Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Neuro-psychiatric Disorders".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 18607

Special Issue Editor

Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: cognitive impairment; frailty syndrome; neurodevelopemntal disorders; depression; neuropathy; sleep; envirnomental factors; comorbidty; immune alterations; metabolic alterations; biomarkers
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neurons are excitatory cells permitting communication between all parts of our body. On the contrary, glial cells have an important role in different mechanisms, such as inflammation or oxidative stress, protecting the nervous system with the production of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins, and helping neurons to communicate with each other. Inflammatory mediators produced in inflammation are important to prevent changes in normal physiology after viral, bacterial, or other attacks. In addition, both the pathophysiology and symptomatology of many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders are influenced by the inflammation taking place from its own or from other comorbidities, both at the central and peripheral levels. The excessive or continuous production of these mediators interferes with several pathways in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, neurodevelopment disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, among many others. This Special Issue is intended to serve as an approximation to the subject.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bipolar disorder
  • schizophrenia
  • attention deficit
  • neurodevelopment
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • sclerosis lateral amyotrophic (sla)
  • Parkinson's disease
  • neurons
  • glia
  • inflammation
  • comorbidity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Actigraphy Analysis of Sleep Associates with Salivary IL-6 Concentration in Institutionalized Older Individuals
by Vanessa Ibáñez-del Valle, Mayra Alejandra Mafla-España, Josep Silva and Omar Cauli
Diseases 2023, 11(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11030093 - 04 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1519
Abstract
Sleep disorders are common in older individuals and are most prevalent in those who are institutionalized. Sleep complaints are often comorbid with medical and neuro-psychiatric illness and associated with polypharmacy. Various studies show an association between sleep disorders and altered levels of inflammatory [...] Read more.
Sleep disorders are common in older individuals and are most prevalent in those who are institutionalized. Sleep complaints are often comorbid with medical and neuro-psychiatric illness and associated with polypharmacy. Various studies show an association between sleep disorders and altered levels of inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. In this study, an objective sleep analysis was performed using actigraphy, and IL-6 measurements in saliva in 61 older people residing in long-term nursing homes (72.1% women). Almost half (49.2%) of the people had no or mild cognitive impairment, and the rest suffered from moderate to severe dementia, mainly due to Alzheimer’s disease (25 out of 31 individuals). A significant correlation was found between salivary IL6 and sleep parameters; e.g., less salivary IL-6 had significantly (p < 0.05) worse sleep efficiency and more night awakenings. In turn, actigraphy detected alterations in people with dementia in average sleep time, daily bedtime, and average daily time out of bed. There was no significant correlation between these sleep patterns and the total number of psychotropic drugs. No significant differences were found in salivary IL-6 between individuals with or without dementia. These results should be considered in future research with institutionalized people to detect sleep disturbances and to establish interventions aimed to improve sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0)
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17 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Body Image, Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Self-Esteem among Adults Participating in Physical Activity Programs
by Afroditi Zartaloudi, Dimitrios Christopoulos, Martha Kelesi, Ourania Govina, Marianna Mantzorou, Theodoula Adamakidou, Loukia Karvouni, Ioannis Koutelekos, Eleni Evangelou, Georgia Fasoi and Eugenia Vlachou
Diseases 2023, 11(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11020066 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5023
Abstract
(1) Background: individuals may benefit from being involved in physical and athletic activities in order to improve their body appearance and promote their physical and mental health. This study aimed to investigate body image, body mass index (BMI) characteristics, social physique anxiety, self-esteem [...] Read more.
(1) Background: individuals may benefit from being involved in physical and athletic activities in order to improve their body appearance and promote their physical and mental health. This study aimed to investigate body image, body mass index (BMI) characteristics, social physique anxiety, self-esteem and possible correlations between the above factors. (2) Methods: 245 adults engaged in training programs in gyms, as well as in track and field, football and basketball athletic activities completed (a) a sociodemographic questionnaire which recorded their BMI values and utilized the (b) Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults, (c) the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and (d) the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. (3) Results: Females and individuals with higher BMI reported statistically significant lower body-esteem and greater social physique anxiety levels compared to males and individuals with lower BMI, respectively (p < 0.05). A total of 25.3% of our participants were labeled as “overweight”, while 20.4% had been overweight in the past. Significant differences were reported between body-esteem and social physique anxiety levels (p < 0.001); age (p = 0.001); BMI value (p < 0.001) and never having a problem with body weight (p = 0.008). Additionally, individuals with lower body-esteem and greater social physique anxiety levels presented lower global self-esteem (p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: individuals’ engagement in physical activity promotes physical as well as mental well-being, contributing to an improved quality of life, which may be the most important issue for health care professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0)
11 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Work Conditions of Italian Nurses and Their Related Risk Factors: A Cohort Investigatory Study
by Elsa Vitale
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030050 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
(1) Background: Nursing is a satisfying employment pathway, as nurses preserve lives, but it is also considered one of the most stressful care professions. Nursing is a lifesaving and highly satisfying profession, yet it is considered one of the most stressful occupations. This [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Nursing is a satisfying employment pathway, as nurses preserve lives, but it is also considered one of the most stressful care professions. Nursing is a lifesaving and highly satisfying profession, yet it is considered one of the most stressful occupations. This study aimed to assess differences in anxiety, depression and stress states among nurses according to gender, work history, shift and body mass index (BMI) characteristics. (2) Methods: An online questionnaire was addressed to all Italian nurses during May 2022, investigating anxiety, depression and stress conditions according to the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21) and sampling characteristics, such as sex, work experience, shift and BMI values. (3) Results: A total of 408 Italian nurses answered the questionnaire. Significant differences between the following were reported: anxiety levels and work experience, since nurses employed over 6 years reported higher anxiety levels than their younger colleagues (p = 0.035); depression levels and sex (p = 0.017), as females reported higher depression levels than males; and also between depression levels and BMI levels (p = 0.003), as 5.90% of overweight and 2.50% of obese participants reported extremely severe depression. By considering stress levels according to sampling characteristics, significant differences were registered according to BMI levels (p < 0.001), as overweight subjects reported higher stress levels (7.40%) than the other subgroups. Finally, significant associations were recorded between anxiety, depression and stress conditions with sex, work experience, shift and BMI. (4) Conclusions: The data were in agreement with the current literature, indicating that nurses might take care not only of their patients but also of themselves, in both the physical and mental aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0)

Review

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21 pages, 374 KiB  
Review
Obesity and Its Multiple Clinical Implications between Inflammatory States and Gut Microbiotic Alterations
by Walter Milano, Francesca Carizzone, Mariagabriella Foia, Magda Marchese, Mariafrancesca Milano, Biancamaria Saetta and Anna Capasso
Diseases 2023, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11010007 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease that has become a serious health problem and is currently widespread over the world. It is, in fact, strongly associated with many other conditions, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, the onset of [...] Read more.
Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease that has become a serious health problem and is currently widespread over the world. It is, in fact, strongly associated with many other conditions, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, the onset of different types of malignant tumors and alterations in reproductive function. According to the literature, obesity is characterized by a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with a substantial increase in immune cells, specifically macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissue which, in turn, secrete a succession of pro-inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, recent studies on microbiota have postulated new possible mechanisms of interaction between obesity and unbalanced nutrition with inflammation. This intestinal “superorganism” complex seems to influence not only the metabolic balance of the host but also the immune response, favoring a state of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. This review summarizes the major evidence on the interactions between the gut microbiota, energetic metabolism and host immune system, all leading to a convergence of the fields of immunology, nutrients physiology and microbiota in the context of obesity and its possible clinical complications. Finally, possible therapeutic approaches aiming to rebalance the intestinal microbial ecosystem are evaluated to improve the alteration of inflammatory and metabolic states in obesity and related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0)
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14 pages, 1047 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of the Neurological Manifestations of Celiac Disease and Its Treatment
by Dhir Gala, Shelbie Scharf, Megan Kudlak, Christian Green, Faisal Khowaja, Mili Shah, Vikash Kumar and Gautam Ullal
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040111 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4539
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in genetically predisposed individuals secondary to gluten ingestion. CD usually presents with gastrointestinal symptoms such as pain, bloating, flatulence, and constipation or diarrhea. However, individuals can present in a nonclassical manner with only [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in genetically predisposed individuals secondary to gluten ingestion. CD usually presents with gastrointestinal symptoms such as pain, bloating, flatulence, and constipation or diarrhea. However, individuals can present in a nonclassical manner with only extraintestinal symptoms. The neurological manifestations of CD include ataxia, cognitive impairment, epilepsy, headache, and neuropathy. A lifelong gluten-free diet is the current recommended treatment for CD. This review discusses the relevant neurological manifestations associated with CD and the novel therapeutics. Further research is required to get a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the neurological manifestations associated with CD. Clinicians should keep CD in the differential diagnosis in individuals presenting with neurological dysfunction of unknown cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0)
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Other

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8 pages, 3053 KiB  
Case Report
Facial Hemiplegia Treated with Botulinum Toxin: A Case Report
by Demétrio Ajuz, Mauro D. Oliveira, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes and Gustavo Vicentis de Oliveira Fernandes
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040067 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2495
Abstract
Facial hemiplegia happens when the seventh cranial nerve is inflamed, causing a dysfunction of the facial nerve in specific regions. This case report brings a complex case of facial hemiplegia, a non-temporary lesion caused by a traumatic accident, which had a more conservative [...] Read more.
Facial hemiplegia happens when the seventh cranial nerve is inflamed, causing a dysfunction of the facial nerve in specific regions. This case report brings a complex case of facial hemiplegia, a non-temporary lesion caused by a traumatic accident, which had a more conservative approach, treating the patient with botulinum toxin. After explanation of treatment outcomes, the patient favored treatment on a unilateral side with botulinum toxin applied locally to the muscles. It was applied on her left side, in order to change the muscles tonus and improve the esthetic. The patient adhered to immediate and short-term instructions following the procedure, including movement limitation and skin exposure avoidance. At 2 weeks, the patient returned to follow-up, and the result was checked. After around 6-month follow-up, the patient was reassessed, and a new application was done. The patient tried to contract the procerus and corrugator muscles which were treated, and periorbicular region that was corrected. After contracting the frontal muscle, a satisfactory result was also seen in the frontal area. While limited to a single case presentation, botulinum toxin may be an effective short-term tool for treatment of facial hemiplegia to establish an effective esthetic result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders 2.0)
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