Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 29642

Special Issue Editors

Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: cognitive impairment; frailty syndrome; neurodevelopemntal disorders; depression; neuropathy; sleep; envirnomental factors; comorbidty; immune alterations; metabolic alterations; biomarkers
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Guest Editor
Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Podiatry, University of Valencia, 46001 Valencia, Spain
Interests: frailty; sarcopenia; quality of life; biomarkers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: sleep, haematological alterations, frailty

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

There are numerous biological, psychological, and social factors that have a more or less prominent impact on the mental health of older adults. Apart from components derived from the normal processes of aging or the co-occurrence of various medical diseases, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability, contribute significantly to a variety of mental or emotional problems at this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, affective, and sleep functions, which can lead to a reduction in quality of life. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce a patient's overall performance and thus create demanding needs for dependency and higher level of frailty. Affective disorders can be accentuated by a lack of family support and a marked decrease in social interactions that can lead to significant isolation with resulting suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly can further alter the quality of life of this population. The complexity of these disorders needs the expertise of a multidisciplinary team to provide the best healthcare for these patients.

This Special Issue wishes to shed new light on this exciting and insightful field of research from a multidisciplinary perspective. This Special Issue, "Mental health issues and quality of life in older individuals," reflects the interplay between neurological and psychiatric sciences, with other health sciences at the leading edge of this growing research field, which intensively suggest new opportunities for improving care of older individuals, or to prevent adverse outcomes. In the Special Issue, the readership will find relevant research carried out by several health care professionals and researchers with extensive knowledge on clinical settings and is intended to address new issues of interest of specific importance to research and clinical practice.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Prof. Dr. Rut Navarro Martinez
Prof. Dr. Julio Fernández Garrido
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • cognitive function
  • sleep
  • depression
  • quality of life
  • frailty
  • psychiatric disorders
  • gerontology
  • social factors
  • comorbidities
  • biomarkers
  • nursing
  • gender

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals”
by Omar Cauli, Rut Navarro-Martínez and Julio Fernández-Garrido
Life 2021, 11(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030221 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
There are numerous biological, psychological, and social factors that have a more or less prominent impact on the mental health of older adults [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)

Research

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17 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
Psycho-Social Factors in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Attending a Family-Centred Prevention and Rehabilitation Programme: EUROACTION Model in Spain
by Cristina Buigues, Ana Queralt, Jose Antonio De Velasco, Antonio Salvador-Sanz, Catriona Jennings, David Wood and Isabel Trapero
Life 2021, 11(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020089 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3393
Abstract
Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) persists as the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation (CVPR) has an interdisciplinary focus, and includes not only in physiological components, but it also addresses psycho-social factors. Methods: The study analysed the Spanish psycho-social data [...] Read more.
Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) persists as the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation (CVPR) has an interdisciplinary focus, and includes not only in physiological components, but it also addresses psycho-social factors. Methods: The study analysed the Spanish psycho-social data collected during the EUROACTION study. In Spain, two hospitals were randomised in the Valencia community. Coronary patients were prospectively and consecutively identified in both hospitals. The intervention hospital carried out a 16-week CVPR programme, which aimed to assess illness perceptions and establish healthy behaviours in patients and their partners. Results: Illness perceptions were significantly and inversely associated with anxiety and depression. Low levels of anxiety were associated with better self-management of total cholesterol (p = 0.004) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = 0.004). There was concordance at one year among patients and partners who participated in the programme related to anxiety (p < 0.001), fruit consumption (p < 0.001), and vegetable consumption (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The EUROACTION study emphasised the importance of assessing psycho-social factors in a CVPR programme and the inclusion of family as support in patients’ changes in behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)
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16 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Quality of Life and Nutritional Status in Elderly Patients with Dysphagia in Order to Prevent Hospital Admissions in a COVID-19 Pandemic
by Virginia E. Fernández-Ruiz, Rocío Paredes-Ibáñez, David Armero-Barranco, Juan Francisco Sánchez-Romera and Mercedes Ferrer
Life 2021, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11010022 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
(1) Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is currently recognized as one of the geriatric syndromes due to its high frequency in older people and its associated complications, which have a direct impact on quality of life. The main objective is to determine the effectiveness [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is currently recognized as one of the geriatric syndromes due to its high frequency in older people and its associated complications, which have a direct impact on quality of life. The main objective is to determine the effectiveness of telehealth consultation for the re-evaluation of nutritional status and quality of life assessment in older people diagnosed with OD associated with active use of thickeners to prevent hospital admissions in a COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: an observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study that included a sample of 33 subjects with age equal or superior to 65 years diagnosed with OD with conserved cognitive capacity. The nutritional status was evaluated through the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire and biochemical parameters and, the quality of life was determined through the Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. (3) Results: Thirty-three older patients with OD were recruited (54.5% women), with a mean age of 83.5 ± 7.6 years. The main cause of OD in the study population was neurodegenerative disease (51.5%), followed by cerebrovascular disease (33.3%), and other causes (15.2%). Sixty point six percent of patients were found to be at risk of malnutrition. The MNA score was significantly correlated to albumin (r: 0.600, p < 0.001) and total proteins (r: 0.435, p = 0.015), but not to total cholesterol (r: −0.116, p = 0.534) or lymphocytes (r: −0.056, p = 0.758). The mean total score of the SWAL-QOL was 75.1 ± 16.4 points. (4) Conclusions: the quality of life of the subjects related to the use of a thickener is good. Although the body mass index (BMI) and average biochemical, nutritional parameters of the subjects are within the range of normality, the MNA has detected a high percentage of subjects with the risk of malnutrition, which suggests the need for continuous re-evaluation in these patients, demonstrating the viability of the telematic route in this research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)
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0 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Informal Caregivers’ Roles in Dementia: The Impact on Their Quality of Life
by Cindy E. Frias, Esther Cabrera and Adelaida Zabalegui
Life 2020, 10(11), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110251 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4537
Abstract
The constantly changing process of caring for a person with dementia affects the informal caregivers’ role due to its psychosocial impact. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the impact of the Person with Dementia informal caregiver’s role caregiver to a person with dementia [...] Read more.
The constantly changing process of caring for a person with dementia affects the informal caregivers’ role due to its psychosocial impact. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the impact of the Person with Dementia informal caregiver’s role caregiver to a person with dementia on the self-perceived quality of life (QoL) of the caregiver. In total, 160 informal caregivers were recruited between January and December 2019. Informal caregivers’ quality of life was assessed using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimension scale, burden with the Zarit Burden Scale, emotional wellbeing using the General Health Questionnaire, and caregiver reactions using Caregiver Reaction Aspects. Patients’ cognitive impairment was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, their quality of life using Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease, and neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Outcomes were studied using the Pearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA test. Most informal caregivers’ outcomes were significantly associated with their quality of life. Male informal caregivers have a slightly better quality of life than female caregivers (p < 0.001). Caregiver burden (p < 0.001), psychological wellbeing (p < 0.001) and negative aspects of caregiving on health (p < 0.001) correlated moderately with informal caregivers’ quality of life. Factors associated with dementia, including the course of the illness and its severity with the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms can negatively affect the informal caregiver’s role and produce a low self-perception of quality of life; thus, social and professional support for informal caregivers is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)
14 pages, 476 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Older Adult Disability and Primary Health Care Responsiveness in Low-Income Communities
by Giovana Montoro Pazzini Watfe, Lais Fajersztajn, Euler Ribeiro, Paulo Rossi Menezes and Marcia Scazufca
Life 2020, 10(8), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10080133 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2891
Abstract
In Brazil and in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), information about how prepared the health care system is for the rapid aging of the population is scarce. We investigated the prevalence of disability and areas of life affected by disability among elders [...] Read more.
In Brazil and in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), information about how prepared the health care system is for the rapid aging of the population is scarce. We investigated the prevalence of disability and areas of life affected by disability among elders of the public primary health care in São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. We investigated whether people with disability visited a primary care professional more frequently, the individual characteristics associated with disability, and differences by city. We randomly selected participants aged ≥60 years (n = 1375). The main outcome was disability, evaluated with the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). Exposure variables were consultation with a family physician, sociodemographic characteristics, health status, social support, and lifestyle. The prevalence of global disability was higher in Manaus (66.2% vs. 56.4% in São Paulo). In both cities, participation and mobility were the areas of life most affected by disability. The number of consultations with a family physician was not associated with disability. The high prevalence of disability and associated risk factors indicates that public primary health care is not meeting the needs of elders in both cities. It is warning because most elders in LMICs live in more underserved communities compared to Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)
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13 pages, 1016 KiB  
Article
EQ-5D-3L for Assessing Quality of Life in Older Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairment
by Pilar Pérez-Ros and Francisco M Martínez-Arnau
Life 2020, 10(7), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10070100 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3038
Abstract
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is recognized as an important patient-reported outcome measure. Assessing QoL in older people with cognitive impairment is a challenge due to discrepancies in the collection of data via proxies versus self-report. This study aimed to assess the psychometric [...] Read more.
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is recognized as an important patient-reported outcome measure. Assessing QoL in older people with cognitive impairment is a challenge due to discrepancies in the collection of data via proxies versus self-report. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the self-reported EQ-5D (including the EQ index and EQ visual analog scale (VAS)) in nursing homes residents with cognitive impairment and to analyze its validity based on scales included in the comprehensive geriatric assessment. Methods: Cross-sectional, multicenter study analyzing the feasibility, acceptability, reliability, and validity of the EQ-5D based on 251 self-administered questionnaires in a sample of nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. Reference scales were those from the comprehensive geriatric assessment, equivalent to the five dimensions of the EuroQol. Results: The EQ index was 0.31 (0.37) and the EQ VAS was 35.96 (29.86), showing adequate acceptability and feasibility. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.723. The EQ index and EQ VAS, as outcome variables for multiple linear regression models including CGA titration scales, showed better validity for the EQ index than the EQ VAS. Conclusions: As a self-administered generic scale, the EQ-5D-3L could be a good tool for QoL assessment in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)
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13 pages, 674 KiB  
Article
Subtypes of Depression: Latent Class Analysis in Spanish Old People with Depressive Symptoms
by Sergio Pérez-Belmonte, Laura Galiana, Patricia Sancho, Amparo Oliver and José M. Tomás
Life 2020, 10(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10050070 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3216
Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most disabling disorders and the one that most contributes to disability. When it occurs in older people, it is an additional burden to their potential physical and cognitive deficiencies, making MDD an important public health [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most disabling disorders and the one that most contributes to disability. When it occurs in older people, it is an additional burden to their potential physical and cognitive deficiencies, making MDD an important public health problem that supposes a large investment in health. There is a clear lack of consistency between the subtypes of depression found in the literature, ranging from two to seven classes, with three being the most commonly found non-melancholic, melancholic and psychotic, or putative psychotics. The aim of this research is to add knowledge to the profiles of depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older Spanish people, and to study the possible relationship of these symptom profiles with variables that have traditionally been related to depression. Spanish data from the sixth wave of SHARE were used, with 612 Spanish older adults living in Spain. A routine of several LCAs with a different number of classes was performed to answer this first aim to classify Spanish adults with depression symptoms. The results pointed out the presence of three different classes among the participants in the study: psychosomatic (11.12%), melancholic (14.21%), and anhedonic (74.67%). This work represents a step forward to understand the heterogeneity of major depressive disorder, facilitating the diagnosis, and subsequent treatment of older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)
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Review

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19 pages, 361 KiB  
Review
Hair Cortisol Concentration as a Biomarker of Sleep Quality and Related Disorders
by Nisrin El Mlili, Hanan Ahabrach and Omar Cauli
Life 2021, 11(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020081 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5205
Abstract
Cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and its production is increased mainly in stressful situations or in chronic disorders accompanied by stress enhancement. Altered cortisol concentrations have been reported in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases and sleep disorders. Cortisol [...] Read more.
Cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and its production is increased mainly in stressful situations or in chronic disorders accompanied by stress enhancement. Altered cortisol concentrations have been reported in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases and sleep disorders. Cortisol concentrations have been measured using several methods, and in several matrixes, such as blood, saliva, and urine. However, lately, hair cortisol, for several reasons, has emerged as a promising biomarker of long-term retrospective HPA activation. Several experimental approaches for cortisol measurement with the corresponding concentration reference ranges and a summary of findings from scientific literature on this field are presented. There is evidence of a close relationship between HPA functional alteration and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders are the most common manifestation in several neuropsychiatric conditions, and have also been associated to cortisol alterations in both adults and children. Many studies indicate that hair cortisol constitutes a valuable tool for further contributing to existing data on salivary, plasma, or urinary cortisol concentrations in patients with sleep disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)

Other

1 pages, 170 KiB  
Erratum
Erratum: Pérez-Belmonte, S., et al. Subtypes of Depression: Latent Class Analysis in Spanish Old People with Depressive Symptoms. Life 2020, 10, 70
by Sergio Pérez-Belmonte, Laura Galiana, Patricia Sancho, Amparo Oliver and José M. Tomás
Life 2020, 10(10), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10100222 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following erratum to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health Issues and Quality of Life in Older Individuals)
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