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From Biodiversity to Musketry: Detection of Plant Diversity in Pre-Industrial Peloponnese during the Flora Graeca Expedition

Section of Botany, Department of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2022, 12(12), 1957;
Submission received: 31 October 2022 / Revised: 18 November 2022 / Accepted: 19 November 2022 / Published: 23 November 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)


As the interest in natural, sustainable ecosystems arises in many fields, wild plant diversity is reconsidered. The present study is based on extant literature evidence from the journey of John Sibthorp (Professor of Botany, Oxford University) to Peloponnese (Greece) in pre-industrial time. In the year 1795, Peloponnese was a botanically unknown region, very dangerous for travellers and under civil unrest, in conjuncture with a pre-rebellion period. Our study reveals approximately 200 wild plant taxa that were collected from Peloponnese localities in 1795, transported to Oxford University (UK), and quoted in the magnificent edition Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana of the 19th century. Moreover, these plants currently constitute a living collection in Peloponnese, confirmed according to updated data on the vascular Flora of Greece. The presented lists constitute a source of information for plant biologists, linking the past to the present, shedding light on the study of adaptive traits of wild Mediterranean plants and revealing the temporal dimension of natural history. Nowadays, increasing and thorough understanding of the considered plants’ functionality to abiotic and biotic environmental stimuli provides a new framework of sustainability and management options.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

In the 18th century, travelers’ journey to Greece was also a journey through its history. The naturalists’ travels were explorations, linked to searching for specimens of natural history. The travelers’ observations became a way of identifying and revealing cultural and economic changes that have occurred over the last centuries. The botanical expeditions and the collections of specimens connected observations and descriptions with landscapes and environmental conditions; plants had been there for thousands of years, linked to the history and adapted to abiotic and biotic conditions of the localities [1,2,3,4,5].
John Sibthorp (1758–1796), Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford, decided to travel to unexplored areas of Greece, collecting and recording botanical specimens in the late 1780s and 1790s; at that time, Greece was an unknown region, very dangerous and difficult to visit owing to diseases, civil unrest, and bandit groups—known as armatoloi and klephts– that included illiterate peasants, artisans, and local clergy, together with the local notables and landowners in Peloponnese [6,7,8].
Sibthorp’s main interest was linked to plants known since the classical antiquity and mainly quoted in the texts of Dioscorides (1st century AD) [9,10,11,12,13,14]. During the first exploration from 1786 to 1787, Sibthorp was accompanied by the Austrian painter Ferdinand Lucas Bauer (1760–1826) as his draughtsman [6,7]; this was a time when travelers were accompanied by a professional artist, whose work supplemented their discoveries with visual evidence [15,16,17,18]. Actually, the magnificent, illustrated edition Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana (hereafter FGS), published from 1806 to 1840, contains botanical hand-coloured engravings that are important icons of the Mediterranean flora [7,19,20].
John Sibthorp and his companion undertook a second botanical expedition to the Levant from 1794 to 1795. During this journey, they arrived in Peloponnese (Morea is the name used in their diaries and letters) on 26 February 1795 and visited numerous localities botanizing in a more or less largely unknown area, frequently hearing the firing of guns [6,15,21,22]. Those days, major parts of Peloponnese, electively ruled by semi-autonomous agas (persons of high rank or social position during the era of the Ottoman Empire [23]), were only nominally part of the Ottoman Empire [24,25].
Although substantial, revived research has been carried out on the content of FGS [7,8,20,26,27,28,29,30], the Peloponnese tour and the collected botanical specimens by Sibthorp in 1795 have received little attention [6] (pp. 164–169) [7] (pp. 144–146). The importance of studying local floras, historical and environmental conditions, distribution records, and species lists has been repeatedly stressed in the literature and awareness of this subject has recently been rising.
Plants collected during a pre-rebellion period (i.e., before the Greek Revolution of 1821) in Peloponnese correspond to “visual evidence” from a particular time (spring 1795), revealing regional plant species pool of this particular area, as well as physical, cultural, and aesthetic values of the natural environment. The main goal of this study was to study plants that have been recorded in Peloponnese in pre-industrial time, as functional components of a biodiversity, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not hitherto been published. A secondary goal of this study was to confirm the above-mentioned plant diversity in Peloponnese during the 21st century.

2. Materials and Methods

This research is based on our survey of written sources, i.e., books, travel reports, letters, diaries, plant catalogues, online published, and printed archives mainly linked to the “Flora Graeca” expedition in Peloponnese (Greece) in 1795 [6,7]. Two copies of FGS, i.e., a copy adorned the National Library of Greece since 1916 and another copy acquired by the Gennadius Library of Athens in 1967 were surveyed. Moreover, we studied the digitized published hand-coloured engravings and the original watercolours, together with the Mediterranean scenes that are freely available and accessible online via Digital Bodleian (, accessed on 9 October 2022). In addition, rigorous research of the Florae Graecae Prodromus [30] (hereafter Prodromus) housed in the Department of Botany at National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece was carried out; it has to be noted that the Prodromus contains indexes of modern Greek vernacular names of plants (Index Nominum Graecorum, pp. 383–391), ancient Greek names of plants quoted in Dioscorides’ codex (Index Dioscoridem, pp. 392–404), and scientific names of plants (Index Generum et Synonymorum, pp. 405–422), as well as plant locality data [31]. Furthermore, two books were taken in consideration; the first by Robert Walpole (1781–1856, an English classical scholar with degrees from Trinity College at Cambridge in UK and Merton College at Oxford in UK, who travelled to Greece; his Memoirs including notes of various travelers’ diaries, among them Sibthorp’s and his companion [32] were first published in 1817) and the second by John Bacon Sawrey Morritt (1772–1843, who immediately after his BA degree from St. John’s College at Cambridge in UK, started on the travels described in his book that was first published in 1914; Morritt travelled over a considerable part of Peloponnese in 1795 [33]). A plant taxon was included in the results if there was a record in Prodromus stating locality data from Peloponnese. Information linked to the currently accepted plant nomenclature and distribution was derived from the Flora of Greece web (, accessed on 21 October 2022).

3. Results

3.1. Peloponnese Tour

In Figure 1, the Peloponnese tours followed by Sibthorp and Morritt in 1795 are depicted in red and green lines, respectively. Sibthorp and his colleagues travelled from the island of Zakynthos to the port of Skaffidia (Ileia County); their route included Pyrgos, Lalla, and Tripolis, passing through several villages. The tour continued to Palaiepiscopi, ancient Tegea, and Arcadia. Next, they travelled to Argos and visited ancient Mycenae as well as Napoli di Roamin (Nafplion) in Argolida County. Then, they travelled to Korinthos and Patras, continued in Achaia County through villages, and proceeded to Ileia County again; from there, they followed different directions until they arrived in Kalamata (Messinia County). After Kalamata, they proceeded to Kutchuk Maina, Kardamili, Sparta (Laconia County), and Mystras; from there, they continued to Messini and Petallida and on 25 April 1795 they arrived at Zakynthos and, by ship, returned to England. Morritt’s journey started from Kalamata; he visited Kutchukmaina, Palaeocastro and ancient Thuria (Messinia County), Corone, Abia, and Kitreés and, through various villages, went to Kardamili/Cardamyla; he arrived by boat at Platsa and then continued to Oetylos, Marathonisi (ancient Gythium), and Mystras (Laconia County).

3.2. Plant Diversity in Pre-Industrial Peloponnese

Our study provides evidence for 183 plant taxa grown in pre-industrial Peloponnese, which had been collected during Sibthorp’s expedition, drawn and cited in FGS (Table 1). Moreover, 21 plants quoted in Prodromus and linked to localities of Peloponnese, but neither drawn nor cited in FGS, were found (Table 2). Although citations for prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.], walnut (Juglans regia L.), and mulberries (Morus nigra L.) were found in the considered archival research concerning Peloponnese, these plants were neither drawn nor cited in both FGS and Prodromus. It should be mentioned that the botanist Sir James Edward Smith (1759–1828)—founder and first president of the Linnean Society of London—wrote the texts for the plants attested in FGS and Prodromus and excluded all species he regarded as not being part of the natural flora.
In 1795, in western Peloponnese, Salicornia fruticosa L. was observed growing near lake banks, Asphodelus ramosus L. near rivers, and Bromus rubens L. in between cultivated fields. Stands of Phillyrea latifolia L., Erica arborea L., Arbutus unedo L., Pistacia lentiscus L., vernal (spring) Crocus flavus Weston, and primroses (Primula vulgaris Huds.) in bloom—observed in early March 1795—were encountered. In the southern Peloponnese (county of Messinia), black mulberry trees (Morus nigra L.) and prickly pear surrounded many villages. Moreover, they depicted fig trees (Ficus carica L.), grapevines, cotton, grains, corn, olive trees, Euphorbia exigua L., Euphorbia spinosa L., Lolium perenne L., and Orobanche ramosa L. Some regions produced flax and tobacco. In the eastern Peloponnese, Quercus species, as well as corn, grains, grapevines, olive trees, fig trees, mulberry trees, and chestnut trees, had been detected. In the central Peloponnese (county of Arcadia), they visited oaks’ forest; moreover, they observed a huge walnut tree (Juglans regia L.), Hyacinthus romanus L., and Hyacinthus spicatus Sm. in bloom. In addition, the presence of floating crystal-wort (Riccia fluitans L.) and Boletus (a genus of mushroom-producing fungi that comprises over 100 species) and the use of truffle were mentioned. Cultivation of pear trees with open blossoms (10 March 1795) and corns grown among the remains of cities and temples of the ancient Greek territories were detected.
John Sibthorp arrived in Peloponnese bearing a mode of seeing, endowing the professorship of “Agriculture and Rural Economy” in the University of Oxford, thus the state of the agriculture in Peloponnese attracted his attention in 1795; the cultivation of corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), millet (Panicum repens L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and wheat (Triticum junceum L. and Aegilops comosa Sm.) was detected.

4. Discussion

Professor John Sibthorp and his colleagues visited Greek territories twice in pre-industrial time, i.e., 1786–1787 and 1794–1795, and collected wild plants grown under natural conditions [7,16,34]. It was an outstanding achievement, considering the duration, the collections of specimens of plants from which “a legacy of 2462 pressed specimens are still preserved in the Sibthorpian Herbarium” [35] (Figure 2), and the geographical coverage, during the above-mentioned botanical expeditions. Moreover, a number of specimens found in Kew are of considerable importance as supplementing Sibthorp’s collection at Oxford [36]; these specimens have been published [36] according to the sequence of plants cited in Prodromus [30].
The revived interest in FGS is partially due to recent publications [22,28,37,38,39], but mainly to biodiversity issues raised under the threat of climate change, which gives another dimension to the whole achievement. Moreover, exhibitions dedicated to the concept and the content of Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana contributed to public awareness, e.g., in Oxford entitled “Painting by numbers” (Bodleian Library, 29 – 9 July 2017, accessed on 9 May 2017) and Athens entitled “Flora Graeca” (Gennadius Library, 8 March–4 July 2016,, accessed on 8 March 2016).
In Table 1, we compiled a list of 183 wild plants cited in FGS and located in Peloponnese, which is indicative of the biodiversity, environmental physiology, phenology, and short flowering season in response to drought conditions, i.e., during the period of spring rainfall and the concomitantly active pollinators [40,41]. The later generations of plant biologists studied plant species grown in geographic locations visited by Sibthorp and his companion in Peloponnese, increasing the overall knowledge about distribution, ecophysiology, and taxonomy of plants quoted in FGS and Prodromus [42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49]. Τhe mediterranean-type climate is characterized by a marked seasonality, typified by the alternation of a hot and dry period with a cold and wet period. For example, Sibthorp observed open flowers of Anemone coronaria L., Oxalis corniculata L., and Asphodelus ramosus L. on 27 February 1795, as well as of Crocus flavus Weston in early spring (cited as Crocus aureus in FGS and Crocus vernus latifolius aureus in Prodromus, vol. I, pp. 24–25); such observations are supported by recent publications [5,50,51]. Moreover, in the 21st century, it is known that seasonal blossom is related to adaptive floral traits; for example, the study of petals revealed a surface nano-sculpture that declines water droplet adhesion and enhances the water repellence of these fragile floral tissues, which are exposed to the rainy conditions of the early spring flowering season [52,53,54]. In Anemone coronaria L., the temperature plays a critical role in the onset of dormancy [55]. Other species possess deeply rooted systems that enhance drought resistance (e.g., Myrtus communis L., Pistacia lentiscus L., and Quercus species). In addition, recent research revealed leaf functional traits linked to hydrophobicity and water status, highlighting species’ responses to drought conditions [56,57,58]; this may be critical for resilience in the face of increasing drought stress.
Moreover, Sibthorp noticed that oaks in Peloponnese were frequently infested with the mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq. [59,60,61]; it is worth mentioning that he regarded the deciduous, yellow Loranthus europaeus Jacq. as the “true mistletoe of the ancients” [6] (p. 165).
Sibthorp and his companion visited a mountainy area, barren and stony beyond conception; it was hard work botanizing under harsh field conditions. The earth, washed by the rains and torrents from the higher parts, was supported on a plethora of terraces cultivated with wheat, cotton, maize, and millet, while olives and mulberry trees seemed to grow out of the rocky substrate itself. However, carpets of geophytes and numerous annual plants produced a spring flowering distinctive to the human eye. The results from this tour in the late 1790s, in pre-industrial landscapes, barely resembled the area we see today in Peloponnese, and brought information about numerous unknown to science (those days) wild plants, oak woodlands, pine forests, crops, cultivated areas, and arable lands of the monasteries [62]. Nowadays, several places of Peloponnese that Sibthorp visited in 1795 are included in the European network Natura 2000—i.e., the cornerstone of European Union nature conservation policy—of designated sites (, accessed on 18 October 2022) relevant for flora and habitat protection [63,64,65], e.g., mountainy landscapes such as Parnonas: GR2520006, Mainalo (Arcadia): GR2520001, and Taygetos: GR2550006, as well as Folois plateau: GR2330002 and Olympia: GR2330004. Other progression was also recorded; that is, information linked to the current distribution of the considered plants, confirmed via the Flora of Greece web, contributed to our knowledge about natural stands of wild plants.
According to our study, on one hand, among the plants found in Peloponnese in 1795 and cited in FGS and Prodromus, there are species either widely distributed or grown in restricted areas, e.g., Achillea taygetea Boiss. & Heldr., Erophaca baetica Boiss., Saxifraga sibthorpii Boiss., and Scilla messeniaca Boiss. On the other hand, Zea mays L., originated from the Americas and found among the few cultivated species in isolated valleys in Peloponnese in pre-industrial time, might be attributed to the Venetian occupation of Peloponnese (1688–1715); during that period, when the area was dependent on the European market, plants might have been a product of cross-cultural communication between the conquerors and conquered [66,67,68,69,70].
Sibthorp’s expedition in Peloponnese contributed to our understanding of botany in the field and revealed the diversity of plants grown in their habitats, in pre-industrial time. Historical time was linked to a gradually known plant diversity, as locations were explored and knowledge about the natural fertility of the land increased. However, anthropogenic pressure maintained by human activities, grazing, and fires in Peloponnese added to environmental stresses and caused profound transformation in the natural landscape, reducing the distribution of indigenous plants and enhancing a widespread concern about the extent of habitat and species loss [71,72,73,74,75,76]. This means that whatever effort can be made to study, maintain, and protect the diversity of ecosystems in this region is closely connected to a sustainable future, via the preservation of numerous plant taxa cited in the monumental FGS and Prodromus. Nowadays, Oxford Botanic Garden in UK (where visitors can enjoy the full sensory experience of walking through an aromatic Mediterranean landscape while learning about the work of Sibthorp and Bauer and its important botanical and horticultural legacy [35]) and Diomedes’ Botanic Garden in Greece (due to the fact that administration of Diomedes’ Botanic Garden is directly linked to the staff of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece, this Garden has also been used for relevant, educational programs [37]) contain living collections of Mediterranean plants cited in FGS, which may be perceived as celebrations for Flora Graeca expeditions and FGS [35,37]. However, a larger number of plants quoted in FGS and Prodromus may be introduced and cultivated in the above-mentioned botanic gardens and/or the network of botanic gardens in Greece, in order to detect the diversity and the life-cycle of wild plants within the context of the seasons, floral colours in Mediterranean ecosystems, and collection and deposition of seeds in seed-banks. As such, botanic gardens can be used as common gardens, where researchers can conduct unmatched comparative research studies of plant ecophysiology, morphology, anatomy, and responses to climate change [77,78]. It is worth mentioning that Sibthorp introduced new species into English horticulture; moreover, he returned to Oxford from his eastern Mediterranean explorations with seeds, bulbs, and corms for the Botanic Garden, but few details of these collections have survived, and the plants and any knowledge about their propagation have been lost through many routes [7] (p. 180) and neglected [79] (p. 102).
This work provides a novel and valuable insight into the development of early plant environmental biology and is an important element of timelessness aspects of botany [80,81]. The study of plant diversity in Peloponnese peninsula, during the pre-rebellion period in Greece, tracing long-term changes in the region, is also a reminder that nature is often a repository at which nations look when crafting their identity.

5. Conclusions

The interest in archival material has been revived on account of research for a biodiversity threatened by climatic change. In this context, our research gives prominence to approximately 200 wild plant taxa found in Peloponnese (Greece)—most of them quoted in the magnificent edition Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana of the 19th century—and few cultivated introduced plants, all grown under ambient conditions and exposed to environmental stresses of the eastern Mediterranean during the pre-rebellion period, representing plant environmental issues in pre-industrial time, which have not hitherto been published.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, S.R.; methodology, C.C., S.P., F.K., M.M. and S.R.; validation, C.C., S.P., F.K., M.M. and S.R.; investigation, C.C., S.P., F.K. and M.M.; resources, S.R.; data curation, C.C., S.P., F.K., M.M. and S.R.; writing—original draft preparation, C.C., S.P., F.K. and S.R.; writing—review and editing, C.C. and S.R.; supervision, S.R.; project administration, S.R.; funding acquisition, C.C., S.P. and F.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was implemented in the framework of the project entitled “Contribution of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens to the research for the study of the history and memory of the Revolution of 1821”, and funded by the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, grant number 16614.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

The data are available from the authors upon request.


We would like to thank Stephen Harris (Department of Biology, University of Oxford, UK) for early discussions on the subject.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Map of Peloponnese (obtained by accessed on 10 October 2021 and modified accordingly), showing two tours, i.e., by Sibthorp (red line) and Morritt (green line) in 1795. The red symbol A indicates the start of Sibthorp’s journey; red lines and arrows indicate locations and directions, respectively. In the insert, the map of Greece (blue) is presented and, in yellow, the Peloponnese peninsula is indicated. The green lines and arrows indicate locations and directions of Morritt’s journey. The black-white dot indicates the capital of Greece, Athens (37.9838° N, 23.7275° E); the small black dots indicate the locations of cities: Patras (38.2466° N, 21.7346° E) and Tripolis (37.5101° N, 22.3726° E).
Figure 1. Map of Peloponnese (obtained by accessed on 10 October 2021 and modified accordingly), showing two tours, i.e., by Sibthorp (red line) and Morritt (green line) in 1795. The red symbol A indicates the start of Sibthorp’s journey; red lines and arrows indicate locations and directions, respectively. In the insert, the map of Greece (blue) is presented and, in yellow, the Peloponnese peninsula is indicated. The green lines and arrows indicate locations and directions of Morritt’s journey. The black-white dot indicates the capital of Greece, Athens (37.9838° N, 23.7275° E); the small black dots indicate the locations of cities: Patras (38.2466° N, 21.7346° E) and Tripolis (37.5101° N, 22.3726° E).
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Figure 2. Dried specimens of plants in the Sibthorpian herbarium at the University of Oxford, associated with the Flora Graeca expeditions and collected from the eastern Mediterranean in the 18th century. Courtesy of Stephen Harris, modified by Sophia Rhizopoulou.
Figure 2. Dried specimens of plants in the Sibthorpian herbarium at the University of Oxford, associated with the Flora Graeca expeditions and collected from the eastern Mediterranean in the 18th century. Courtesy of Stephen Harris, modified by Sophia Rhizopoulou.
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Table 1. List of plants found in Peloponnese and cited in Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana (FGS). First column: plant names quoted in the first edition of FGS (1806–1840). Second column: numerical register of hand-coloured engravings (plates) of plants cited in the first published edition of FGS. Third column: numerical register of the original watercolours by Ferdinand Bauer preserved at Oxford (MS. Sherard 241–245), digitized and electronically accessed via Digital Bodleian; whenever the picture of the original drawing was not digitally available, the digital hand-coloured engraving from the first printed edition is mentioned (Sherard 761 and 764). Fourth column: current scientific name.
Table 1. List of plants found in Peloponnese and cited in Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana (FGS). First column: plant names quoted in the first edition of FGS (1806–1840). Second column: numerical register of hand-coloured engravings (plates) of plants cited in the first published edition of FGS. Third column: numerical register of the original watercolours by Ferdinand Bauer preserved at Oxford (MS. Sherard 241–245), digitized and electronically accessed via Digital Bodleian; whenever the picture of the original drawing was not digitally available, the digital hand-coloured engraving from the first printed edition is mentioned (Sherard 761 and 764). Fourth column: current scientific name.
Plant Name Cited in FGSEngravingWatercoulorScientific Name
Phillyrealatifolia2761: pl.2Phillyrea latifolia L.
Olea europaea3761: pl.3Olea europaea L.
Veronica glauca7244: f.66Veronica glauca Sm.
Veronica triphyllos10244: f.69Veronica triphyllos L.
Salvia triloba17244: f.158Salvia fruticosa Mill.
Salvia ringens18244: f.159Salvia ringens Sm.
Salvia sibthorpii22244: f.163Salvia virgata Jacq.
Morina persica28761: pl.28Morina persica L.
Crocus aureus35245: f.65Crocus flavus Weston subsp. flavus
Iris florentina39245: f.69Iris albicans Lange
Iris sisyrinchium42245: f.72Moraea sisyrinchium (L.) Ker-Gawl.
Schoenus mucronatus43245: f.112Cyperus capitatus Vand.
Saccharum ravennae52245: f.120Tripidium ravennae (L.) H. Scholz
Panicum repens61245: f.130Panicum repens L.
Briza minor74245: f.142Briza minor L.
Festuga littoralis80245: f.148Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl.
Bromus tectorum82245: f.150Bromus tectorum L.
Bromus rubens83245: f.151Bromus rubens L.
Stipa paleacea86245: f.154Stipa capensis Thunb.
Triticumjunceum99245: f.166Elytrigia juncea (L.) Nevski
Valantia muralis137242: f.202Valantia muralis L.
Crucianella latifolia139242: f.204Crucianella latifolia L.
Plantago lagopus144244: f.182Plantago lagopus L.
Hypecoum imberbe156241: f.30Hypecoum imberbe Sm.
Anchusa tinctoria166244: f.33Anchusa tinctoria L.
Cerinthe aspera170244: f.37Cerinthe major L.
Cerinthe retorta171244: f.38Cerinthe retorta Sm.
Asperugo procumbens177244: f.44Asperugo procumbens L.
Lycopsis variegata178244: f.36Anchusella variegata (L.) Bigazzi & al.
Primula vulgaris184244: f.175Primula vulgaris Huds.
Lysimachia linum-stellatum189244: f.181Asterolinon linum-stellatum (L.) Duby
Plumbago europaea191244: f.196Plumbago europaea L.
Convolvulus siculus196244: f.15Convolvulus siculus L.
Campanula rupestris213243: f.178Campanula rupestris Sm.
Campanula drabifolia215243: f.180Campanula drabifolia Sm.
Viola gracilis222241: f.85Viola gracilis Sm.
Chironia maritima237244: f.9Centaurium maritimum (L.) Fritsch
Chironia spicata238244: f.10Schenkia spicata (L.) G. Mans.
Vitis vinifera242241: f.178Vitis vinifera L.
Herniaria macrocarpa252242: f.125Herniaria incana Lam.
Eryngium multifidum259242: f.148Eryngium amethystinum L.
Bupleurum sibthorpianum264242: f.153Bupleurum falcatum subsp. cernuum (Ten.) Arcang.
Echinophora spinosa265242: f.154Echinophora spinosa L.
Echinophora tenuifolia266242: f.155Echinophora tenuifolia L.
Artedia squamata268242: f.157Artedia squamata L.
Peucedanum obtusifolium277242: f.175Selinum silaifolium (Jacq.) Beck
Coriandrum sativum283242: f.170Coriandrum sativum L.
Pastinaca opopanax288242: f.176Opopanax hispidus (Friv.) Griseb.
Linum gallicum303241: f.160Linum trigynum L.
Narcissus tazetta308245: f.73Narcissus tazetta L.
Amaryllis lutea310245: f.75Sternbergia lutea (L.) Spreng. subsp. lutea
Tulipa sibthorpiana330245: f.79Fritillaria sibthorpiana (Sm.) Baker
Ornithogalum arvense332245: f.97Gagea villosa (M. Bieb.) Sweet
Ornithogalum nanum333245: f.98Ornithogalum sibthorpii Greuter
Asphodelus ramosus334245: f.99Asphodelus ramosus L.
Anthericum graecum336245: f.101Gagea graeca (L.) Irmisch
Asparagus acutifolius337245: f.102Asparagus acutifolius L.
Hyacinthus romanus340245: f.105Bellevalia romana (L.) Sweet
Frankenia hirsuta343241: f.88Frankenia hirsuta L.
Erica arborea351243: f.190Erica arborea L.
Arbutus unedo373243: f.191Arbutus unedo L.
Arbutus andrachne374243: f.192Arbutus andrachne L.
Saxifragamedia376242: f.142Saxifraga sempervivum K. Koch
Saxifraga rotundifolia377242: f.143Saxifraga rotundifolia L.
Saxifraga cymbalaria378242: f.144Saxifraga sibthorpii Boiss.
Dianthus cinnamomeus400241: f.110Dianthus cinnamomeus Sm.
Silene nocturna408241: f.118Silene nocturna L.
Silene behen416241: f.126Silene behen L.
Silene italica429241: f.138Silene italica (L.) Pers.
Silene staticifolia434241: f.144Silene bupleuroides subsp. staticifolia (Sm.) Chowdhuri
Sedum tetraphyllum448242: f.135Sedum cepaea L.
Oxalis corniculata451241: f.190Oxalis corniculata L.
Cerastium pilosum454241: f.149Cerastium illyricum Ard.
Cerastium tomentosum455241: f.150Cerastium candidissimum Correns
Reseda alba459245: f.49Reseda alba L.
Euphorbia spinosa463245: f.39Euphorbia acanthothamnos Boiss.
Euphorbia leiosperma465245: f.41Euphorbia terracina L.
Myrtus communis475242: f.120Myrtus communis L.
Prunus prostrata478242: f. 109Prunus prostrata Labill.
Pyrus aria479242: f.118Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch
Papaver somniferum491241: f.24Papaver somniferum L.
Cistus monspeliensis493241: f.75Cistus monspeliensis L.
Cistus incanus494241: f.74Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus (Viv.) Greuter & Burdet
Cistus salviifolius497241: f.78Cistus salviifolius L.
Cistus guttatus498241: f.79Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr.
Cistus salicifolius499241: f.80Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) Mill.
Delphinium consolida504241: f.7Consolida phrygia (Boiss.) Soó
Anemone coronaria514241: f.17Anemone coronaria L.
Ranunculus millefoliatus521241: f.4Ranunculus millefoliatus Vahl
Satureja juliana540244: f.117Micromeria juliana (L.) Rchb.
Satureja graeca542244: f.118Micromeria graeca (L.) Rchb.
Satureja capitata544244: f.115Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav.
Nepeta nuda547244: f.120Nepeta nuda L.
Lamium maculatum556244: f.127Lamium maculatum L.
Stachys orientalis560244: f.146Stachys obliqua Waldst. & Kit.
Marrubium pseudodictamnus562244: f.147Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth.
Prasium majus584244: f.155Prasium majus L.
Bartsia latifolia586244: f.71Bellardia latifolia (L.) Cuatrec.
Antirrhinum pelisserianum591244: f.76Linaria pelisseriana (L.) Mill.
Antirrhinum chalepense592244: f.77Linaria chalepensis (L.) Mill.
Antirrhinum reflexum593244: f.78Linaria triphylla (L.) Mill.
Scrophularia canina598244: f.83Scrophularia canina subsp. bicolor (Sm.) Greuter
Scrophularia caesia604244: f.89Scrophularia heterophylla Willd.
Orobanche ramosa608244: f.93Phelipanche mutelii (F.W. Schultz) Pomel
Acanthus spinosus611244: f.95Acanthus spinosus L.
Bunias raphanifolia612241: f.33Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.
Aubrieta deltoidea628241: f.49Aubrieta deltoidea (L.) DC.
Biscutella columnae629241: f.50Biscutella didyma subsp. apula Nyman
Arabis verna641241: f.62Arabis verna (L.) R. Br.
Erodium romanum654241: f.182Erodium acaule (L.) Bech. & Thell.
Erodium gruinum656241: f.184Erodium gruinum (L.) L’Hér.
Erodium malacoides658241: f.186Erodium malacoides (L.) L’Hér.
Geranium tuberosum659241: f.187Geranium tuberosum L.
Alcea ficifolia663241: f.166Alcea biennis Winterl
Hibiscus trionum666241: f.169Hibiscus trionum L.
Polygala venulosa669241: f.86Polygala venulosa Sm.
Ononis antiquorum675242: f.11Ononis spinosa subsp. diacantha (Rchb.) Greuter
Anthyllis tetraphylla681242: f.17Tripodion tetraphyllum (L.) Fourr.
Orobus sessilifolius692242: f.27Lathyrus digitatus (M. Bieb.) Fiori
Lathyrus sativus695242: f.31Lathyrus sativus L.
Lathyrus grandiflorus698242: f.34Lathyrus grandiflorus Sm.
Vicia polyphylla699242: f.35Vicia villosa subsp. varia (Host) Corb.
Vicia melanops701242: f.37Vicia melanops Sm.
Cytisus sessilifolius705242: f.41Podocytisus caramanicus Boiss. & Heldr.
Coronilla emerus710242: f.46Hippocrepis emerus (L.) Lassen
Coronilla securidaca712242: f.48Securigera securidaca (L.) Degen & Dörfl.
Ornithopus compressus714242: f.50Ornithopus compressus L.
Ornithopus scorpioides715242: f.51Coronilla scorpioides (L.) W.D.J. Koch
Hippocrepis unisiliquosa716242: f.52Hippocrepis unisiliquosa L.
Hedysarum caput-galli723242: f.59Onobrychis caput-galli (L.) Lam.
Phaca baetica727242: f.63Erophaca baetica (L.) Boiss.
Astragalus incanus732242: f.68Astragalus spruneri Boiss.
Astragalus aristatus735242: f.71Astragalus thracicus subsp. parnassi (Boiss.) Strid
Biserrula pelecinus737242: f.73Astragalus pelecinus (L.) Barneby
Trifolium cherleri745242: f.81Trifolium cherleri L.
Trifolium rotundifolium747764: pl.747Trigonella rotundifolia (Sm.) Strid
Trifolium stellatum750242: f.86Trifolium stellatum L.
Trifolium clypeatum751242: f.87Trifolium clypeatum L.
Trifolium uniflorum752242: f.88Trifolium uniflorum L.
Lotus tetragonolobus755242: f.91Tetragonolobus purpureus Moench
Lotus edulis756242: f.92Lotus edulis L.
Lotus creticus758242: f.94Lotus creticus L.
Lotus hirsutus759242: f.95Dorycnium hirsutum (L.) Ser.
Trigonella corniculata761242: f.97Trigonella corniculata (L.) L.
Trigonella monspeliaca765242: f.101Medicago monspeliaca (L.) Trautv.
Medicago marina770242: f.106Medicago marina L.
Hypericum olympicum772241: f.171Hypericum olympicum L.
Hypericum hircinum773241: f.172Hypericum hircinum L.
Hypericum crispum776241: f.175Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra
Scorzonera laciniata788243: f.144Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC.
Sonchus picroides793243: f.166Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth
Crepis rubra801243: f.157Crepis rubra L.
Hedypnois cretica813243: f.132Hedypnois rhagadioloides (L.) F.W. Schmidt
Hypochoeris minima816243: f.123Hypochaeris arachnoides Poir.
Lapsana stellata817243: f.126Rhagadiolus stellatus (L.) Gaertn.
Catananche lutea821243: f.129Catananche lutea L.
Carduus glycacanthus826243: f.96Jurinea glycacantha DC.
Cnicus acarna827243: f.94Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass.
Onopordum elatum833243: f.87Onopordum tauricum Willd.
Cynara humilis835243: f.89Cynara cardunculus L.
Carlina lanata836243: f.82Carlina lanata L.
Carlina corymbosa837243: f.83Carlina corymbosa subsp. graeca (Heldr. & Sartori) Nyman
Acarna cancellata839243: f.85Atractylis cancellata L.
Carthamus lanatus841243: f.118Carthamus lanatus L.
Carthamus caeruleus843243: f.120Carthamus caeruleus L.
Staehelina chamaepeuce847243: f.90Ptilostemon chamaepeuce (L.) Less.
Senecio trilobus869243: f.65Senecio trilobus L.
Bellis annua876243: f.22Bellis annua L.
Chrysanthemum coronarium877243: f.58Glebionis coronaria (L.) Spach
Anthemis cota880243: f.35Anthemis altissima L.
Anthemis altissima881243: f.36Anthemis altissima L.
Achillea aegyptiaca892243: f.51Achillea taygetea Boiss. & Heldr.
Centaurea benedicta906243: f.114Centaurea benedicta (L.) L.
Centaurea aegyptiaca907243: f.102Centaurea aegyptiaca Sm.
Centaurea melitensis909243: f.104Centaurea melitensis L.
Centaurea collina914243: f.109Centaurea salonitana Vis.
Centaurea galactites919243: f.115Galactites tomentosus Moench
Filago pygmaea921243: f.28Filago pygmaea L.
Orchis undulatifolia927245: f.58Orchis italica Poir.
Orchis papilionacea928245: f.59Anacamptis papilionacea subsp. aegaea (P. Delforge) L. Lewis & Kreutz
Ophrys fusca930245: f.61Ophrys fusca Link
Pistacia terebinthus956242: f.4Pistacia terebinthus L.
Atriplex halimus962245: f.8Atriplex halimus L.
Table 2. List of plants found in Peloponnese and cited in Prodromus. First column: plant names alphabetically presented according to the name given in archives, which are quoted in Prodromus, but not referred in FGS. Second column: numerical register of volume and page, respectively, in Prodromus. Third column: current scientific name.
Table 2. List of plants found in Peloponnese and cited in Prodromus. First column: plant names alphabetically presented according to the name given in archives, which are quoted in Prodromus, but not referred in FGS. Second column: numerical register of volume and page, respectively, in Prodromus. Third column: current scientific name.
Plant Name Cited in Prodromus Volume, PageScientific Name
Castanea sativa2, 242Castanea sativa Mill.
Corylus spp. (hazel)2, 244Corylus avellana L., C. colurna L.
Euphorbia apios1, 326Euphorbia apios L.
Ficus carica2, 268Ficus carica L.
Fraxinella1, 271Dictamnus albus L.
Globularia alypum1, 78Globularia alypum L.
Leonticealtaica1, 234Gymnospermium peloponnesiacum (Phitos) Strid
Leontice chrysogonum1, 234Bongardia chrysogonum (L.) Spach
Leontice leontopetalum1, 234Leontice leontopetalum L.
Lolium1, 70Lolium perenne L., L. subulatum Vis., L. temulentum L.
Imperatoria1, 199Imperatoria ostruthium L.
Loranthus1, 242Loranthus europaeus Jacq.
Urtica2, 233Urtica dioica L., U. pilulifera L., U. urens L.
Quercus spp.2, 239Quercus aegilops L., Q. coccifera L., Q. ilex L., Q. pubescens Willd.
Pinus2, 242Pinus pinea L.
Rubus spp.1, 349Rubus sanctus Schreb., R. canescens DC.
Salicornia1, 1Salicornia fruticosa L., S. perennans Willd.
Satyrium2, 215Satyrium L., Orchis sp.
Scilla1, 237Scilla nivalis Boiss., S. messeniaca Boiss., S. pneumonanthe Speta
Viola1, 145Viola scorpiuroides Coss., Viola graeca (W. Becker) Halácsy
Nymphaea1, 360–361Nymphaea alba L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chimona, C.; Papadopoulou, S.; Kolyva, F.; Mina, M.; Rhizopoulou, S. From Biodiversity to Musketry: Detection of Plant Diversity in Pre-Industrial Peloponnese during the Flora Graeca Expedition. Life 2022, 12, 1957.

AMA Style

Chimona C, Papadopoulou S, Kolyva F, Mina M, Rhizopoulou S. From Biodiversity to Musketry: Detection of Plant Diversity in Pre-Industrial Peloponnese during the Flora Graeca Expedition. Life. 2022; 12(12):1957.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chimona, Chrysanthi, Sophia Papadopoulou, Foteini Kolyva, Maria Mina, and Sophia Rhizopoulou. 2022. "From Biodiversity to Musketry: Detection of Plant Diversity in Pre-Industrial Peloponnese during the Flora Graeca Expedition" Life 12, no. 12: 1957.

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