Salivary Biomarkers and Their Application to Diagnosis and Monitoring Human Diseases 2.0

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 7609

Special Issue Editors

Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: cognitive impairment; frailty syndrome; neurodevelopemntal disorders; depression; neuropathy; sleep; envirnomental factors; comorbidty; immune alterations; metabolic alterations; biomarkers
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Guest Editor
CREA Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Rome, Italy
Interests: inflammatory bowel disease; probiotcs; microbiota; immune system

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Guest Editor
CREA—Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Interests: molecular biology; bioactive compounds; molecular nutrition; hormone metabolism; cancer; hormone-related diseases; nutrigenomics; nutrigenetics; metabolic disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Among biological fluids, saliva is achieving great improtance in diagnostic not only for oral diseases but also for systemic diseases. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, its use as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy is growing up. Published data on "Salivaomics" including various "omics" constituents of saliva such as the proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome has grown up during the lasta decade leading to the development of new technologies and the validation a wide range of salivary biomarkers that will soon make the use of saliva as a useful tool in clinical practice.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Dr. Alberto Finamore
Dr. Raffaella Comitato
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cytokines
  • energetic metabolism
  • enzymes
  • neurotrophins
  • hormones
  • proteomic
  • electrophoresis
  • biomarkers
  • pollutants

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1311 KiB  
Article
Salivary IL-6 Concentration Is Associated with Frailty Syndrome in Older Individuals
by Pablo Gómez-Rubio, Isabel Trapero, Omar Cauli and Cristina Buigues
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010117 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Background: One of the physiological changes that is most closely associated with frailty is the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-6 in particular. Most studies have demonstrated this association using blood samples. We analyzed the relationship between frailty syndrome, individual frailty criteria, and [...] Read more.
Background: One of the physiological changes that is most closely associated with frailty is the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-6 in particular. Most studies have demonstrated this association using blood samples. We analyzed the relationship between frailty syndrome, individual frailty criteria, and IL-6 levels obtained by saliva tests. Methods: A cross-sectional pilot study was performed among women institutionalized in nursing homes. Frailty was defined as having three or more of the following components: low lean mass, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, low activity level, and slow walking speed; prefrailty was defined as having one or two of those components. Results: There was a significant and positive correlation between the frailty score and salivary IL-6 concentration. Regarding the associations between IL-6 and individual dichotomized frailty criteria, there were significant differences in salivary IL-6 concentration in two frailty criteria: weight loss (p = 0.002) and low physical activity (p = 0.007). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that IL-6 concentration significantly (p < 0.05) (although moderately) discriminated patients that progressed in the frailty syndrome (the area under the curve value was 0.697 with 95% CI 0.566–0.827). Conclusions: Salivary IL-6 concentration can be used as potential biomarker of frailty syndrome and as a tool to monitor the effects of interventions in frail individuals. Full article
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14 pages, 1670 KiB  
Article
Salivary Exosome Proteomics and Bioinformatics Analysis in 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Oral Cancer with Radiation Therapy—A Syrian Golden Hamster Model
by Wen-Chen Wang, Ming-Yii Huang, Yuk-Kwan Chen, Wan-Chen Lan, Tzong-Ming Shieh and Yin-Hwa Shih
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010065 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
Exosomes carry cellular proteins and contain molecules that can be potential biomarkers of diseases. This study used a Syrian golden hamster model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma with radiation therapy to exclude the confounding factors that may affect outcomes in clinical [...] Read more.
Exosomes carry cellular proteins and contain molecules that can be potential biomarkers of diseases. This study used a Syrian golden hamster model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma with radiation therapy to exclude the confounding factors that may affect outcomes in clinical studies, and re-examine the role of exosomes during tumorigenesis. We used data-dependent acquisition-based quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analyses and found unique proteins present (desmocollin-2) or absent (Glucagon-cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway-related proteins) in the salivary exosomes of the pre-radiation DMBA-treated group (PreD). Comparing our data to other studies, salivary exosomes in the PreD group were found carrying proteins that the tumor mass does not express and lacking the proteins needed during tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemistry staining showed p53 expression but a negative apoptotic signal in the PreD tumor tissue. We thus suggest that inhibition of desmocollin-2 expression in tumor tissue may impede the activation of cell apoptosis. However, both the origin of the salivary exosomes and main role of the salivary exosome proteins should be clarified in future studies. Full article
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17 pages, 2577 KiB  
Article
The Translational Role of MUC8 in Salivary Glands: A Potential Biomarker for Salivary Stone Disease?
by Martin Schicht, Adrian Reichle, Mirco Schapher, Fabian Garreis, Benedikt Kleinsasser, Malik Aydin, Afsun Sahin, Heinrich Iro and Friedrich Paulsen
Diagnostics 2021, 11(12), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122330 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2379
Abstract
Mucin (MUC) 8 has been shown to play an important role in respiratory disease and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the question of whether MUC8 is also produced and secreted by salivary glands and whether it may also play a [...] Read more.
Mucin (MUC) 8 has been shown to play an important role in respiratory disease and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the question of whether MUC8 is also produced and secreted by salivary glands and whether it may also play a role in the oral cavity in the context of inflammatory processes or in the context of salivary stone formation. Tissue samples from parotid and submandibular glands of body donors (n = 6, age range 63–88 years), as well as surgically removed salivary stones from patients (n = 38, age range 48–72 years) with parotid and submandibular stone disease were immunohistochemically analyzed targeting MUC8 and TNFα. The presence of MUC8 in salivary stones was additionally analyzed by dot blot analyses. Moreover, saliva samples from patients (n = 10, age range 51–72 years), who had a salivary stone of the submandibular gland on one side were compared with saliva samples from the other “healthy” side, which did not have a salivary stone, by ELISA. Positive MUC8 was detectable in the inter- and intralobular excretory ducts of both glands (parotid and submandibular). The glandular acini showed no reactivity. TNFα revealed comparable reactivity to MUC8 in the glandular excretory ducts and also did not react in glandular acini. Salivary stones demonstrated a characteristic distribution pattern of MUC8 that differed between parotid and submandibular salivary stones. The mean MUC8 concentration was 71.06 ng/mL in female and 33.21 ng/mL in male subjects (p = 0.156). Saliva from the side with salivary calculi contained significantly (15-fold) higher MUC8 concentration levels than saliva from the healthy side (p = 0.0005). MUC8 concentration in salivary stones varied from 4.59 ng/mL to 202.83 ng/mL. In females, the MUC8 concentration in salivary stones was significantly (2.3-fold) higher, with an average of 82.84 ng/mL compared to 25.27 ng/mL in male patients (p = 0.034). MUC8 is secreted in the excretory duct system of salivary glands and released into saliva. Importantly, MUC8 salivary concentrations vary greatly between individuals. In addition, the MUC8 concentration is gender-dependent (♀ > ♂). In the context of salivary stone diseases, MUC8 is highly secreted in saliva. The findings support a role for MUC8 in the context of inflammatory events and salivary stone formation. The findings allow conclusions on a gender-dependent component of MUC8. Full article
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