Molecular Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 19645

Special Issue Editor

Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: cognitive impairment; frailty syndrome; neurodevelopemntal disorders; depression; neuropathy; sleep; envirnomental factors; comorbidty; immune alterations; metabolic alterations; biomarkers
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleague,

Steroid hormones are a versatile and structurally diverse class of molecules. They exert their effects as hormones, as cellular building material, and as signaling molecules in multiple processes. Recent studies have shown that steroids have pleiotropic effects and previously unknown physiological functions. They are involved in disease pathophysiology and play a pivotal role in inflammatory processes. Steroid-based therapy is frequently used in the treatment of several disorders from endocrine disorders, auto-immune diseases, inflammatory disorders, and cancer, among others. Consolidated pharmacological approaches as well as new clinical indications are emerging for steroid-based therapy, and basic studies on their new mechanisms of action are warranted. This Special Issue is devoted to providing an update on research into steroid actions in the body and steroid-based therapy, from a molecular perspective to preclinical and clinical studies.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Oestrogen
  • androgens
  • thyroid
  • adrenal gland
  • menopause
  • cancer

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1363 KiB  
Article
Androstenedione and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Concentration Predict the Progression of Frailty Syndrome at One Year Follow-Up in Patients with Localized Breast Cancer Treated with Aromatase Inhibitors
by Javier García-Sánchez, Mayra Alejandra Mafla-España, María Dolores Torregrosa and Omar Cauli
Biomedicines 2022, 10(7), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10071634 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
Background: The standard treatment in postmenopausal women with estrogen- and progesterone-positive localized breast cancer consists of aromatase inhibitors (AROi). The ability of AROi to promote or worsen frailty syndrome over time and the relationship with changes in gonadal hormones concentration in blood have [...] Read more.
Background: The standard treatment in postmenopausal women with estrogen- and progesterone-positive localized breast cancer consists of aromatase inhibitors (AROi). The ability of AROi to promote or worsen frailty syndrome over time and the relationship with changes in gonadal hormones concentration in blood have not been investigated. Methods: A prospective study to evaluate the relationship between frailty syndrome and gonadal hormones concentrations in blood at baseline (prior to AROi treatment) and after 6 and 12 months under AROi treatment in post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Frailty syndrome was evaluated by the Fried’ criteria. We evaluated whether hormone concentration at baseline could predict frailty syndrome at follow-up. Results: Multinomial regression analysis showed that of the different hormones, those significantly (p < 0.05) associated to the worsening of frailty syndrome were high androstenedione levels and low follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in blood. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed both androstenedione and FSH significantly (p < 0.05) discriminate patients who developed or presented worsening of frailty syndrome over time, with acceptable sensitivity (approximately 80% in both cases) but low specificity (40%). Conclusion: Hormonal concentrations before AROi treatment constitute possible biomarkers to predict the progression of frailty syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action)
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11 pages, 1805 KiB  
Article
Intraamygdaloid Oxytocin Reduces Anxiety in the Valproate-Induced Autism Rat Model
by Kristóf László, Orsolya Kiss, Dávid Vörös, Kitti Mintál, Tamás Ollmann, László Péczely, Anita Kovács, Olga Zagoracz, Erika Kertes, Veronika Kállai, Bettina László, Edina Hormay, Beáta Berta, Attila Tóth, Zoltán Karádi and László Lénárd
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020405 - 8 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder affecting about 1.5% of children, and its prevalence is increasing. Anxiety is one of the most common comorbid signs of ASD. Despite the increasing prevalence, the pathophysiology of ASD is still poorly understood, [...] Read more.
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder affecting about 1.5% of children, and its prevalence is increasing. Anxiety is one of the most common comorbid signs of ASD. Despite the increasing prevalence, the pathophysiology of ASD is still poorly understood, and its proper treatment has not been defined yet. In order to develop new therapeutic approaches, the valproate- (VPA) induced rodent model of autism can be an appropriate tool. Oxytocin (OT), as a prosocial hormone, may ameliorate some symptoms of ASD. Methods: In the present study, we investigated the possible anxiolytic effect of intraamygdaloid OT on VPA-treated rats using the elevated plus maze test. Results: Our results show that male Wistar rats prenatally exposed to VPA spent significantly less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze apparatus and performed significantly less head dips from the open arms. Bilateral OT microinjection into the central nucleus of the amygdala increased the time spent in the open arms and the number of head dips and reduced the anxiety to the healthy control level. An OT receptor antagonist blocked the anxiolytic effects of OT. The antagonist by itself did not influence the time rats spent in the open arms. Conclusions: Our results show that intraamygdaloid OT has anxiolytic effects in autistic rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action)
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Review

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28 pages, 1241 KiB  
Review
Beyond Prostate Cancer: An Androgen Receptor Splice Variant Expression in Multiple Malignancies, Non-Cancer Pathologies, and Development
by Kimberley D. Katleba, Paramita M. Ghosh and Maria Mudryj
Biomedicines 2023, 11(8), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11082215 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (SVs) in the progression of prostate cancer to the castration-resistant phenotype and their utility as a diagnostic. However, studies on AR expression in non-prostatic malignancies uncovered that AR-SVs are expressed in [...] Read more.
Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (SVs) in the progression of prostate cancer to the castration-resistant phenotype and their utility as a diagnostic. However, studies on AR expression in non-prostatic malignancies uncovered that AR-SVs are expressed in glioblastoma, breast, salivary, bladder, kidney, and liver cancers, where they have diverse roles in tumorigenesis. AR-SVs also have roles in non-cancer pathologies. In granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, unique AR-SVs lead to an increase in androgen production. In patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, testicular Sertoli cells exhibit differential expression of AR-SVs, which is associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Moreover, AR-SVs have been identified in normal cells, including blood mononuclear cells, neuronal lipid rafts, and the placenta. The detection and characterization of AR-SVs in mammalian and non-mammalian species argue that AR-SV expression is evolutionarily conserved and that AR-SV-dependent signaling is a fundamental regulatory feature in multiple cellular contexts. These discoveries argue that alternative splicing of the AR transcript is a commonly used mechanism that leads to an expansion in the repertoire of signaling molecules needed in certain tissues. Various malignancies appropriate this mechanism of alternative AR splicing to acquire a proliferative and survival advantage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action)
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39 pages, 33296 KiB  
Review
Estradiol and Estrogen-like Alternative Therapies in Use: The Importance of the Selective and Non-Classical Actions
by Szidónia Farkas, Adrienn Szabó, Anita Emőke Hegyi, Bibiána Török, Csilla Lea Fazekas, Dávid Ernszt, Tamás Kovács and Dóra Zelena
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040861 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 11412
Abstract
Estrogen is one of the most important female sex hormones, and is indispensable for reproduction. However, its role is much wider. Among others, due to its neuroprotective effects, estrogen protects the brain against dementia and complications of traumatic injury. Previously, it was used [...] Read more.
Estrogen is one of the most important female sex hormones, and is indispensable for reproduction. However, its role is much wider. Among others, due to its neuroprotective effects, estrogen protects the brain against dementia and complications of traumatic injury. Previously, it was used mainly as a therapeutic option for influencing the menstrual cycle and treating menopausal symptoms. Unfortunately, hormone replacement therapy might be associated with detrimental side effects, such as increased risk of stroke and breast cancer, raising concerns about its safety. Thus, tissue-selective and non-classical estrogen analogues have become the focus of interest. Here, we review the current knowledge about estrogen effects in a broader sense, and the possibility of using selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), selective estrogen-receptor downregulators (SERDs), phytoestrogens, and activators of non-genomic estrogen-like signaling (ANGELS) molecules as treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action)
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