid Zaman
Life 2022, 12(11), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111922 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
Environmental variations caused by global climate change significantly affect plant yield and productivity. Because water scarcity is one of the most significant risks to agriculture’s future, improving the performance of plants to cope with water stress is critical. Our research scrutinized the impact [...] Read more.
Environmental variations caused by global climate change significantly affect plant yield and productivity. Because water scarcity is one of the most significant risks to agriculture’s future, improving the performance of plants to cope with water stress is critical. Our research scrutinized the impact of melatonin application on the photosynthetic machinery, photosynthetic physiology, root system, osmoprotectant accumulation, and oxidative stress in tomato plants during drought. The results showed that melatonin-treated tomato plants had remarkably higher water levels, gas exchange activities, root system morphological parameters (average diameter, root activity, root forks, projected area, root crossings, root volume, root surface area, root length, root tips, and root numbers), osmoprotectant (proline, trehalose, fructose, sucrose, and GB) accumulation, and transcript levels of the photosynthetic genes SlPsb28, SlPetF, SlPsbP, SlPsbQ, SlPetE, and SlPsbW. In addition, melatonin effectively maintained the plants’ photosynthetic physiology. Moreover, melatonin treatment maintained the soluble protein content and antioxidant capacity during drought. Melatonin application also resulted in membrane stability, evidenced by less electrolyte leakage and lower H2O2, MDA, and O2 levels in the drought-stress environment. Additionally, melatonin application enhanced the antioxidant defense enzymes and antioxidant-stress-resistance-related gene (SlCAT1, SlAPX, SlGR, SlDHAR, SlPOD, and SOD) transcript levels in plants. These outcomes imply that the impacts of melatonin treatment on improving drought resistance could be ascribed to the mitigation of photosynthetic function inhibition, the enhancement of the water status, and the alleviation of oxidative stress in tomato plants. Our study findings reveal new and incredible aspects of the response of melatonin-treated tomato plants to drought stress and provide a list of candidate targets for increasing plant tolerance to the drought-stress environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2798 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of Some Quinoa Genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), Grown in a Saharan Climate in Algeria
by Kelthoum Maamri, Ouiza Djerroudi Zidane, Ahmed Chaabena, Gabriele Fiene and Didier Bazile
Life 2022, 12(11), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111854 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Agriculture in southern Algeria faces several challenges that hinder its development, including drought, high temperatures and the excessive salinity of soil and groundwater. The introduction of crops resistant to these factors is one of the solutions chosen to address these abiotic constraints. This [...] Read more.
Agriculture in southern Algeria faces several challenges that hinder its development, including drought, high temperatures and the excessive salinity of soil and groundwater. The introduction of crops resistant to these factors is one of the solutions chosen to address these abiotic constraints. This research aimed to evaluate the behavior of quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) grown in the Ouargla region of southeastern Algeria. Five varieties of quinoa (Santa maria, Giza1, Amarilla Sacaca, Blanca de Junin and Kancolla) were tested at two sites that differed in terms of soil salinity (9.95 mS/cm and 0.85 mS/cm) during 2019 and 2020. A complete random block experimental design with four repetitions was used for the agronomic tests. Our results clearly show that higher grain yields were obtained at the high salinity site (site 1) compared to the low salinity site (site 2). However, plant height, grain yield per plant and harvest index differed between varieties and sites. In contrast, stem diameter was not greatly affected by salinity. The varieties that seem to be best adapted to the growing conditions of the Ouargla region are, in descending order: Santa Maria, Giza1, Amarilla Sacaca and Blanca de Junin. When testing quinoa in new environments, it is critical to adapt the cropping cycle of varieties to avoid very high temperatures. The choice to switch to winter cultivation instead of spring cultivation can be an essential criterion for success. The biogeographical approach conducted in this research opens up new perspectives for the adaptation and cultivation of quinoa outside its region of origin to satisfy the food security of the people of North Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4154 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Ecological Environment Affected by Cry1Ah1 in Poplar
by Ali Movahedi, Hui Wei, Abdul Razak Alhassan, Raphael Dzinyela, Pu Wang, Weibo Sun, Qiang Zhuge and Chen Xu
Life 2022, 12(11), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111830 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Populus is a genus of globally significant plantation trees used widely in industrial and agricultural production. Poplars are easily damaged by Micromelalopha troglodyta and Hyphantria cunea, resulting in decreasing quality. Bt toxin-encoded by the Cry gene has been widely adopted in poplar [...] Read more.
Populus is a genus of globally significant plantation trees used widely in industrial and agricultural production. Poplars are easily damaged by Micromelalopha troglodyta and Hyphantria cunea, resulting in decreasing quality. Bt toxin-encoded by the Cry gene has been widely adopted in poplar breeding because of its strong insect resistance. There is still no comprehensive and sufficient information about the effects of Cry1Ah1-modified (CM) poplars on the ecological environment. Here, we sampled the rhizosphere soils of field-grown CM and non-transgenic (NT) poplars and applied 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing to determine the bacterial community associated with the CM and NT poplars. Based on the high-throughput sequencing of samples, we found that the predominant taxa included Proteobacteria (about 40% of the total bacteria), Acidobacteria (about 20% of the total bacteria), and Actinobacteria (about 20% of the total bacteria) collected from the natural rhizosphere of NT and CM poplars. In addition, studies on the microbial diversity of poplar showed that Cry1Ah1 expression has no significant influence on rhizosphere soil alkaline nitrogen, but significantly affects soil phosphorus, soil microbial biomass nitrogen, and carbon. The results exhibited a similar bacterial community structure between CM varieties affected by the expression of Cry1Ah1 and non-transgenic poplars. In addition, Cry1Ah1 expression revealed no significant influence on the composition of rhizosphere microbiomes. These results broadly reflect the effect of the Bt toxin-encoded by Cry1Ah1 on the ecology and environment and provide a clear path for researchers to continue research in this field in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Catabolism of Glucosinolates into Nitriles Revealed by RNA Sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings after Non-Thermal Plasma-Seed Treatment
by Alexandra Waskow, Anthony Guihur, Alan Howling and Ivo Furno
Life 2022, 12(11), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111822 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Non-thermal plasma-seed treatments could be an environmentally friendly method to modulate plant properties. Since it remains unclear how plasmas affect seeds, RNA sequencing was used here to analyze gene transcription changes in 7-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings grown from surface dielectric barrier [...] Read more.
Non-thermal plasma-seed treatments could be an environmentally friendly method to modulate plant properties. Since it remains unclear how plasmas affect seeds, RNA sequencing was used here to analyze gene transcription changes in 7-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings grown from surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma-treated seeds. In a previous study, seeds were analyzed 6 days after plasma exposure and a plant stress and defense response was observed. Here, we performed a pathway analysis on differentially expressed genes and our results revealed again an increased expression of plant stress and defense, specifically glucosinolate pathway-related compounds. The main difference was that a different part of the plant defense response changed at 7 days, which was not previously observed at 6 days. With a 24-h delayed extraction time point, the glucosinolates were selectively broken down into nitriles among all of the glucosinolates catabolic products. Although information about nitriles is limited, it protects plants against biotic stresses and has variable toxicity depending on the interacting organism. More work needs to be performed to better understand which plasma seed treatment parameters affect plant defense; however, these preliminary findings suggest that an optimized plasma treatment could be used to elicit a plant defense response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 894 KiB  
Article
Application of Potassium after Waterlogging Improves Quality and Productivity of Soybean Seeds
by Muhammad Abdullah Al Mamun, Julekha, Umakanta Sarker, Muhammad Abdul Mannan, Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Md. Abdul Karim, Sezai Ercisli, Romina Alina Marc and Kirill S. Golokhvast
Life 2022, 12(11), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111816 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Potassium (K) improves the stress tolerance of crop plants, which varies on the timing of K application and crop varieties. Soybean is a promising crop that can easily fit with the cropping pattern during kharif I season, when water logging occurs due to [...] Read more.
Potassium (K) improves the stress tolerance of crop plants, which varies on the timing of K application and crop varieties. Soybean is a promising crop that can easily fit with the cropping pattern during kharif I season, when water logging occurs due to sudden rain. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of K management on the productivity and seed quality of soybean under normal and waterlogged conditions. The treatments comprised three factors, namely soybean genotypes (BU Soybean-1 and BU Soybean-2), waterlogging (WL) (control and WL for 4 days at the flowering stage (FS)), and K application (full dose as basal and 50% as basal +50% as top dress after termination of the flooding). The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Findings revealed that BU Soybean-1 produced a higher number of pods and seeds pod−1 under control conditions with basal application of K. On the other hand, BU Soybean-2 produced taller plants and heavier grain, improving grain and straw yield under WL conditions when K was top dressed. The varieties absorbed a higher amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium under control conditions compared to WL when K was top dressed. Similarly, the seed protein content of both varieties was higher in the control condition with a top dressing of K. However, a higher percentage of seed germination was obtained from BU Soybean-2 in the control condition with a top dressing of K. Further, more electrical conductivity and more mean germination time were recorded in the case of BU Soybean-2 under WL with the basal application of K. Split application of 50% of recommended K fertilizer after the recession of flood water could be suggested for improved grain yield in flood-affected soybean growing areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 5999 KiB  
Article
Abiotic and Herbivory Combined Stress in Tomato: Additive, Synergic and Antagonistic Effects and Within-Plant Phenotypic Plasticity
by Rosa Vescio, Roberta Caridi, Francesca Laudani, Vincenzo Palmeri, Lucia Zappalà, Maurizio Badiani and Agostino Sorgonà
Life 2022, 12(11), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111804 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Background: Drought, N deficiency and herbivory are considered the most important stressors caused by climate change in the agro- and eco-systems and varied in space and time shaping highly dynamic and heterogeneous stressful environments. This study aims to evaluate the tomato morpho-physiological and [...] Read more.
Background: Drought, N deficiency and herbivory are considered the most important stressors caused by climate change in the agro- and eco-systems and varied in space and time shaping highly dynamic and heterogeneous stressful environments. This study aims to evaluate the tomato morpho-physiological and metabolic responses to combined abiotic and herbivory at different within-plant spatial levels and temporal scales. Methods: Leaf-level morphological, gas exchange traits and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles were measured in tomato plants exposed to N deficiency and drought, Tuta absoluta larvae and their combination. Additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects of the single stress when combined were also evaluated. Morpho-physiological traits and VOCs profile were also measured on leaves located at three different positions along the shoot axes. Results: The combination of the abiotic and biotic stress has been more harmful than single stress with antagonistic and synergistic but non-additive effects for the morpho-physiological and VOCs tomato responses, respectively. Combined stress also determined a high within-plant phenotypic plasticity of the morpho-physiological responses. Conclusions: These results suggested that the combined stress in tomato determined a “new stress state” and a higher within-plant phenotypic plasticity which could permit an efficient use of the growth and defense resources in the heterogeneous and multiple stressful environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 829 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Multiplication and Cryopreservation of Penthorum chinense Shoot Tips
by Rabbi A. K. M. Zilani, Hyoeun Lee, Elena Popova and Haenghoon Kim
Life 2022, 12(11), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111759 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
This study provides alternative approaches toward ex situ conservation by means of in vitro seed germination and the multiplication of Penthorum chinense Pursh using nodal explants. An overlay of a liquid medium on top of a gelled medium significantly increased the growth of [...] Read more.
This study provides alternative approaches toward ex situ conservation by means of in vitro seed germination and the multiplication of Penthorum chinense Pursh using nodal explants. An overlay of a liquid medium on top of a gelled medium significantly increased the growth of shoots and roots, while the presence of activated charcoal or growth regulators (benzyl adenine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid) decreased the growth. Shoot tips of in vitro plantlets were cryopreserved using a droplet-vitrification method. The standard procedure included preculture with 10% sucrose for 31 h and with 17.5% sucrose for 17 h, osmoprotection with loading solution C4-35% (17.5% glycerol + 17.5% sucrose, w/v) for 20 min, cryoprotection with alternative plant vitrification solution (PVS) A3-70% (29.2% glycerol + 11.7% DMSO + 11.7% EG + 17.4% sucrose, w/v) at 0 °C for 30 min, cooling the samples in liquid nitrogen using aluminum foil strips and rewarming by plunging into pre-heated (40 °C) unloading solution (35% sucrose) for 40 min. A three-step regrowth procedure starting with ammonium-free medium followed by ammonium-containing medium with and without growth regulators was essential for the regeneration of cryopreserved shoot tips. The species was found to be very sensitive to the chemical cytotoxicity of permeating cryoprotectants during cryoprotection and to ammonium-induced oxidant stress during initial regrowth steps. Improvement of donor plant vigor by using apical sections and liquid overlay on top of the solid medium for propagation, improved shoot tip tolerance to osmotic stress and increased post-cryopreservation regeneration up to 64% were observed following PVS B5-85% (42.5% glycerol + 42.5% sucrose) treatment for 60 min. The systematic approach used in this study enables fast optimization of the in vitro growth and cryopreservation procedure for a new stress-sensitive wild plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 743 KiB  
Article
Dispersal Kernel Type Highly Influences Projected Relationships for Plant Disease Epidemic Severity When Outbreak and At-Risk Populations Differ in Susceptibility
by Paul M. Severns
Life 2022, 12(11), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111727 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
In silico study of biologically invading organisms provide a means to evaluate the complex and potentially cryptic factors that can influence invasion success in scenarios where empirical studies would be difficult, if not impossible, to conduct. I used a disease event simulation program [...] Read more.
In silico study of biologically invading organisms provide a means to evaluate the complex and potentially cryptic factors that can influence invasion success in scenarios where empirical studies would be difficult, if not impossible, to conduct. I used a disease event simulation program to evaluate whether the two most frequently used types of plant pathogen dispersal kernels for epidemiological projections would provide complementary or divergent projections of epidemic severity when the hosts in a disease outbreak differed from the hosts in the at-risk population in the degree of susceptibility. Exponential dispersal kernel simulations of wheat stripe rust (Pucciniastriiformis var trittici) predicted a relatively strong and dominant influence of the at-risk population on the end epidemic severity regardless of outbreak disease levels. Simulations using a modified power law dispersal kernel gave projections that varied depending on the amount of disease in the outbreak and some interactions were counter-intuitive and opposite of the exponential dispersal kernel projections. Although relatively straightforward, the disease spread simulations in the present study strongly suggest that a more biologically accurate dispersal kernel generates complexity that would not be revealed by an exponential dispersal gradient and that selecting a less accurate dispersal kernel may obscure important interactions during biological invasions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3279 KiB  
Article
Effects of Rhizobium leguminosarum Thy2 on the Growth and Tolerance to Cadmium Stress of Wheat Plants
by Dilara Maslennikova, Karina Nasyrova, Olga Chubukova, Ekaterina Akimova, Andrey Baymiev, Darya Blagova, Almaz Ibragimov and Oksana Lastochkina
Life 2022, 12(10), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101675 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) stress is an obstacle for crop production, quality crops, and sustainable agriculture. An important role is played by the application of eco-friendly approaches to improve plant growth and stress tolerance. In the current study, a pre-sowing seed treatment with Rhizobium leguminosarum [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) stress is an obstacle for crop production, quality crops, and sustainable agriculture. An important role is played by the application of eco-friendly approaches to improve plant growth and stress tolerance. In the current study, a pre-sowing seed treatment with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains, isolated from the leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris (strain Pvu5), Vicia sylvatica (strain VSy12), Trifolium hybridium (strain Thy2), and T. pratense (strain TPr4), demonstrated different effects on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant growth under normal conditions. Among all tested strains, Thy2 significantly increased seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry biomass, and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content. Further analysis showed that Thy2 was capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores and fixing nitrogen. Under Cd stress, Thy2 reduced the negative effect of Cd on wheat growth and photosynthesis and had a protective effect on the antioxidant system. This was expressed in the additional accumulation of glutathione and proline and the activation of glutathione reductase. In addition, Thy2 led to a significant reduction in oxidative stress, which was evidenced by the data on the stabilization of the ascorbate content and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase. In addition, Thy2 markedly reduced Cd-induced membrane lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in the plants. Thus, the findings demonstrated the ability of the R. leguminosarum strain Thy2, isolated from T. hybridium nodules, to exert a growth-promoting and anti-stress effect on wheat plants. These results suggest that the Thy2 strain may enhance wheat plant growth by mitigating Cd stress, particularly through improving photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity and reducing the severity of oxidative damage. This may provide a basic and biological approach to use the Thy2 strain as a promising, eco-friendly candidate to combat Cd stress in wheat production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4094 KiB  
Article
PKS5 Confers Cold Tolerance by Controlling Stomatal Movement and Regulating Cold-Responsive Genes in Arabidopsis
by Chengyan Sun, Lin Zhu, Linlin Cao, Huimin Qi, Huijuan Liu, Fengyun Zhao and Xiuli Han
Life 2022, 12(10), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101633 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
Cold stress limits plant growth and development; however, the precise mechanisms underpinning plant acclimation to cold stress remain largely unknown. In this study, the Ser/Thr protein kinase SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5 (PKS5) was shown to play a positive role in plant responses to cold [...] Read more.
Cold stress limits plant growth and development; however, the precise mechanisms underpinning plant acclimation to cold stress remain largely unknown. In this study, the Ser/Thr protein kinase SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5 (PKS5) was shown to play a positive role in plant responses to cold stress. A PKS5 loss-of-function mutant (pks5-1) exhibited elevated sensitivity to cold stress, as well as a lower survival rate and increased ion leakage. Conversely, PKS5 gain-of-function mutants (pks5-3, pks5-4) were more tolerant to cold stress and exhibited higher survival rates and decreased ion leakage. Stomatal aperture analysis revealed that stomatal closure was slower during the first 25 min after cold exposure in pks5-1 compared to wild-type, whereas pks5-3 and pks5-4 displayed accelerated stomatal closure over the same time period. Further stomatal aperture analysis under an abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed slower closure in pks5-1 and more rapid closure in pks5-3 and pks5-4. Finally, expression levels of cold-responsive genes were regulated by PKS5 under cold stress conditions, while cold stress and ABA treatment can regulate PKS5 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that PKS5 plays a positive role in short-term plant acclimation to cold stress by regulating stomatal aperture, possibly via ABA pathways, and in long-term acclimation by regulating cold-responsive genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1693 KiB  
Communication
Identification of Two GDSL-Type Esterase/Lipase Genes Related to Tissue-Specific Lipolysis in Dendrobium catenatum by Multi-Omics Analysis
by Xinqiao Zhan, Yichun Qian and Bizeng Mao
Life 2022, 12(10), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101563 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Dendrobium catenatum is an important herb and widely cultivated in China. GDSL-Type Esterase/Lipase proteins (GELPs) are widely distributed in plants and play crucial roles in stress responses, plant growth, and development. However, no identification or functional analysis of GELPs was reported in D. [...] Read more.
Dendrobium catenatum is an important herb and widely cultivated in China. GDSL-Type Esterase/Lipase proteins (GELPs) are widely distributed in plants and play crucial roles in stress responses, plant growth, and development. However, no identification or functional analysis of GELPs was reported in D. catenatum. This study identifies 52 GELPs in D. catenatum genome, which is classified into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. Four conservative blocks (Ser-Gly-Asn-His) are found in most GELP domains. Transcriptome analysis reveals the expression profiles of GELPs in different organs and flowering phases. Co-expression analysis of the transcriptome and lipidome identifies a GELP gene, Dca016600, that positively correlates with 23 lipids. The purified Dca016600 protein shows the optimum pH is active from 8.0 to 8.5, and the optimum temperature is active from 30 °C to 40 °C. The kinetic study provides Vmax (233.43 μmol·min−1·mg−1) and Km (1.49 mM) for substrate p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). Integrated analysis of the transcriptome and proteome identifies a GELP gene, Dca005399, which is specially induced by freezing. Interestingly, Dca005399 shows high expression in symbiotic germination seeds and sepals. This study provides new insights into the function of D. catenatum GELPs in plant development and stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4388 KiB  
Article
Effect of Salinity and Plant Growth Promoters on Secondary Metabolism and Growth of Milk Thistle Ecotypes
by Noreen Zahra, Abdul Wahid, Muhammad Bilal Hafeez, Irfana Lalarukh, Aaliya Batool, Muhammad Uzair, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh, Saleh Alansi and Prashant Kaushik
Life 2022, 12(10), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101530 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.)) is a wild medicinal herbal plant that is widely used in folk medicine due to its high content of secondary metabolites (SMs) and silymarin; however, the data regarding the response of milk thistle to salinity are still [...] Read more.
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.)) is a wild medicinal herbal plant that is widely used in folk medicine due to its high content of secondary metabolites (SMs) and silymarin; however, the data regarding the response of milk thistle to salinity are still scarce and scanty. The present study evaluated the effect of salinity on a geographically diverse population of milk thistle and on the role of medium supplementation (MS) with ascorbic acid, thiourea, and moringa leaf extract in improving the SMs and growth-related attributes under salinity stress (SS). For germination, a 120 mM level of salinity was applied in the soil during the seedling stage. After salinity development, predetermined levels of the following compounds were used for MS: thiourea (250 µM), moringa leaf extract (3%), and ascorbic acid (500 µM). The data regarding growth attributes showed that SS impaired plant growth and development and increased SM production, including alkaloids, anthocyanin, and saponins. Moreover, ascorbic acid, followed by moringa leaf extract, was the most effective in improving growth by virtue of increased SMs, especially under salt stress conditions. The present study demonstrated that milk thistle could withstand moderate doses of SS, while MS improved all the growth parameters by increasing the accumulation of SMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 868 KiB  
Article
Influence of Plant Growth Regulators and Artificial Light on the Growth and Accumulation of Inulin of Dedifferentiated Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Callus Cells
by Rima N. Kirakosyan, Anton V. Sumin, Anna A. Polupanova, Maria G. Pankova, Irina S. Degtyareva, Nikolay N. Sleptsov and Quyet V. Khuat
Life 2022, 12(10), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101524 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) is a perennial herb of the family Asteraceae, widely distributed in Asia and Europe, commonly used industrially as a raw material for extracting inulin because of a high content of inulin and biologically active compounds. Light conditions [...] Read more.
Chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) is a perennial herb of the family Asteraceae, widely distributed in Asia and Europe, commonly used industrially as a raw material for extracting inulin because of a high content of inulin and biologically active compounds. Light conditions and plant growth regulators (PGRs) are two of many factors that affect the growth and inulin content of chicory callus. The aim of this work is to study the effect of PGRs and light conditions on proliferation and accumulation of inulin of chicory callus in vitro. In this study, we used semi-solid MS medium supplemented with different auxins (including Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthylacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) at a concentration of 5.5–9.5 mg/L in combination with 2.0 mg/L 6 benzylaminopurine (BA) to determine induction and proliferation of callus. The increasing value of callus fresh weight was used to assess the growth of the callus in treatments. The results showed that a steady increase in callus fresh weight and inulin content in callus cells was obtained when they were cultured on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg/L BA with 7.5 mg/L IAA in lighting conditions with radiation equalized by the flux density of photosynthetic photons and ratios of radiation levels in the region of FR—far red > R—red. Increasing demand for organic inulin sources in production practice can be met by our finding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3733 KiB  
Article
Genomic Analysis of LEA Genes in Carica papaya and Insight into Lineage-Specific Family Evolution in Brassicales
by Zhi Zou, Jingyuan Guo, Yujiao Zheng, Yanhua Xiao and Anping Guo
Life 2022, 12(9), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091453 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins comprise a diverse superfamily involved in plant development and stress responses. This study presents a first genome-wide analysis of LEA genes in papaya (Carica papaya L., Caricaceae), an economically important tree fruit crop widely cultivated in the [...] Read more.
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins comprise a diverse superfamily involved in plant development and stress responses. This study presents a first genome-wide analysis of LEA genes in papaya (Carica papaya L., Caricaceae), an economically important tree fruit crop widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. A total of 28 members were identified from the papaya genome, which belong to eight families with defined Pfam domains, i.e., LEA_1 (3), LEA_2 (4), LEA_3 (5), LEA_4 (5), LEA_5 (2), LEA_6 (2), DHN (4), and SMP (3). The family numbers are comparable to those present in Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, 28) and Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae, 29), but relatively less than that found in Moringa oleifera (Cleomaceae, 39) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae, 51), implying lineage-specific evolution in Brassicales. Indeed, best-reciprocal-hit-based sequence comparison and synteny analysis revealed the presence of 29 orthogroups, and significant gene expansion in Tarenaya and Arabidopsis was mainly contributed by whole-genome duplications that occurred sometime after their split with the papaya. Though a role of transposed duplication was also observed, tandem duplication was shown to be a key contributor in gene expansion of most species examined. Further comparative analyses of exon-intron structures and protein motifs supported fast evolution of this special superfamily, especially in Arabidopsis. Transcriptional profiling revealed diverse expression patterns of CpLEA genes over various tissues and different stages of developmental fruit. Moreover, the transcript level of most genes appeared to be significantly regulated by drought, cold, and salt stresses, corresponding to the presence of cis-acting elements associated with stress response in their promoter regions. These findings not only improve our knowledge on lineage-specific family evolution in Brassicales, but also provide valuable information for further functional analysis of LEA genes in papaya. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4562 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Heat Shock Protein 20 Genes in Maize
by Huanhuan Qi, Xiaoke Chen, Sen Luo, Hongzeng Fan, Jinghua Guo, Xuehai Zhang, Yinggen Ke, Pingfang Yang and Feng Yu
Life 2022, 12(9), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091397 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
Maize is an important cereal crop worldwide and is sensitive to abiotic stresses in fluctuant environments that seriously affect its growth, yield, and quality. The small heat shock protein (HSP20) plays a crucial role in protecting plants from abiotic stress. However, [...] Read more.
Maize is an important cereal crop worldwide and is sensitive to abiotic stresses in fluctuant environments that seriously affect its growth, yield, and quality. The small heat shock protein (HSP20) plays a crucial role in protecting plants from abiotic stress. However, little is known about HSP20 in maize (ZmHSP20). In this study, 44 ZmHSP20s were identified, which were unequally distributed over 10 chromosomes, and 6 pairs of ZmHSP20s were tandemly presented. The gene structure of ZmHSP20s was highly conserved, with 95% (42) of the genes having no more than one intron. The analysis of the cis-element in ZmHSP20s promoter demonstrated large amounts of elements related to hormonal and abiotic stress responses, including abscisic acid (ABA), high temperature, and hypoxia. The ZmHSP20s protein had more than two conserved motifs that were predictably localized in the cytoplasm, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome, mitochondria, and plasma. Phylogenetic analysis using HSP20s in Arabidopsis, rice, maize, and Solanum tuberosum indicated that ZmHSP20s were classified into 11 categories, of which each category had unique subcellular localization. Approximately 80% (35) of ZmHSP20 were upregulated under heat stress at the maize seedling stage, whereas the opposite expression profiling of 10 genes under 37 and 48 °C was detected. A total of 20 genes were randomly selected to investigate their expression under treatments of ABA, gibberellin (GA), ethylene, low temperature, drought, and waterlogging, and the results displayed that more than half of these genes were downregulated while ZmHSP20-3, ZmHSP20-7, ZmHSP20-24, and ZmHSP20-44 were upregulated under 1 h treatment of ethylene. A yeast-one-hybrid experiment was conducted to analyze the binding of four heat stress transcription factors (ZmHSFs) with eight of the ZmHSP20s promoter sequences, in which ZmHSF3, ZmHSF13, and ZmHSF17 can bind to most of these selected ZmHSP20s promoters. Our results provided a valuable resource for studying HSP20s function and offering candidates for genetic improvement under abiotic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Sorghum Allelopathy: Alternative Weed Management Strategy and Its Impact on Mung Bean Productivity and Soil Rhizosphere Properties
by Raza Ullah, Zubair Aslam, Houneida Attia, Khawar Sultan, Khalid H. Alamer, Muhammad Zeeshan Mansha, Ashwaq T. Althobaiti, Najla Amin T. Al Kashgry, Badreyah Algethami and Qamar uz Zaman
Life 2022, 12(9), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091359 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
The reduction of herbicide use and herbicide-resistant weeds through allelopathy can be a sustainable strategy to combat the concerns of environmental degradation. Allelopathic crop residues carry great potential both as weed suppressers and soil quality enhancers. The influence of sorghum crop residues and [...] Read more.
The reduction of herbicide use and herbicide-resistant weeds through allelopathy can be a sustainable strategy to combat the concerns of environmental degradation. Allelopathic crop residues carry great potential both as weed suppressers and soil quality enhancers. The influence of sorghum crop residues and water extracts on the weed population, soil enzyme activities, the microbial community, and mung bean crop productivity was investigated in a two-year experiment at the Student Research Farm, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The experimental treatments comprised two levels of sorghum water extract (10 and 20 L ha−1) and two residue application rates (4 and 6 t ha−1), and no sorghum water extract and residues were used as the control. The results indicated that the incorporation of sorghum water extract and residue resulted in significant changes in weed dynamics and the soil quality indices. Significant reduction in weed density (62%) and in the dry weight of weeds (65%) was observed in T5. After the harvest, better soil quality indices in terms of the microbial population (72–90%) and microbial activity (32–50%) were observed in the rhizosphere (0–15 cm) by the same treatment. After cropping, improved soil properties in terms of available potassium, available phosphorus soil organic matter, and total nitrogen were higher after the treatment of residue was incorporated, i.e., 52–65%, 29–45%, 62–84%, and 59–91%, respectively. In the case of soil enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase levels in the soil were 35–41% and 52–77% higher, respectively. However, residue incorporation at 6 t ha−1 had the greatest effect in improving the soil quality indices, mung bean productivity, and reduction of weed density. In conclusion, the incorporation of 6 t ha−1 sorghum residues may be opted to improve soil quality indices, suppress weeds, harvest a better seed yield (37%), and achieve higher profitability (306 $ ha−1) by weed suppression, yield, and rhizospheric properties of spring-planted mung beans. This strategy can provide a probable substitute for instigating sustainable weed control and significant improvement of soil properties in the mung bean crop, which can be a part of eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
19 pages, 1933 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of the Chitinase Gene Family in Response to White Mold and Drought Stress in Soybean (Glycine max)
by Peiyun Lv, Chunting Zhang, Ping Xie, Xinyu Yang, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh, Daniel Ingo Hefft, Parvaiz Ahmad, Tuanjie Zhao and Javaid Akhter Bhat
Life 2022, 12(9), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091340 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Chitinases are enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of chitin that are present on the cell wall of fungal pathogens. Here, we identified and characterized the chitinase gene family in cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) across the whole genome. A total of 38 chitinase [...] Read more.
Chitinases are enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of chitin that are present on the cell wall of fungal pathogens. Here, we identified and characterized the chitinase gene family in cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) across the whole genome. A total of 38 chitinase genes were identified in the whole genome of soybean. Phylogenetic analysis of these chitinases classified them into five separate clusters, I–V. From a broader view, the I–V classes of chitinases are basically divided into two mega-groups (X and Y), and these two big groups have evolved independently. In addition, the chitinases were unevenly and randomly distributed in 17 of the total 20 chromosomes of soybean, and the majority of these chitinase genes contained few introns (≤2). Synteny and duplication analysis showed the major role of tandem duplication in the expansion of the chitinase gene family in soybean. Promoter analysis identified multiple cis-regulatory elements involved in the biotic and abiotic stress response in the upstream regions (1.5 kb) of chitinase genes. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis showed that pathogenic and drought stress treatment significantly induces the up-regulation of chitinase genes belonging to specific classes at different time intervals, which further verifies their function in the plant stress response. Hence, both in silico and qRT-PCR analysis revealed the important role of the chitinases in multiple plant defense responses. However, there is a need for extensive research efforts to elucidate the detailed function of chitinase in various plant stresses. In conclusion, our investigation is a detailed and systematic report of whole genome characterization of the chitinase family in soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2946 KiB  
Article
Functional Characterization of MaZIP4, a Gene Regulating Copper Stress Tolerance in Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea R.)
by Yisu Shi, Qiaonan Zhang, Lei Wang, Qiuxia Du, Michael Ackah, Peng Guo, Danyan Zheng, Mengmeng Wu and Weiguo Zhao
Life 2022, 12(9), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091311 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
ZIP4 (zinc transporter 4) plays important roles in transporting Cu2+ ions in plants, which may contribute to the maintenance of plant metal homeostasis in growth, plant development and normal physiological metabolism. However, ZIP4 transporters have not been described in mulberry and the [...] Read more.
ZIP4 (zinc transporter 4) plays important roles in transporting Cu2+ ions in plants, which may contribute to the maintenance of plant metal homeostasis in growth, plant development and normal physiological metabolism. However, ZIP4 transporters have not been described in mulberry and the exact function of ZIP4 transporters in regulating the homeostasis of Cu in mulberry remains unclear. In this study, a new ZIP4 gene (MaZIP4) was isolated and cloned from Morus atropurpurea R. Phylogenetic analysis of amino sequences suggested that the amino-acid sequence of the MaZIP4 protein shows high homology with other ZIP4 proteins of Morus notabilis, Trema orientale, Ziziphus jujube and Cannabis sativa. In addition, a MaZIP4 silenced line was successfully constructed using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The analysis of MaZIP4 expression by quantitative real-time PCR in mulberry showed that the level of MaZIP4 expression increased with increasing Cu concentration until the Cu concentration reached 800 ppm. Relative to the blank (WT) and the negative controls, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased significantly and rose with increasing Cu concentration in the MaZIP4 silenced line, whereas the soluble protein and proline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities of these transgenic plants were lower. These results indicated that MaZIP4 may play an important role in the resistance of mulberry to Cu stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
Circadian Rhythm Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Inhibits Al-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Peanut
by Aaron Ntambiyukuri, Xia Li, Dong Xiao, Aiqin Wang, Jie Zhan and Longfei He
Life 2022, 12(8), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081271 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Peanut is among the most important oil crops in the world. In the southern part of China, peanut is highly produced; however, the arable land is acidic. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) inhibits plant growth and development by changing the properties of the [...] Read more.
Peanut is among the most important oil crops in the world. In the southern part of China, peanut is highly produced; however, the arable land is acidic. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) inhibits plant growth and development by changing the properties of the cell wall and causing the disorder of the intracellular metabolic process. Circadian rhythm is an internal mechanism that occurs about every 24 h and enables plants to maintain internal biological processes with a daily cycle. To investigate the effect of photoperiod and Al stress on the Al-induced programmed cell death (PCD), two peanut varieties were treated with 100 μM AlCl3 under three photoperiodic conditions (8/16, SD; 12/12, ND; 16/8 h, LD). The results show that Al toxicity was higher in ZH2 than in 99-1507 and higher under LD than under SD. Root length decreased by 30, 37.5, and 50% in ZH2 and decreased by 26.08, 34.78, and 47.82% in 99-1507 under SD, ND, and LD, respectively, under Al stress. Photoperiod and Al induced cell death and ROS production. MDA content, PME activity, and LOX activity increased under SD, ND, and LD, respectively, under Al stress both in ZH2 and 99-1507. APX, SOD, CAT, and POD activities were higher under SD, ND, and LD, respectively. Al stress increased the level of AhLHY expression under SD and ND but decreased it under LD in both ZH2 and 99-1507. Contrastingly, AhSTS expression levels increased exponentially and were higher under SD, LD, and ND, respectively, under Al stress. Our results will be a useful platform to research PCD induced by Al and gain new insights into the genetic manipulation of the circadian clock for plant stress response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 891 KiB  
Article
Effect of Smut Infection on the Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics and Related Defense Enzymes of Sugarcane
by Xiupeng Song, Fenglian Mo, Meixin Yan, Xiaoqiu Zhang, Baoqing Zhang, Xing Huang, Dongmei Huang, Yangfei Pan, Krishan K. Verma and Yang-Rui Li
Life 2022, 12(8), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081201 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Pathogen infection seriously affects plant development and crop productivity, sometimes causing total crop failure. In this study, artificial stab inoculation was used to inoculate sugarcane smut. The changes in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence variables, and related defense enzyme activities were measured in [...] Read more.
Pathogen infection seriously affects plant development and crop productivity, sometimes causing total crop failure. In this study, artificial stab inoculation was used to inoculate sugarcane smut. The changes in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence variables, and related defense enzyme activities were measured in sugarcane cultivar ROC22 after pathogen infection. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) downregulated in the first three days after smut infection and upregulated on the fourth day; intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased in the first three days of smut infection and reduced on the fourth day. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, i.e., Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm, Fs, and Fv′/Fm′ decreased at the initial stage of pathogen infection but increased rapidly up to 3 days after smut infection. It can be seen that sugarcane seedlings showed a positive response to pathogen infection. The correlation coefficient relationship between Pn, gs, and Tr reached above 0.800, showing a significant correlation; Ci was positively correlated with Fv′/Fm′ and ΦPSII, reaching above 0.800 and showing a significant correlation; Fo positively correlated with Fv/Fm, Fs, and ETR; Fv /Fm was positively correlated with Fv′/Fm′; Fs significantly correlated with Fv′/Fm′; and Fv′/Fm′ positively correlated with ΦPSII. After inoculation with smut, the related defense enzymes, i.e., POD, SOD, PPO, and PAL, were increased and upregulated; photosynthetic parameters can be associated with an increase in enzymatic activities. The results of this study will help to further study of the response mechanism to smut in the sugarcane growing period and provide a theoretical reference for sugarcane resistance to smut breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 10386 KiB  
Article
Drought-Induced Oxidative Stress in Pearl Millet (Cenchrus americanus L.) at Seedling Stage: Survival Mechanisms through Alteration of Morphophysiological and Antioxidants Activity
by Shuvasish Choudhury, Debojyoti Moulick, Dibakar Ghosh, Mohamed Soliman, Adel Alkhedaide, Ahmed Gaber and Akbar Hossain
Life 2022, 12(8), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081171 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
We report the impact of drought stress on pearl millet during the early seedling stage and its survival mechanism. Drought stress imposed for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days showed considerable changes in morphophysiological attributes, which were evident by a decline [...] Read more.
We report the impact of drought stress on pearl millet during the early seedling stage and its survival mechanism. Drought stress imposed for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days showed considerable changes in morphophysiological attributes, which were evident by a decline in seedling elongation, fresh and dry biomass, and relative water content (RWC) and degradation of chlorophyll pigment. Besides this, visible chlorosis lesions were observed in leaves as compared to the control. As compared to the respective controls, a nearly 60% decline in chlorophyll content was recorded after 14 and 21 days of drought stress. In both root and shoot, drought stress raised the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Both H2O2 and O2 levels were significantly elevated along with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in both roots and shoots, which clearly indicated ROS-induced oxidative stress. Concomitant with the increase in ROS levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots, membrane integrity was also lost, which clearly indicated ROS-induced peroxidation of membrane lipids. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants were significant (p ≤ 0.001). After 7, 14 and 21 days of drought stress, activities of all the antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) were inhibited, clearly indicating a loss of antioxidant defense machinery. Likewise, the levels of ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels declined significantly (p ≤ 0.01). Our results reveal that, being tolerant to arid climatic conditions, pearl millet is highly susceptible to drought stress at the early seedling stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

28 pages, 920 KiB  
Review
Genome Editing and Improvement of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants
by Rakesh Kumar Yadav, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Niraj Tripathi, Ruchi Asati, Shailja Chauhan, Prakash Narayan Tiwari and Devendra K. Payasi
Life 2023, 13(7), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071456 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3712
Abstract
Genome editing aims to revolutionise plant breeding and could assist in safeguarding the global food supply. The inclusion of a 12–40 bp recognition site makes mega nucleases the first tools utilized for genome editing and first generation gene-editing tools. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) [...] Read more.
Genome editing aims to revolutionise plant breeding and could assist in safeguarding the global food supply. The inclusion of a 12–40 bp recognition site makes mega nucleases the first tools utilized for genome editing and first generation gene-editing tools. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are the second gene-editing technique, and because they create double-stranded breaks, they are more dependable and effective. ZFNs were the original designed nuclease-based approach of genome editing. The Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain’s discovery made this technique possible. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are utilized to improve genetics, boost biomass production, increase nutrient usage efficiency, and develop disease resistance. Plant genomes can be effectively modified using genome-editing technologies to enhance characteristics without introducing foreign DNA into the genome. Next-generation plant breeding will soon be defined by these exact breeding methods. There is abroad promise that genome-edited crops will be essential in the years to come for improving the sustainability and climate-change resilience of food systems. This method also has great potential for enhancing crops’ resistance to various abiotic stressors. In this review paper, we summarize the most recent findings about the mechanism of abiotic stress response in crop plants and the use of the CRISPR/Cas mediated gene-editing systems to improve tolerance to stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heat, and heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 1064 KiB  
Review
Beneficial Microorganisms Improve Agricultural Sustainability under Climatic Extremes
by Arshad Jalal, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Oliveira, Poliana Aparecida Leonel Rosa, Fernando Shintate Galindo and Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho
Life 2023, 13(5), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13051102 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2473
Abstract
The challenging alterations in climate in the last decades have had direct and indirect influences on biotic and abiotic stresses that have led to devastating implications on agricultural crop production and food security. Extreme environmental conditions, such as abiotic stresses, offer great opportunities [...] Read more.
The challenging alterations in climate in the last decades have had direct and indirect influences on biotic and abiotic stresses that have led to devastating implications on agricultural crop production and food security. Extreme environmental conditions, such as abiotic stresses, offer great opportunities to study the influence of different microorganisms in plant development and agricultural productivity. The focus of this review is to highlight the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (especially bacteria and fungi) adapted to environmental induced stresses such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, flooding, extreme temperatures, and intense light. The present state of knowledge focuses on the potential, prospective, and biotechnological approaches of plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi to improve plant nutrition, physio-biochemical attributes, and the fitness of plants under environmental stresses. The current review focuses on the importance of the microbial community in improving sustainable crop production under changing climatic scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 1801 KiB  
Review
Breeding and Genomic Approaches towards Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Chickpea
by Rakesh Kumar Yadav, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Niraj Tripathi, Ruchi Asati, Vinod Patel, R. S. Sikarwar and Devendra K. Payasi
Life 2023, 13(4), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13040988 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4516
Abstract
Chickpea is an important leguminous crop with potential to provide dietary proteins to both humans and animals. It also ameliorates soil nitrogen through biological nitrogen fixation. The crop is affected by an array of biotic and abiotic factors. Among different biotic stresses, a [...] Read more.
Chickpea is an important leguminous crop with potential to provide dietary proteins to both humans and animals. It also ameliorates soil nitrogen through biological nitrogen fixation. The crop is affected by an array of biotic and abiotic factors. Among different biotic stresses, a major fungal disease called Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (FOC), is responsible for low productivity in chickpea. To date, eight pathogenic races of FOC (race 0, 1A, and 1B/C, 2-6) have been reported worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars using different conventional breeding methods is very time consuming and depends upon the environment. Modern technologies can improve conventional methods to solve these major constraints. Understanding the molecular response of chickpea to Fusarium wilt can help to provide effective management strategies. The identification of molecular markers closely linked to genes/QTLs has provided great potential for chickpea improvement programs. Moreover, omics approaches, including transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics give scientists a vast viewpoint of functional genomics. In this review, we will discuss the integration of all available strategies and provide comprehensive knowledge about chickpea plant defense against Fusarium wilt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1779 KiB  
Review
Plant Metabolomics: An Overview of the Role of Primary and Secondary Metabolites against Different Environmental Stress Factors
by Uzma Salam, Shakir Ullah, Zhong-Hua Tang, Ahmed A. Elateeq, Yaseen Khan, Jafar Khan, Asif Khan and Sajid Ali
Life 2023, 13(3), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030706 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 10716
Abstract
Several environmental stresses, including biotic and abiotic factors, adversely affect the growth and development of crops, thereby lowering their yield. However, abiotic factors, e.g., drought, salinity, cold, heat, ultraviolet radiations (UVr), reactive oxygen species (ROS), trace metals (TM), and soil pH, are extremely [...] Read more.
Several environmental stresses, including biotic and abiotic factors, adversely affect the growth and development of crops, thereby lowering their yield. However, abiotic factors, e.g., drought, salinity, cold, heat, ultraviolet radiations (UVr), reactive oxygen species (ROS), trace metals (TM), and soil pH, are extremely destructive and decrease crop yield worldwide. It is expected that more than 50% of crop production losses are due to abiotic stresses. Moreover, these factors are responsible for physiological and biochemical changes in plants. The response of different plant species to such stresses is a complex phenomenon with individual features for several species. In addition, it has been shown that abiotic factors stimulate multi-gene responses by making modifications in the accumulation of the primary and secondary metabolites. Metabolomics is a promising way to interpret biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The study of metabolic profiling revealed different types of metabolites, e.g., amino acids, carbohydrates, phenols, polyamines, terpenes, etc, which are accumulated in plants. Among all, primary metabolites, such as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids polyamines, and glycine betaine, are considered the major contributing factors that work as osmolytes and osmoprotectants for plants from various environmental stress factors. In contrast, plant-derived secondary metabolites, e.g., phenolics, terpenoids, and nitrogen-containing compounds (alkaloids), have no direct role in the growth and development of plants. Nevertheless, such metabolites could play a significant role as a defense by protecting plants from biotic factors such as herbivores, insects, and pathogens. In addition, they can enhance the resistance against abiotic factors. Therefore, metabolomics practices are becoming essential and influential in plants by identifying different phytochemicals that are part of the acclimation responses to various stimuli. Hence, an accurate metabolome analysis is important to understand the basics of stress physiology and biochemistry. This review provides insight into the current information related to the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on variations of various sets of metabolite levels and explores how primary and secondary metabolites help plants in response to these stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1586 KiB  
Review
Regulatory Mechanisms of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and Plant Nutrition against Abiotic Stresses in Brassicaceae Family
by Arshad Jalal, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Oliveira, Fernando Shintate Galindo, Poliana Aparecida Leonel Rosa, Isabela Martins Bueno Gato, Bruno Horschut de Lima and Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho
Life 2023, 13(1), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010211 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3518
Abstract
Extreme environmental conditions, such as abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, heat, chilling and intense light), offer great opportunities to study how different microorganisms and plant nutrition can influence plant growth and development. The intervention of biological agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) coupled [...] Read more.
Extreme environmental conditions, such as abiotic stresses (drought, salinity, heat, chilling and intense light), offer great opportunities to study how different microorganisms and plant nutrition can influence plant growth and development. The intervention of biological agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) coupled with proper plant nutrition can improve the agricultural importance of different plant species. Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) belongs to the monophyletic taxon and consists of around 338 genera and 3709 species worldwide. Brassicaceae is composed of several important species of economical, ornamental and food crops (vegetables, cooking oils, forage, condiments and industrial species). Sustainable production of Brassicas plants has been compromised over the years due to several abiotic stresses and the unbalanced utilization of chemical fertilizers and uncertified chemicals that ultimately affect the environment and human health. This chapter summarized the influence of PGPRs and nutrient management in the Brassicaceae family against abiotic stresses. The use of PGPRs contributed to combating climate-induced change/abiotic factors such as drought, soil and water salinization and heavy metal contamination that limits the general performance of plants. Brassica is widely utilized as an oil and vegetable crop and is harshly affected by abiotic stresses. Therefore, the use of PGPRs along with proper mineral nutrients management is a possible strategy to cope with abiotic stresses by improving biochemical, physiological and growth attributes and the production of brassica in an eco-friendly environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 5595 KiB  
Review
Free Radicals Mediated Redox Signaling in Plant Stress Tolerance
by Krishna Kumar Rai and Prashant Kaushik
Life 2023, 13(1), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010204 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
Abiotic and biotic stresses negatively affect plant cellular and biological processes, limiting their growth and productivity. Plants respond to these environmental cues and biotrophic attackers by activating intricate metabolic-molecular signaling networks precisely and coordinately. One of the initial signaling networks activated is involved [...] Read more.
Abiotic and biotic stresses negatively affect plant cellular and biological processes, limiting their growth and productivity. Plants respond to these environmental cues and biotrophic attackers by activating intricate metabolic-molecular signaling networks precisely and coordinately. One of the initial signaling networks activated is involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive sulfur species (RSS). Recent research has exemplified that ROS below the threshold level can stimulate plant survival by modulating redox homeostasis and regulating various genes of the stress defense pathway. In contrast, RNS regulates the stress tolerance potential of crop plants by modulating post-translation modification processes, such as S-nitrosation and tyrosine nitration, improving the stability of protein and DNA and activating the expression of downstream stress-responsive genes. RSS has recently emerged as a new warrior in combating plant stress-induced oxidative damage by modulating various physiological and stress-related processes. Several recent findings have corroborated the existence of intertwined signaling of ROS/RNS/RSS, playing a substantial role in crop stress management. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their remarkable effect are still unknown. This review comprehensively describes recent ROS/RNS/RSS biology advancements and how they can modulate cell signaling and gene regulation for abiotic stress management in crop plants. Further, the review summarizes the latest information on how these ROS/RNS/RSS signaling interacts with other plant growth regulators and modulates essential plant functions, particularly photosynthesis, cell growth, and apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

24 pages, 2093 KiB  
Review
Applications of Molecular Markers for Developing Abiotic-Stress-Resilient Oilseed Crops
by Vishal Chugh, Dasmeet Kaur, Shalini Purwar, Prashant Kaushik, Vijay Sharma, Hitesh Kumar, Ashutosh Rai, Chandra Mohan Singh, Kamaluddin and R. B. Dubey
Life 2023, 13(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010088 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3099
Abstract
Globally, abiotic stresses, such as temperature (heat or cold), water (drought and flooding), and salinity, cause significant losses in crop production and have adverse effects on plant growth and development. A variety of DNA-based molecular markers, such as SSRs, RFLPs, AFLPs, SNPs, etc., [...] Read more.
Globally, abiotic stresses, such as temperature (heat or cold), water (drought and flooding), and salinity, cause significant losses in crop production and have adverse effects on plant growth and development. A variety of DNA-based molecular markers, such as SSRs, RFLPs, AFLPs, SNPs, etc., have been used to screen germplasms for stress tolerance and the QTL mapping of stress-related genes. Such molecular-marker-assisted selection strategies can quicken the development of tolerant/resistant cultivars to withstand abiotic stresses. Oilseeds such as rapeseed, mustard, peanuts, soybeans, sunflower, safflower, sesame, flaxseed, and castor are the most important source of edible oil worldwide. Although oilseed crops are known for their capacity to withstand abiotic challenges, there is a significant difference between actual and potential yields due to the adaptation and tolerance to severe abiotic pressures. This review summarizes the applications of molecular markers to date to achieve abiotic stress tolerance in major oilseed crops. The molecular markers that have been reported for genetic diversity studies and the mapping and tagging of genes/QTLs for drought, heavy metal stress, salinity, flooding, cold and heat stress, and their application in the MAS are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1704 KiB  
Review
Microbial Inoculants as Plant Biostimulants: A Review on Risk Status
by Menka Kumari, Preeti Swarupa, Kavindra Kumar Kesari and Anil Kumar
Life 2023, 13(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010012 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3980
Abstract
Modern agriculture systems are copiously dependent on agrochemicals such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides intended to increase crop production and yield. The indiscriminate use of these chemicals not only affects the growth of plants due to the accumulation of toxic compounds, but also [...] Read more.
Modern agriculture systems are copiously dependent on agrochemicals such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides intended to increase crop production and yield. The indiscriminate use of these chemicals not only affects the growth of plants due to the accumulation of toxic compounds, but also degrades the quality and life-supporting properties of soil. There is a dire need to develop some green approach that can resolve these issues and restore soil fertility and sustainability. The use of plant biostimulants has emerged as an environmentally friendly and acceptable method to increase crop productivity. Biostimulants contain biological substances which may be capable of increasing or stimulating plant growth in an eco-friendly manner. They are mostly biofertilizers that provide nutrients and protect plants from environmental stresses such as drought and salinity. In contrast to the protection of crop products, biostimulants not only act on the plant’s vigor but also do not respond to direct actions against pests or diseases. Plant biostimulants improve nutrient mobilization and uptake, tolerance to stress, and thus crop quality when applied to plants directly or in the rhizospheric region. They foster plant growth and development by positively affecting the crop life-cycle starting from seed germination to plant maturity. Legalized application of biostimulants causes no hazardous effects on the environment and primarily provides nutrition to plants. It nurtures the growth of soil microorganisms, which leads to enhanced soil fertility and also improves plant metabolism. Additionally, it may positively influence the exogenous microbes and alter the equilibrium of the microfloral composition of the soil milieu. This review frequently cites the characterization of microbial plant biostimulants that belong to either a high-risk group or are closely related to human pathogens such as Pueudomonas, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, etc. These related pathogens cause ailments including septicemia, gastroenteritis, wound infections, inflammation in the respiratory system, meningitis, etc., of varied severity under different conditions of health status such as immunocompromized and comorbidity. Thus it may attract the related concern to review the risk status of biostimulants for their legalized applications in agriculture. This study mainly emphasizes microbial plant biostimulants and their safe application concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1509 KiB  
Review
Chitosan: An Autocidal Molecule of Plant Pathogenic Fungus
by Debanjana Debnath, Ipsita Samal, Chinmayee Mohapatra, Snehasish Routray, Mahipal Singh Kesawat and Rini Labanya
Life 2022, 12(11), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111908 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
The rise in the world’s food demand with the increasing population threatens the existence of civilization with two equally valuable concerns: increase in global food production and sustainability in the ecosystem. Furthermore, biotic and abiotic stresses are adversely affecting agricultural production. Among them, [...] Read more.
The rise in the world’s food demand with the increasing population threatens the existence of civilization with two equally valuable concerns: increase in global food production and sustainability in the ecosystem. Furthermore, biotic and abiotic stresses are adversely affecting agricultural production. Among them, losses caused by insect pests and pathogens have been shown to be more destructive to agricultural production. However, for winning the battle against the abundance of insect pests and pathogens and their nature of resistance development, the team of researchers is searching for an alternative way to minimize losses caused by them. Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, coupled with a proper application method and effective dose could be an integral part of sustainable alternatives in the safer agricultural sector. In this review, we have integrated the insight knowledge of chitin-chitosan interaction, successful and efficient use of chitosan, recommended and practical methods of use with well-defined doses, and last but not least the dual but contrast mode of action of the chitosan in hosts and as well as in pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 1051 KiB  
Review
Molecular Breeding and Drought Tolerance in Chickpea
by Ruchi Asati, Manoj Kumar Tripathi, Sushma Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar Yadav and Niraj Tripathi
Life 2022, 12(11), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111846 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4168
Abstract
Cicer arietinum L. is the third greatest widely planted imperative pulse crop worldwide, and it belongs to the Leguminosae family. Drought is the utmost common abiotic factor on plants, distressing their water status and limiting their growth and development. Chickpea genotypes have the [...] Read more.
Cicer arietinum L. is the third greatest widely planted imperative pulse crop worldwide, and it belongs to the Leguminosae family. Drought is the utmost common abiotic factor on plants, distressing their water status and limiting their growth and development. Chickpea genotypes have the natural ability to fight drought stress using certain strategies viz., escape, avoidance and tolerance. Assorted breeding methods, including hybridization, mutation, and marker-aided breeding, genome sequencing along with omics approaches, could be used to improve the chickpea germplasm lines(s) against drought stress. Root features, for instance depth and root biomass, have been recognized as the greatest beneficial morphological factors for managing terminal drought tolerance in the chickpea. Marker-aided selection, for example, is a genomics-assisted breeding (GAB) strategy that can considerably increase crop breeding accuracy and competence. These breeding technologies, notably marker-assisted breeding, omics, and plant physiology knowledge, underlined the importance of chickpea breeding and can be used in future crop improvement programmes to generate drought-tolerant cultivars(s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 8460 KiB  
Review
Molecular and Physiological Mechanisms to Mitigate Abiotic Stress Conditions in Plants
by Baljeet Singh Saharan, Basanti Brar, Joginder Singh Duhan, Ravinder Kumar, Sumnil Marwaha, Vishnu D. Rajput and Tatiana Minkina
Life 2022, 12(10), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101634 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4365
Abstract
Agriculture production faces many abiotic stresses, mainly drought, salinity, low and high temperature. These abiotic stresses inhibit plants’ genetic potential, which is the cause of huge reduction in crop productivity, decrease potent yields for important crop plants by more than 50% and imbalance [...] Read more.
Agriculture production faces many abiotic stresses, mainly drought, salinity, low and high temperature. These abiotic stresses inhibit plants’ genetic potential, which is the cause of huge reduction in crop productivity, decrease potent yields for important crop plants by more than 50% and imbalance agriculture’s sustainability. They lead to changes in the physio-morphological, molecular, and biochemical nature of the plants and change plants’ regular metabolism, which makes them a leading cause of losses in crop productivity. These changes in plant systems also help to mitigate abiotic stress conditions. To initiate the signal during stress conditions, sensor molecules of the plant perceive the stress signal from the outside and commence a signaling cascade to send a message and stimulate nuclear transcription factors to provoke specific gene expression. To mitigate the abiotic stress, plants contain several methods of avoidance, adaption, and acclimation. In addition to these, to manage stress conditions, plants possess several tolerance mechanisms which involve ion transporters, osmoprotectants, proteins, and other factors associated with transcriptional control, and signaling cascades are stimulated to offset abiotic stress-associated biochemical and molecular changes. Plant growth and survival depends on the ability to respond to the stress stimulus, produce the signal, and start suitable biochemical and physiological changes. Various important factors, such as the biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of plants, including the use of microbiomes and nanotechnology to combat abiotic stresses, are highlighted in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 826 KiB  
Review
Organic Amendments for Mitigation of Salinity Stress in Plants: A Review
by Md. Najmol Hoque, Shahin Imran, Afsana Hannan, Newton Chandra Paul, Md. Asif Mahamud, Jotirmoy Chakrobortty, Prosenjit Sarker, Israt Jahan Irin, Marian Brestic and Mohammad Saidur Rhaman
Life 2022, 12(10), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101632 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3793
Abstract
Natural and/or human-caused salinization of soils has become a growing problem in the world, and salinization endangers agro-ecosystems by causing salt stress in most cultivated plants, which has a direct effect on food quality and quantity. Several techniques, as well as numerous strategies, [...] Read more.
Natural and/or human-caused salinization of soils has become a growing problem in the world, and salinization endangers agro-ecosystems by causing salt stress in most cultivated plants, which has a direct effect on food quality and quantity. Several techniques, as well as numerous strategies, have been developed in recent years to help plants cope with the negative consequences of salt stress and mitigate the impacts of salt stress on agricultural plants. Some of them are not environmentally friendly. In this regard, it is crucial to develop long-term solutions that boost saline soil productivity while also protecting the ecosystem. Organic amendments, such as vermicompost (VC), vermiwash (VW), biochar (BC), bio-fertilizer (BF), and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are gaining attention in research. The organic amendment reduces salt stress and improves crops growth, development and yield. The literature shows that organic amendment enhances salinity tolerance and improves the growth and yield of plants by modifying ionic homeostasis, photosynthetic apparatus, antioxidant machineries, and reducing oxidative damages. However, the positive regulatory role of organic amendments in plants and their stress mitigation mechanisms is not reviewed adequately. Therefore, the present review discusses the recent reports of organic amendments in plants under salt stress and how stress is mitigated by organic amendments. The current assessment also analyzes the limitations of applying organic amendments and their future potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1092 KiB  
Review
Seaweed-Derived Phenolic Compounds in Growth Promotion and Stress Alleviation in Plants
by Omolola Aina, Olalekan Olanrewaju Bakare, Augustine Innalegwu Daniel, Arun Gokul, Denzil R. Beukes, Adewale Oluwaseun Fadaka, Marshall Keyster and Ashwil Klein
Life 2022, 12(10), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101548 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3306
Abstract
Abiotic and biotic stress factors negatively influence the growth, yield, and nutritional value of economically important food and feed crops. These climate-change-induced stress factors, together with the ever-growing human population, compromise sustainable food security for all consumers across the world. Agrochemicals are widely [...] Read more.
Abiotic and biotic stress factors negatively influence the growth, yield, and nutritional value of economically important food and feed crops. These climate-change-induced stress factors, together with the ever-growing human population, compromise sustainable food security for all consumers across the world. Agrochemicals are widely used to increase crop yield by improving plant growth and enhancing their tolerance to stress factors; however, there has been a shift towards natural compounds in recent years due to the detrimental effect associated with these agrochemicals on crops and the ecosystem. In view of these, the use of phenolic biostimulants as opposed to artificial fertilizers has gained significant momentum in crop production. Seaweeds are marine organisms and excellent sources of natural phenolic compounds that are useful for downstream agricultural applications such as promoting plant growth and improving resilience against various stress conditions. In this review, we highlight the different phenolic compounds present in seaweed, compare their extraction methods, and describe their downstream applications in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 713 KiB  
Review
Role of WRKY Transcription Factors in Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses in Cotton
by Xiaoqiang Guo, Abid Ullah, Dorota Siuta, Bożena Kukfisz and Shehzad Iqbal
Life 2022, 12(9), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091410 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3418
Abstract
Environmental factors are the major constraints in sustainable agriculture. WRKY proteins are a large family of transcription factors (TFs) that regulate various developmental processes and stress responses in plants, including cotton. On the basis of Gossypium raimondii genome sequencing, WRKY TFs have been [...] Read more.
Environmental factors are the major constraints in sustainable agriculture. WRKY proteins are a large family of transcription factors (TFs) that regulate various developmental processes and stress responses in plants, including cotton. On the basis of Gossypium raimondii genome sequencing, WRKY TFs have been identified in cotton and characterized for their functions in abiotic stress responses. WRKY members of cotton play a significant role in the regulation of abiotic stresses, i.e., drought, salt, and extreme temperatures. These TFs either activate or repress various signaling pathways such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. WRKY-associated genes in cotton have been genetically engineered in Arabidopsis, Nicotiana, and Gossypium successfully, which subsequently enhanced tolerance in corresponding plants against abiotic stresses. Although a few review reports are available for WRKY TFs, there is no critical report available on the WRKY TFs of cotton. Hereby, the role of cotton WRKY TFs in environmental stress responses is studied to enhance the understanding of abiotic stress response and further improve in cotton plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

14 pages, 4904 KiB  
Brief Report
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Response on Soil Phosphorus Utilization and Enzymes Activities in Aerobic Rice under Phosphorus-Deficient Conditions
by Debasis Mitra, Periyasamy Panneerselvam, Ansuman Senapati, Parameswaran Chidambaranathan, Amaresh Kumar Nayak and Pradeep Kumar Das Mohapatra
Life 2023, 13(5), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13051118 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
The prominence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in sustainable rice production has long been recognized. However, there is little information about AMF response in aerobic rice cultivation under phosphorus (P)-deficient conditions. The aim of this experiment was to compare and determine the preeminent [...] Read more.
The prominence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in sustainable rice production has long been recognized. However, there is little information about AMF response in aerobic rice cultivation under phosphorus (P)-deficient conditions. The aim of this experiment was to compare and determine the preeminent AMF effects on rice mycorrhizal colonization, responsiveness, P utilization, and different growth-promoting traits under P-deficient conditions. Different AMF genera viz. (Funneliformis sp., Rhizophagus sp., Glomus sp., Acaulospora sp., and Claroideoglomus sp.) in four different aerobic rice varieties developed by ICAR-NRRI, India (CR Dhan 201, CR Dhan 204, CR Dhan 205, and CR Dhan 207) were investigated using the check P-susceptible variety (IR 36) and the P-tolerant variety (Kasalath IC459373). Data analyzed through linear modeling approaches and bivariate associations found that AMF colonization was highly correlated with soil enzymes, particularly fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and plant P uptake. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and FDA content were significantly changed among rice varieties treated with AMF compared to uninoculated control. Out of four different rice varieties, CR Dhan 207 inoculated with AMF showed higher plant P uptake compared to other varieties. In all the rice varieties, AMF colonization had higher correlation coefficients with soil enzymes (FDA), MBC, and plant P uptake than uninoculated control. The present study indicates that AMF intervention in aerobic rice cultivation under P-deficient conditions significantly increased plant P uptake, soil enzymes activities and plant growth promotion. Thus, the information gathered from this study will help us to develop a viable AMF package for sustainable aerobic rice cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop