Special Issue "Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Neuro-psychiatric Disorders".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010, Spain
Interests: depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, autism, Rett syndrome, Prader-Willy, neurotoxicology, neurodevelopmental disorders, aging, insomina, sleep disorder, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, cognitive impairment, hepatic encephalopathy, metabolic brain disorder, epilepsy, neuropharmacology, ictus, cerebral stroke, multiple sclerosis, vitamins, neurotransmitter, neuro-oncology, brain metastasis, spinal cord, receptors,metals, brain cancer, central nervous system, infections, craneal nerves, neruphysiology, neurophysiology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neuro-psychiatric disorders are an important cause of poor quality of life, disability, and  premature mortality. Globally, the burden of these disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years, due of expanding population numbers and aging, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates. The pathophysiological bases of these disorders show continuous challenges, and different aspects within the same disorder appear quickly in the field of biomedical sciences. The complexity of these disorders needs the expertise of a multidisciplinary team to provide the best healthcare for these patients.

This Special Issue wishes to shed new light on this exciting and insightful field of research from a multidisciplinary perspective. This Special Issue "Neuro-psychiatric Disorders—from Diagnosis to Care" reflects the interplay between neurological and psychiatric sciences, with other health sciences at the leading edge of this growing research field, which intensively suggest new opportunities for improving diagnosis and care, or to prevent adverse outcomes. In the Special Issue, the readership will find relevant research carried out by several health care professionals and researchers with extensive knowledge on clinical settings and is intended to address new issues of interest of specific importance to research and clinical practice. Welcome to contribute to this special issue, free of charge.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cognitive impairment
  • Depression
  • Sleep
  • Ageing
  • Psychiatric disorder
  • Neurological disorders
  • Mental health
  • Quality of life
  • Care
  • Multidisciplinary approach
  • Comorbidities
  • Diagnosis

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders: From Diagnosis to Care
Diseases 2019, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7030048 - 05 Jul 2019
Abstract
Neuro-psychiatric disorders are an important cause of poor quality of life, disability, and premature mortality [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Preoperatory Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery
Diseases 2019, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7020046 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Anxiety is a feeling of discomfort produced in face of an unknown event, as an impending cardiac surgery, that can lead to inconveniences in the intervention and subsequent recovery. Being the purpose of this research to analyze pre-surgical anxiety, a descriptive cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Anxiety is a feeling of discomfort produced in face of an unknown event, as an impending cardiac surgery, that can lead to inconveniences in the intervention and subsequent recovery. Being the purpose of this research to analyze pre-surgical anxiety, a descriptive cross-sectional study among patients undergoing cardiac surgery was carried out. Data about sociodemographic variables were collected and the level of anxiety prior to surgery was assessed using the STAI-S scale. Subsequently, descriptive data analyses were performed, relationships among variables were analyzed, and a binary logistic regression model was developed in order to analyze the role of the variables involved in the development of preoperative anxiety. Sixty subjects were finally included; more than 80% had a moderate to high level of anxiety. 26.7% underwent valve surgery and 47% underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, in the latter case presenting higher levels of anxiety. Statistically significant relationships were found among the level of anxiety and (a) level of studies, (b) first surgical intervention, and (c) the rating given to their previous surgical experience. We concluded that preoperative anxiety in people undergoing cardiac surgery is high and yet it is an underestimated phenomenon. The relationship between the received information and their anxiety level is inversely proportional, so that people programmed for cardiac surgery should be provided with all the information they required, through an individualized intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Psychometric Properties, Factor Structure, and Evidence for Measurement Invariance in the Greek Version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R)
Diseases 2019, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7020033 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Disgust Scale has been designed to measure disgust propensity—the individual ease in experiencing disgust. The present study aimed to explore the validity, reliability, the factor structure, and the measurement invariance of the Greek version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R). A sample of [...] Read more.
The Disgust Scale has been designed to measure disgust propensity—the individual ease in experiencing disgust. The present study aimed to explore the validity, reliability, the factor structure, and the measurement invariance of the Greek version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R). A sample of 754 healthy participants completed the Greek version of the DS-R. A subset (n = 363) also completed the revised Symptom checked list and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, in order to examine the concurrent validity. Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analyses in different subsets were used to examine the factor structure. Multiple indicators–multiple causes model (MIMIC) models were used to assess the measurement invariance across gender and age. Demographic influences were assessed using t-tests, ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlations. Exploratory factor analysis concluded to two and three factor models, with a factor structure similar to the ones proposed in the literature. Confirmatory factor analysis and bi-factor analysis provided evidence in favor of the three-factor solution. Measurement invariance test revealed differences in six items across gender, and three items across age. The psychometric properties of the factors were satisfactory. Demographic influences on the responses were present, especially with respect to gender. The Greek version of the DS-R demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties, making it suitable for use for the Greek population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Factors Influencing Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients Six Months after the Completion of Chemotherapy
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010026 - 24 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Purpose: To assess breast cancer patients’ quality of life six months after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, and to investigate factors affecting this. Methods: The study was conducted in one large hospital located in a major Greek city. A convenience sample of 61 [...] Read more.
Purpose: To assess breast cancer patients’ quality of life six months after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, and to investigate factors affecting this. Methods: The study was conducted in one large hospital located in a major Greek city. A convenience sample of 61 breast cancer outpatients was recruited. A questionnaire, including the SF-36 scale and questions regarding demographic and clinical information, was used to collect data. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.52 ± 12.10. The effect of age on the physical role was significant (p = 0.003). Τhe effect of menopausal status on physical role was also found to be significant (p = 0.003); this might be explained by age. Regarding the treatment type, patients who received hormone therapy in addition to surgery and chemotherapy reported a significantly higher quality of life in terms of bodily pain (p = 0.04) and vitality (p = 0.04) than patients who underwent only surgery and chemotherapy. Conclusions: Quality of life is affected by factors such as age, menopausal status, and previous therapy. Health care professionals should be more aware of the factors that influence the quality of life domains (physical role, bodily pain, vitality) within this group of cancer patients in order to meet their needs following acute treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Walking Speed and Step Length in Older Aged Patients
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010017 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Compared with elderly people who have not experienced falls, those who have were reported to have a shortened step length, large fluctuations in their pace, and a slow walking speed. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the step length required to [...] Read more.
Compared with elderly people who have not experienced falls, those who have were reported to have a shortened step length, large fluctuations in their pace, and a slow walking speed. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the step length required to maintain a walking speed of 1.0 m/s in patients aged 75 years or older. We measured the 10 m maximum walking speed in patients aged 75 years or older and divided them into the following two groups: Those who could walk 1.0 m/s or faster (fast group) and those who could not (slow group). Step length was determined from the number of steps taken during the 10 m-maximum walking speed test, and the step length-to-height ratio was calculated. Isometric knee extension muscle force (kgf), modified functional reach (cm), and one-leg standing time (s) were also measured. We included 261 patients (average age: 82.1 years, 50.6% men) in this study. The fast group included 119 participants, and the slow group included 142 participants. In a regression logistic analysis, knee extension muscle force (p = 0.03) and step length-to-height ratio (p < 0.01) were determined as factors significantly related to the fast group. As a result of ROC curve analysis, a step length-to-height ratio of 31.0% could discriminate between the two walking speed groups. The results suggest that the step length-to-height ratio required to maintain a walking speed of 1.0 m/s is 31.0% in patients aged 75 years or older. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prevalence, Wellbeing, and Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea among University Nursing Students in Greece
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010005 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dysmenorrhea (pain during menstruation) is one of the most common medical conditions among women of reproductive age. Dysmenorrhea has been studied around the world but not yet in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and impact [...] Read more.
Dysmenorrhea (pain during menstruation) is one of the most common medical conditions among women of reproductive age. Dysmenorrhea has been studied around the world but not yet in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of dysmenorrhea on the wellbeing (exercising, and social and academic functioning) among nursing students in Greece. A cross-sectional study of 637 nursing students was conducted by administering a questionnaire at a university in Athens. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 89.2% and the rate of severe intensity was 52.5%. Factors that were associated with severe dysmenorrhea were family history (p = 0.02), early menarche (p = 0.05) and menstruation duration (p = 0.05). Women with moderate and severe pain reported using pain relievers (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), paracetamol etc., p < 0.0005). Finally, activities affected by severe pain were class attendance (p = 0.01), personal studying (p < 0.0005), exercising (p < 0.0005), and socializing (p < 0.0005). Exam attendance (p = 0.27) and clinical placement attendance (p = 0.48) were not affected by severe dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea has a high prevalence among nursing students and seems to affect important aspects of wellbeing and academic performance when the pain intensity is severe. The present findings lay the foundation for further investigation of dysmenorrhea both in the Greek population and cross-culturally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
Open AccessFeature PaperShort Note
Action Observation in People with Parkinson’s Disease. A Motor–Cognitive Combined Approach for Motor Rehabilitation. A Preliminary Report
Diseases 2018, 6(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases6030058 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the role of Action Observation (AO) to improve balance, gait, reduce falls, and to investigate the changes in P300 pattern. Five cognitively intact People with Parkinson’s disease (PwP) were enrolled in this prospective, quasi-experimental study [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the role of Action Observation (AO) to improve balance, gait, reduce falls, and to investigate the changes in P300 pattern. Five cognitively intact People with Parkinson’s disease (PwP) were enrolled in this prospective, quasi-experimental study to undergo a rehabilitation program of AO for gait and balance recovery of 60 min, three times a week for four weeks. The statistical analysis showed significant improvements for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor section III p = 0.0082, Short form 12-items Healthy Survey (SF-12) Mental Composite Score (MCS) p = 0.0007, Freezing of gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q) p = 0.0030, The 39-items Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) p = 0.100, and for P300ld p = 0.0077. In conclusion, AO reveals to be a safe and feasible paradigm of rehabilitative exercise in cognitively preserved PwP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Role of Depression and Anxiety in Frail Patients with Heart Failure
Diseases 2019, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7020045 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
An increased interest regarding the impact of frailty on the prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in the last decade. Frailty is a syndrome characterized by a reduced biological reserve that increases the vulnerability of an individual in relation to stressors. [...] Read more.
An increased interest regarding the impact of frailty on the prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in the last decade. Frailty is a syndrome characterized by a reduced biological reserve that increases the vulnerability of an individual in relation to stressors. Among the patients with CVD, a higher incidence of frailty has been reported in those with heart failure (HF). Regardless of its conceptualizations, frailty is generally associated with negative outcomes in HF and an increased risk of mortality. Psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, increase the risk of negative outcomes on the cardiac function and mortality. Depression and anxiety are found to be common factors impacting the heart disease and quality of life (QoL) in patients with HF. Depression is considered an independent risk factor of cardiac-related incidents and death, and a strong predictor of rehospitalization. Anxiety seems to be an adequate predictor only in conjunction with depression. The relationship between psychological factors (depression and anxiety) and frailty in HF has hardly been documented. The aim of this paper is to review the reported data from relevant studies regarding the impact of depression and anxiety, and their effects on clinical outcomes and prognosis in frail patients with HF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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Open AccessReview
Roles of PI3K/AKT/GSK3 Pathway Involved in Psychiatric Illnesses
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010022 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Psychiatric illnesses may be qualified to the cellular impairments of the function for survival or death in neurons, which may consequently appear as abnormalities in the neuroplasticity. The molecular mechanism has not been well understood, however, it seems that PI3K, AKT, GSK3, and [...] Read more.
Psychiatric illnesses may be qualified to the cellular impairments of the function for survival or death in neurons, which may consequently appear as abnormalities in the neuroplasticity. The molecular mechanism has not been well understood, however, it seems that PI3K, AKT, GSK3, and their downstream molecules have crucial roles in the pathogenesis. Through transducing cell surviving signal, the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 pathway may organize an intracellular central network for the action of the synaptic neuroplasticity. In addition, the pathways may also regulate cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. Several lines of evidence have supported a role for this signaling network underlying the development and treatment for psychiatric illnesses. Indeed, the discovery of molecular biochemical phenotypes would represent a breakthrough in the research for effective treatment. In this review, we summarize advances on the involvement of the PI3K/AKT/GSK3 pathways in cell signaling of neuronal cells. This study may provide novel insights on the mechanism of mental disorder involved in psychiatric illnesses and would open future opportunity for contributions suggesting new targets for diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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Open AccessReview
Assessing Gait in Parkinson’s Disease Using Wearable Motion Sensors: A Systematic Review
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010018 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Gait impairments are common among people with PD. Wearable sensor systems can be used for gait analysis by providing spatio-temporal parameters useful to investigate the progression of gait problems in Parkinson disease. However, various [...] Read more.
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Gait impairments are common among people with PD. Wearable sensor systems can be used for gait analysis by providing spatio-temporal parameters useful to investigate the progression of gait problems in Parkinson disease. However, various methods and tools with very high variability have been developed. The aim of this study is to review published articles of the last 10 years (from 2008 to 2018) concerning the application of wearable sensors to assess spatio-temporal parameters of gait in patients with PD. We focus on inertial sensors used for gait analysis in the clinical environment (i.e., we do not cover the use of inertial sensors to monitor walking or general activities at home, in unsupervised environments). Materials and Methods: Relevant articles were searched in the Medline database using Pubmed. Results and Discussion: Two hundred ninety-four articles were initially identified while searching the scientific literature regarding this topic. Thirty-six articles were selected and included in this review. Conclusion: Wearable motion sensors are useful, non-invasive, low-cost, and objective tools that are being extensively used to perform gait analysis on PD patients. Being able to diagnose and monitor the progression of PD patients makes wearable sensors very useful to evaluate clinical efficacy before and after therapeutic interventions. However, there is no uniformity in the use of wearable sensors in terms of: number of sensors, positioning, chosen parameters, and other characteristics. Future research should focus on standardizing the measurement setup and selecting which spatio-temporal parameters are the most informative to analyze gait in PD. These parameters should be provided as standard assessments in all studies to increase replicability and comparability of results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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Open AccessReview
Delirium Assessment in Older People in Emergency Departments. A Literature Review
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010014 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome often manifesting in acute disease conditions, and with a greater prevalence in the older generation. Delirium in the Emergency Department (ED) is a highly prevalent problem that typically goes unnoticed by healthcare providers. The onset of a delirium [...] Read more.
Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome often manifesting in acute disease conditions, and with a greater prevalence in the older generation. Delirium in the Emergency Department (ED) is a highly prevalent problem that typically goes unnoticed by healthcare providers. The onset of a delirium episode in the ED is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Because delirium is a preventable syndrome, these statistics are unacceptable. Emergency Department staff therefore should strive to perform systematic screening in order to detect delirium. Different tools have been developed for the assessment of delirium by healthcare professionals other than psychiatrists or geriatricians. Emergency Departments require delirium assessment scales of high sensitivity and specificity, suited to the characteristics of the Department, since the time available is scarce. In addition, the presence of dementia in the assessment of delirium may induce sensitivity bias. Despite the existence of numerous delirium rating scales, scales taking less than three minutes to complete are recommended. The choice of the tool depends on the characteristics of the ED. The only scale affording high sensitivity and specificity in older people with and without dementia is the Four “A”s Test (4AT); it requires no training on the part of the rater, and can be performed in under two minutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Effects of Exercise on IL-6 Levels and Cognitive Performance in Patients with Schizophrenia
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7010011 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Exercise plays an important role in brain plasticity, leading to improvements in cognitive function and delaying the cognitive deterioration of healthy people. These effects can be observed in individuals with schizophrenia through improvements in their performance in cognitive tasks and a decrease in [...] Read more.
Exercise plays an important role in brain plasticity, leading to improvements in cognitive function and delaying the cognitive deterioration of healthy people. These effects can be observed in individuals with schizophrenia through improvements in their performance in cognitive tasks and a decrease in the symptomology of the disease. In this review we examine the current evidence for the roles that exercise and the immune system play in patients with schizophrenia, and specifically analyze the interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway as a potential mechanism resulting in these positive effects. Inflammation and high levels of IL-6 are associated with both the severity of schizophrenia and the cognitive impairment suffered throughout the disease. Performing regular exercise can modulate IL-6 by lowering its basal levels and by causing lower acute increases in the plasma levels of this cytokine in response to exercise (an anti-inflammatory response to physical exertion). Although there is evidence for the positive effects of physical exercise on schizophrenia, more studies will be required to better understand how variation in different exercise parameters affects both the acute and chronic plasma levels of IL-6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
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