Inflammation in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders: A Themed Issue to Celebrate MDPI's 25th Anniversary

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Neuro-psychiatric Disorders".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 16531

Special Issue Editors

Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: cognitive impairment; frailty syndrome; neurodevelopemntal disorders; depression; neuropathy; sleep; envirnomental factors; comorbidty; immune alterations; metabolic alterations; biomarkers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Neurons are excitatory cells permitting communication between all parts of our body. On the contrary, glial cells have an important role in different mechanisms, such as inflammation or oxidative stress, protecting the nervous system with the production of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins and helping neurons to communicate with each other. Inflammatory mediators produced in inflammation are important to prevent changes in normal physiology after viral, bacterial, or other attack. In addition, both the pathophysiology and the symptomatology of many neurodegenerative and neurosychiatric disorders is influenced by the inflammation taking place from its own or from other comorbidities, both at central and peripheral levels. The excessive or continuous production of these mediators interferes with several pathways in many neurodegenerative and neurosychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, neurodevelopment disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, among many others. This Special Issue is intended to serve as an approximation to the subject.

Prof. Dr. Omar Cauli
Guest Editor

Prof. Dr. Soraya L. Valles
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bipolar disorder
  • schizophrenia
  • attention deficit
  • neurodevelopment
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • alzheimer’s disease
  • sclerosis lateral amyotrophic (SLA)
  • parkinson’s disease
  • neurons
  • glia
  • inflammation
  • comorbidity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1258 KiB  
Article
Plasma Nickel Levels Correlate with Low Muscular Strength and Renal Function Parameters in Patients with Prostate Cancer
by Antoni Alegre-Martínez, María Isabel Martínez-Martínez, José Rubio-Briones and Omar Cauli
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030039 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
Nickel is associated with cancer in occupational exposure. However, few studies have been devoted to analyzing the effects of nickel at environmental concentrations in cancer patients. In this work, the concentration of nickel in blood samples from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) was [...] Read more.
Nickel is associated with cancer in occupational exposure. However, few studies have been devoted to analyzing the effects of nickel at environmental concentrations in cancer patients. In this work, the concentration of nickel in blood samples from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) was evaluated because this metal displays androgenic and estrogenic effects that play a crucial role in prostate carcinogenesis and treatment. We, therefore, compared blood nickel concentration in patients with PCa (non-occupationally exposed) (n = 46) with those in control age-matched individuals (n = 46). We also analyzed if there was any association between sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, geriatric evaluation assessment results, blood cell counts, or biochemical, androgen and estrogen concentrations. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy on the plasma samples, we observed a mean nickel level of 4.97 ± 1.20 µg/L in the PCa group and 3.59 ± 0.49 µg/L in the control group, with a non-significant effect (p = 0.293) between the two groups. The nickel concentration was significantly correlated with patient age (p = 0.005) and reduced handgrip strength (p = 0.003). Regarding biochemical parameters, significant associations were found with the renal glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.024) and blood urea levels (p = 0.016). No significant correlations were observed with other blood analytical parameters or testosterone or estradiol levels. These specific renal function and muscle strength effects were observed at environmental nickel exposure levels believed to be safe or at least far from the high concentrations observed after occupational exposure. Therefore, these parameters deserve further study, given that they could help pinpoint further public health concerns regarding nickel exposure in the general population. Full article
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Review

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10 pages, 276 KiB  
Review
Measles Induced Encephalitis: Recent Interventions to Overcome the Obstacles Encountered in the Management Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Mufaddal Najmuddin Diwan, Saba Samad, Rabeea Mushtaq, Alifiya Aamir, Zoha Allahuddin, Irfan Ullah, Rifayat Ullah Afridi, Aneela Ambreen, Adel Khan, Nimra Ehsan, Zoia Ehsan Khattak, Antonio Ventriglio and Domenico De Berardis
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040104 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
Encephalitis, a well-known complication of measles, is inflammation of the brain parenchyma which is mostly due to the viral invasion of neurons. It presents with a variety of symptoms ranging from mild to severe depending on the extent of the damaged neurons. The [...] Read more.
Encephalitis, a well-known complication of measles, is inflammation of the brain parenchyma which is mostly due to the viral invasion of neurons. It presents with a variety of symptoms ranging from mild to severe depending on the extent of the damaged neurons. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms such as fever, headache, altered level of consciousness, focal neurological deficits, etc. A detailed history and physical examination facilitate the diagnosis. Investigations include blood tests for measles-specific antibodies, CT, MRI, and analysis of the CSF. The management of measles-induced encephalitis mainly revolves around prevention against contracting the disease and providing supportive care if acquired. The administration of the measles vaccine is the major means of preventing this disease in childhood. Two doses are required to achieve sufficient immunity against measles, the first at the age of 12–15 months and the second at 4–6 years of age. Supportive care includes administering acetaminophen for fever, oral rehydrating salt (ORS) for diarrhea and vomiting, antibiotics for otitis media and pneumonia, and using anti-epileptics such as sodium valproate for seizures. Vitamin A can be given to prevent severe effects in children. The specific treatment would depend on the type of encephalitis the patient has developed. Full article
15 pages, 855 KiB  
Review
Interleukin Inhibitors in Cytokine Release Syndrome and Neurotoxicity Secondary to CAR-T Therapy
by Puri Ferreros and Isabel Trapero
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030041 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3058
Abstract
Introduction: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is an innovative therapeutic option for addressing certain recurrent or refractory hematological malignancies. However, CAR-T cells also cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that lead to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Objective: To study the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is an innovative therapeutic option for addressing certain recurrent or refractory hematological malignancies. However, CAR-T cells also cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that lead to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Objective: To study the efficacy of interleukin inhibitors in addressing cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity secondary to CAR-T therapy. Methodology: The authors conducted a bibliographic review in which 10 articles were analyzed. These included cut-off studies, case reports, and clinical trials involving 11 cancer centers and up to 475 patients over 18 years of age. Results: Tocilizumab is the only interleukin inhibitor approved to address CRS secondary to CAR-T therapy due to its efficacy and safety. Other inhibitors, such as siltuximab and anakinra, could be useful in combination with tocilizumab for preventing severe cytokine release and neurotoxicity. In addition, the new specific inhibitors could be effective in mitigating CRS without affecting the cytotoxic efficacy of CAR-T therapy. Conclusion: More lines of research should be opened to elucidate the true implications of these drugs in treating the side effects of CAR-T therapy. Full article
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11 pages, 745 KiB  
Review
D-Amino Acids as a Biomarker in Schizophrenia
by Kurumi Taniguchi, Haruka Sawamura, Yuka Ikeda, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi and Satoru Matsuda
Diseases 2022, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10010009 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7258
Abstract
D-amino acids may play key roles for specific physiological functions in different organs including the brain. Importantly, D-amino acids have been detected in several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related disorders, reflecting the disease conditions. Relationships between D-amino acids [...] Read more.
D-amino acids may play key roles for specific physiological functions in different organs including the brain. Importantly, D-amino acids have been detected in several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related disorders, reflecting the disease conditions. Relationships between D-amino acids and neurophysiology may involve the significant contribution of D-Serine or D-Aspartate to the synaptic function, including neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Gut-microbiota could play important roles in the brain-function, since bacteria in the gut provide a significant contribution to the host pool of D-amino acids. In addition, the alteration of the composition of the gut microbiota might lead to schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are known as a physiologically active substance, constituting useful biomarkers of several brain disorders including schizophrenia. In this review, we wish to provide an outline of the roles of D-amino acids in brain health and neuropsychiatric disorders with a focus on schizophrenia, which may shed light on some of the superior diagnoses and/or treatments of schizophrenia. Full article
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