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Special Issue "Salivary Biomarkers and Their Application to Diagnosis and Monitoring Human Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010, Spain
Interests: cogntive impairment; frailty syndrome; neurodevelopemntal disorders; depression; neuropathy; sleep; envirnomental factors; comorbidty; immune alterations; metabolic alterations; biomarkers
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, increasing importance has been given to the study of molecules present in saliva as a tool for the study of several diseases. This is due, first, to the fact that saliva is a fluid that, in addition to having constituents produced by the different salivary glands, contains several molecules transported by the plasma, some of which are present in quantities proportional to their levels in the blood; secondly, saliva sampling has the advantage of being non-invasive, with its collection easily accepted by most individuals. This aspect is particularly advantageous for children, the elderly, and people in whom blood collection is difficult, because it can involve fear and pain. These two points, together with technological and analytical advances, have led to a large amount of research interest in working with this fluid from different perspectives and using molecular biomarkers present in saliva as interesting tools to diagnosis and monitoring human diseases.

Dr. Omar Cauli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cytokines
  • energetic metabolism
  • enzymes
  • neurotrophins
  • hormones
  • proteomic
  • electrophoresis
  • biomarkers
  • pollutants

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Based Approach for the Determination of Methionine-Related Sulfur-Containing Compounds in Human Saliva
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239252 - 04 Dec 2020
Abstract
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technique (GC-MS) is mainly recognized as a tool of first choice when volatile compounds are determined. Here, we provide the credible evidence that its application in analysis can be extended to non-volatile sulfur-containing compounds, to which methionine (Met), homocysteine (Hcy), [...] Read more.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technique (GC-MS) is mainly recognized as a tool of first choice when volatile compounds are determined. Here, we provide the credible evidence that its application in analysis can be extended to non-volatile sulfur-containing compounds, to which methionine (Met), homocysteine (Hcy), homocysteine thiolactone (HTL), and cysteine (Cys) belong. To prove this point, the first method, based on GC-MS, for the identification and quantification of Met-related compounds in human saliva, has been elaborated. The assay involves simultaneous disulfides reduction with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and acetonitrile (MeCN) deproteinization, followed by preconcentration by drying under vacuum and treatment of the residue with a derivatizing mixture containing anhydrous pyridine, N-trimethylsilyl-N-methyl trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The validity of the method was demonstrated based upon US FDA recommendations. The assay linearity was observed over the range of 0.5–20 µmol L−1 for Met, Hcy, Cys, and 1–20 µmol L−1 for HTL in saliva. The limit of quantification (LOQ) equals 0.1 µmol L−1 for Met, Hcy, Cys, while its value for HTL was 0.05 µmol L−1. The method was successfully applied to saliva samples donated by apparently healthy volunteers (n = 10). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin and Sirtuins in Buccal Epithelium: Potential Biomarkers of Aging and Age-Related Pathologies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218134 - 30 Oct 2020
Abstract
Melatonin (MT) and sirtuins (SIRT) are geroprotective molecules that hold back the aging process and the development of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular pathologies. Buccal epithelium (BE) sampling is a non-invasive procedure, yielding highly informative material for evaluating the expression of genes and proteins [...] Read more.
Melatonin (MT) and sirtuins (SIRT) are geroprotective molecules that hold back the aging process and the development of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular pathologies. Buccal epithelium (BE) sampling is a non-invasive procedure, yielding highly informative material for evaluating the expression of genes and proteins as well as the synthesis of molecules. Among these, MT and SIRTs are valuable markers of the aging process and age-related pathologies. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related expression patterns of these signaling molecules, in particular MT, SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 in BE of subjects of different ages with and without arterial hypertension (AH). We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence analysis by confocal microscopy. We found that MT immunofluorescence intensity in BE decreases with aging, more evidently in AH patients. SIRT3 and SIRT6 genes expression and immunofluorescence intensity in BE was decreased in aging controls. In AH patients, SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 gene expression and immunofluorescence intensity in BE was decreased in relation to age and in comparison with age-matched controls. In conclusion, the evaluation of MT and sirtuins in BE could provide a non-invasive method for appraising the aging process, also when accompanied by AH. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Age-Associated Salivary MicroRNA Biomarkers for Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176059 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of mRNA stability. Their features, including high stability and secretion to biofluids, make them attractive as potential biomarkers for diverse pathologies. This is the first study reporting miRNA as potential biomarkers for oculopharyngeal muscular [...] Read more.
Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of mRNA stability. Their features, including high stability and secretion to biofluids, make them attractive as potential biomarkers for diverse pathologies. This is the first study reporting miRNA as potential biomarkers for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), an adult-onset myopathy. We hypothesized that miRNA that is differentially expressed in affected muscles from OPMD patients is secreted to biofluids and those miRNAs could be used as biomarkers for OPMD. We first identified candidate miRNAs from OPMD-affected muscles and from muscles from an OPMD mouse model using RNA sequencing. We then compared the OPMD-deregulated miRNAs to the literature and, subsequently, we selected a few candidates for expression studies in serum and saliva biofluids using qRT-PCR. We identified 126 miRNAs OPMD-deregulated in human muscles, but 36 deregulated miRNAs in mice only (pFDR < 0.05). Only 15 OPMD-deregulated miRNAs overlapped between the in humans and mouse studies. The majority of the OPMD-deregulated miRNAs showed opposite deregulation direction compared with known muscular dystrophies miRNAs (myoMirs), which are associated. In contrast, similar dysregulation direction was found for 13 miRNAs that are common between OPMD and aging muscles. A significant age-association (p < 0.05) was found for 17 OPMD-deregulated miRNAs (13.4%), whereas in controls, only six miRNAs (1.4%) showed a significant age-association, suggesting that miRNA expression in OPMD is highly age-associated. miRNA expression in biofluids revealed that OPMD-associated deregulation in saliva was similar to that in muscles, but not in serum. The same as in muscle, miRNA expression levels in saliva were also found to be associated with age (p < 0.05). Moreover, the majority of OPMD-miRNAs were found to be associated with dysphagia as an initial symptom. We suggest that levels of specific miRNAs in saliva can mark muscle degeneration in general and dysphagia in OPMD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Salivary Cytokines and Vitamin D Levels in Periodontopathic Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082669 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Periodontal disease (PD) is an inflammatory condition of the tissues supporting the teeth, which is widespread among the adult population. Evidence shows a relationship between PD and vitamin D levels, which is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism, mineral homeostasis, and inflammatory [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease (PD) is an inflammatory condition of the tissues supporting the teeth, which is widespread among the adult population. Evidence shows a relationship between PD and vitamin D levels, which is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism, mineral homeostasis, and inflammatory response. This study aimed to perform a simultaneous evaluation of inflammatory mediators and vitamin D levels in saliva in periodontopathic patients to better understand their role in periodontal disease. In this observational study, clinical periodontal parameter examination was performed for each patient. Moreover, the saliva levels of 25(OH)D3, TGFβ, IL-35, IL-17A, and MMP9 were evaluated using an ELISA assay. An increase in TGFβ, IL-35, MMP9, and IL-17A salivary levels and a reduction in 25(OH)D3 levels were observed in periodontopathic patients with respect to the healthy controls. The present study revealed significant positive correlation between cytokines and highly negative correlation between 25(OH)D3 and salivary cytokine levels. Further studies are needed to better understand if salivary cytokines and vitamin D evaluation may represent a new approach for detection and prevention of progressive diseases, such as PD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Signature in Saliva of Temporomandibular Disorders Myalgia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072569 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the last years, several attempts have been made to study specific biological markers of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). So far, no laboratory tests have been appropriately validated for the diagnosis and prognosis of these disorders. This study aimed to investigate the proteomic profile [...] Read more.
In the last years, several attempts have been made to study specific biological markers of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). So far, no laboratory tests have been appropriately validated for the diagnosis and prognosis of these disorders. This study aimed to investigate the proteomic profile of the whole stimulated saliva of TMD myalgia patients in order to evaluate potential diagnostic and/or prognostic salivary candidate proteins which could be useful for the management of TMD. Twenty patients diagnosed with TMD myalgia according to the validated Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and 20 matched healthy pain-free controls were enrolled. Saliva samples were collected in the morning. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis of the quantitative proteomics data revealed that 20 proteins were significantly altered in patients compared to controls. Among these proteins, 12 showed significantly increased levels, and 8 showed significantly decreased levels in patients with TMD myalgia compared to controls. The identified proteins are involved in metabolic processes, immune response, and stress response. This proteomic study shows that the salivary protein profile can discriminate patients with TMD myalgia from healthy subjects, but the protein signature has no correlation with the clinical features of TMD myalgia. Additional studies are needed to validate our observations in additional sample sets and to continue assessing the utility of saliva as a suitable sample for studying processes related to TMD myalgia. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Evolving Landscape of Exosomes in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Exosomes Characteristics and a Promising Role in Early Diagnosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010440 - 04 Jan 2021
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) remains to be one of the biggest burdens on healthcare systems and serves as a leading cause of disability and death. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is among the most common of such disorders, followed by Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basic molecular [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) remains to be one of the biggest burdens on healthcare systems and serves as a leading cause of disability and death. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is among the most common of such disorders, followed by Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basic molecular details of disease initiation and pathology are still under research. Only recently, the role of exosomes has been linked to the initiation and progression of these neurodegenerative diseases. Exosomes are small bilipid layer enclosed extracellular vesicles, which were once considered as a cellular waste and functionless. These nano-vesicles of 30–150 nm in diameter carry specific proteins, lipids, functional mRNAs, and high amounts of non-coding RNAs (miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs). As the exosomes content is known to vary as per their originating and recipient cells, these vesicles can be utilized as a diagnostic biomarker for early disease detection. Here we review exosomes, their biogenesis, composition, and role in neurodegenerative diseases. We have also provided details for their characterization through an array of available techniques. Their updated role in neurodegenerative disease pathology is also discussed. Finally, we have shed light on a novel field of salivary exosomes as a potential candidate for early diagnosis in neurodegenerative diseases and compared the biomarkers of salivary exosomes with other blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) based exosomes within these neurological ailments. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Salivary Stress/Immunological Markers in Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228562 - 13 Nov 2020
Abstract
There is continuous and growing interest in research into new alternatives to standard biomarkers to detect and follow-up disease, reducing physical and psychological stress in patients needing regular and invasive medical examinations for the evaluation of pathologies, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Saliva [...] Read more.
There is continuous and growing interest in research into new alternatives to standard biomarkers to detect and follow-up disease, reducing physical and psychological stress in patients needing regular and invasive medical examinations for the evaluation of pathologies, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Saliva is one of the most promising body fluids in the research of new biomarkers, thanks to the large number of molecules it contains. Many molecules present in saliva are often directly correlated to their concentration in the blood but may be affected by the condition of the oral cavity. This means that a careful selection of a specific biomarker is required for each pathology, especially pathologies such as IBD, which may induce inflammation in the oral cavity. Here, we analyze the currently used and the proposed new salivary biomarkers (i.e., calprotectin, cytokines, IgA, cortisol, and oxidative stress markers) for the detection and follow-up of the main subtypes of IBD, known as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Full article
Open AccessReview
Salivary Biomarkers and Their Application in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of the Most Common Oral Pathologies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145173 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Saliva is a highly versatile biological fluid that is easy to gather in a non-invasive manner—and the results of its analysis complement clinical and histopathological findings in the diagnosis of multiple diseases. The objective of this review was to offer an update on [...] Read more.
Saliva is a highly versatile biological fluid that is easy to gather in a non-invasive manner—and the results of its analysis complement clinical and histopathological findings in the diagnosis of multiple diseases. The objective of this review was to offer an update on the contribution of salivary biomarkers to the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases of the oral cavity, including oral lichen planus, periodontitis, Sjögren’s syndrome, oral leukoplakia, peri-implantitis, and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Salivary biomarkers such as interleukins, growth factors, enzymes, and other biomolecules have proven useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of these diseases, facilitating the early evaluation of malignization risk and the monitoring of disease progression and response to treatment. However, further studies are required to identify new biomarkers and verify their reported role in the diagnosis and/or prognosis of oral diseases. Full article
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