Special Issue "Salivary Biomarkers and Their Application to Diagnosis and Monitoring Human Diseases"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010, Spain
Interests: cogntive impairment; frailty syndrome; neurodevelopemntal disorders; depression; neuropathy; sleep; envirnomental factors; comorbidty; immune alterations; metabolic alterations; biomarkers
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Among biological fluids, saliva is achieving great improtance in diagnostic not only for oral diseases but also for systemic diseases. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, its use as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy is growing up. Published data on "Salivaomics" including various "omics" constituents of saliva such as the proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome has grown up during the lasta decade leading to the development of new technologies and the validation a wide range of salivary biomarkers that will soon make the use of saliva as a useful tool in clinical practice.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cytokines
  • energetic metabolism
  • enzymes
  • neurotrophins
  • hormones
  • proteomic
  • electrophoresis
  • biomarkers
  • pollutants

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Periodontopathic Bacterial Profiles of Different Periodontal Disease Severity Using Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110965 - 17 Nov 2020
Abstract
Periodontopathic bacteria are known to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare bacterial profile of patients with different severity of periodontal disease using samples from mouthwash and the subgingival area. Further analysis [...] Read more.
Periodontopathic bacteria are known to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare bacterial profile of patients with different severity of periodontal disease using samples from mouthwash and the subgingival area. Further analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between mouthwash and two subgingival sampling methods: paperpoint and gingival retraction cord; 114 subjects enrolled in the study, and were divided equally into three groups according to disease severity. Mouthwash and subgingival sampling were conducted, and the samples were quantitatively analyzed for 11 target periodontopathic bacteria using multiplex real-time PCR. There were statistically significant differences in bacterial counts and prevalence of several species between the study groups. Mouthwash sampling showed significant correlations with two different subgingival sampling methods in regard to the detection of several bacteria (e.g., ρ = 0.793 for Porphyromonas gingivalis in severe periodontitis), implying that mouthwash sampling can reflect subgingival microbiota. However, the correlation was more prominent as disease severity increased. Although bacteria in mouthwash have potential to become a biomarker, it may be more suitable for the diagnosis of severe periodontitis, rather than early diagnosis. Further research is required for the discovery of biomarkers for early diagnosis of periodontitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Salivary Alpha-Amylase in Experimentally-Induced Muscle Pain
Diagnostics 2020, 10(9), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10090722 - 20 Sep 2020
Abstract
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a marker of psychological stress and might also be a potential marker for pain-associated stress due its non-invasive, cost-effective, and stress-free collection. The current study aimed to investigate whether the levels of sAA are influenced by experimentally induced muscle [...] Read more.
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a marker of psychological stress and might also be a potential marker for pain-associated stress due its non-invasive, cost-effective, and stress-free collection. The current study aimed to investigate whether the levels of sAA are influenced by experimentally induced muscle pain. In this study, 26 healthy, pain-free and age-matched participants (23.8 ± 2.6 years) were included, 13 women and 13 men. Prior to the experiment, questionnaires assessing health and anxiety were completed. Muscle pain was then induced through intramuscular injection of 0.4 mL hypertonic saline (56.5 mg/mL) into the masseter muscle and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected at baseline before injection, 2 min, and 15 min after injection. A commercially available colorimetric assay was used to analyze the sAA. Perceived pain and stress were assessed using a 0–100 Numeric Rating Scale for each sample. There were no significant differences in sAA levels prior and after injection of hypertonic saline (p > 0.05) although sAA levels showed a slight decrease during experimentally-induced muscle pain. However, a strong correlation was observed between self-reported pain and perceived level of stress during experimentally-induced muscle pain (r2 = 0.744; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, there was a moderate correlation between the levels of sAA at baseline and during experimental pain (r2 = 0.687; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, this study could not show any association between the levels of sAA and perceived pain and or/stress. However, since a significant strong correlation could be observed between perceived stress and pain intensity, this study indicates that experimentally-induced muscle pain could be used as a stress model. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Application of Salivary Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010063 - 03 Jan 2021
Abstract
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a highly prevalent syndrome that impairs the quality of life of the patients; however, its diagnosis is complex and mainly centered on pain symptoms. The study of salivary biomarkers has proven highly useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of numerous [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a highly prevalent syndrome that impairs the quality of life of the patients; however, its diagnosis is complex and mainly centered on pain symptoms. The study of salivary biomarkers has proven highly useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of numerous diseases. The objective of this review was to gather published data on the utilization of salivary biomarkers to facilitate and complement the diagnosis of FM. Salivary biomarkers used in FM diagnosis include cortisol; calgranulin; and the enzymes α-amylase, transaldolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase. Increased serum levels of C-reactive protein, cytokines interleukin 1-β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 17, tumor necrosis factor α, and various chemokines may serve as salivary biomarkers, given observations of their increased serum levels in patients with FM. Further research is warranted to study in depth the role and performance of biomarkers currently used in FM diagnosis/prognosis and to identify novel salivary biomarkers for this disease. Full article
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