Topical Collection "Contemporary and Emerging Issues of Occupational Safety and Health"

Editor

Dr. Alan H. S. Chan
Website
Collection Editor
Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: occupational safety and health; human factors and ergonomics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Topical Collection on “Contemporary and Emerging Issues of Occupational Safety and Health” in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary areas of occupational health, safety and human factors. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.
Nowadays, the concern with occupational safety and health no longer emphasizes physical health problems, and mental health has gradually become a prevailing issue. Mental health problems are usually intangible and workers struggle to exactly recognize the symptoms. Meanwhile, the repercussions of mental health problems can be unpredictably severe. Physical health and mental health interact with each other. Therefore, it is vital to acknowledge the methods to prevent and minimize the occurrence of both physical and mental health problems.
To exchange information and ideas about occupational safety and health, articles may deal with a variety of research areas, such as risk perception, workplace safety and health, risk-taking behaviour, safety culture, work performance, aging workforce, work capability, and ethical considerations and policy enforcement. In particular, submissions on newly emerging and contemporary research areas, like measurements for physical health and mental health, ergonomic factors and the consequences of occupational burnout and job stress, and work–life balance, etc., are welcome.

This Topical Collection is open to any subject area related to occupational safety and health. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities. Please consult the editor for further information.

Dr. Alan H. S. Chan
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aging workforce
  • Burnout
  • Exhaustion
  • Healthcare
  • Job stress
  • Mental fatigue
  • Mental health
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Non work factors
  • Occupational safety and health
  • Physical health
  • Prevention and protection
  • Psychological well-being
  • Risk-taking behaviour
  • Risk perception and management
  • Safety citizen behaviour
  • Safety culture
  • Safety supervision
  • Safety working environment
  • Work–life balance
  • Work–life conflict

Published Papers (57 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019

Open AccessBrief Report
Mesothelioma in Agriculture in Lombardy, Italy: An Unrecognized Risk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010358 - 05 Jan 2021
Abstract
Cohort studies showed consistently low risks for malignant mesothelioma (MM) among agricultural workers, however the investigated exposures did not include asbestos. Our aim is to describe sources of asbestos exposure of MM in agriculture. Twenty-six MM cases in agricultural or seed trades workers [...] Read more.
Cohort studies showed consistently low risks for malignant mesothelioma (MM) among agricultural workers, however the investigated exposures did not include asbestos. Our aim is to describe sources of asbestos exposure of MM in agriculture. Twenty-six MM cases in agricultural or seed trades workers were identified through the MM registry of the Lombardy region, Italy in 2000–2016. Asbestos exposures were investigated through a standardized questionnaire. The most frequent exposure circumstances were recycled jute bags previously containing asbestos (11 cases) and maintenance and repair of asbestos roofs (12 subjects). Three subjects performed maintenance and repair of tractor asbestos brakes and two used asbestos filters for wine production. Our data suggest asbestos exposure opportunities in the agricultural setting, underlining the need to look for this exposure in subjects affected with mesothelioma. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Scientometric Analysis of Safety Sign Research: 1990–2019
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010273 - 01 Jan 2021
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the research themes and hotspots of safety signs research between 1990 and 2019 through the scientometric analysis method. In total, 3102 articles of literature from the Web of Science core database were analyzed by the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the research themes and hotspots of safety signs research between 1990 and 2019 through the scientometric analysis method. In total, 3102 articles of literature from the Web of Science core database were analyzed by the CiteSpace visualization tool and the results were displayed in mapping knowledge domains. The overall characteristics analysis showed that safety sign is an emerging research field in a rapid development stage—81.4% of the literature works were published in the past ten years, and the United States was in the leading position, followed by China and Canada. The keyword co-occurrence analysis indicated that traffic signs and driving safety were the most popular research topics and have been combined with simulation technology in recent years, whereby individual mental health has been added as an influential factor. The journals and category co-citation analysis showed that the safety signs research involved many subjects, mainly engineering, transportation and public safety. The results indicated that the safety signs research is multi-disciplinary, and it will continue to develop in various scientific domains in the future. The conclusions can provide help and reference for potential readers, as well as help with the sustainable development of safety signs research. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019

Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of the Validation Method in Work Satisfaction and Motivation of Nursing Home Care Professionals: A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010201 - 29 Dec 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to carry out a literature review on the effectiveness of the validation method (VM) in job satisfaction and motivation of care professionals working with older people in nursing homes. The review was carried out in specialised databases: [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to carry out a literature review on the effectiveness of the validation method (VM) in job satisfaction and motivation of care professionals working with older people in nursing homes. The review was carried out in specialised databases: Scopus, PsychINFO, PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Google Scholar, Scielo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9046 results were obtained, out of which a total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria: five quantitative, four qualitative, one single case series, two quasi-experimental and two mixed methods studies. The results of the analysed studies report that the VM can be an effective tool that facilitates communication and interaction in care, reducing levels of stress and job dissatisfaction among care professionals. The VM facilitates communication between professionals and older people with dementia, and improves the management of complex situations that may arise in care, directly influencing a reduction in work stress and increasing job satisfaction. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Impact of Social Factors on Job Crafting: A Meta-Analysis and Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218016 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Despite the considerable focus on job characteristics and individual differences in job crafting research, the influence of social factors on job crafting has not been well-acknowledged. Based on social interaction and job crafting literature, this meta-analysis estimates the associations between social factors (i.e., [...] Read more.
Despite the considerable focus on job characteristics and individual differences in job crafting research, the influence of social factors on job crafting has not been well-acknowledged. Based on social interaction and job crafting literature, this meta-analysis estimates the associations between social factors (i.e., organizational insiders and outsiders) and job crafting, and how these social factors contribute to employee outcomes through their job crafting. Based on a sample of 51 empirical studies that included 54 independent samples (N = 17,863), we found that social factors of positive leadership styles (e.g., empowering and transformational) and coworker support were positively related to employee job crafting. Moreover, leadership showed a stronger correlation with employee job crafting than coworker support and Leader-Member-Exchange (LMX). Further, our study showed that employee job crafting positively mediates the relationships between social factors and work outcomes (e.g., job performance and well-being). Our study contributes to job crafting literature by integrating social factors into the job crafting model and demonstrating that the social context of work (in particular organizational insiders) plays a crucial role in shaping employees’ job crafting behavior. We also emphasize the critical role that job crafting plays in transmitting valuable social resources into improved work outcomes. Building on our results, we provide future direction for job crafting research and discuss how our results can imply practice in terms of job crafting training. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Performance Implications of Job Insecurity: The Sequential Mediating Effect of Job Stress and Organizational Commitment, and the Buffering Role of Ethical Leadership
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217837 - 26 Oct 2020
Abstract
Although previous works have examined how job insecurity affects the perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of members in an organization, those studies have not paid enough attention to the relationship between job insecurity and performance or the mediating processes in that relationship. Considering that [...] Read more.
Although previous works have examined how job insecurity affects the perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of members in an organization, those studies have not paid enough attention to the relationship between job insecurity and performance or the mediating processes in that relationship. Considering that organizational performance is a fundamental target or purpose, investigating it is greatly needed. This research examines both mediating factors and a moderator in the link between job insecurity and organizational performance by building a moderated sequential mediation model. To be specific, we hypothesize that the degree of an employee’s job stress and organizational commitment sequentially mediate the relationship between job insecurity and performance. Furthermore, ethical leadership could moderate the association between job insecurity and job stress. Using a three-wave data set gathered from 301 currently working employees in South Korea, we reveal that not only do job stress and organizational commitment sequentially mediate the job insecurity–performance link, but also that ethical leadership plays a buffering role of in the job insecurity–job stress link. Our findings suggest that the degree of job stress and organizational commitment (as mediators), as well as ethical leadership (as a moderator), function as intermediating mechanisms in the job insecurity–performance link. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Change in Oxidative Stress Biomarkers During 30 Days in Saturation Dive: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197118 - 28 Sep 2020
Abstract
Saturation diving allows divers to reduce the risk of decompression sickness while working at depth for prolonged periods but may increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Such modifications can affect endothelial function by exacerbating oxidative stress. This study investigated the effects of saturation [...] Read more.
Saturation diving allows divers to reduce the risk of decompression sickness while working at depth for prolonged periods but may increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Such modifications can affect endothelial function by exacerbating oxidative stress. This study investigated the effects of saturation diving on oxidative stress damage. Redox status was evaluated through: ROS production; total antioxidant capacity (TAC); nitric oxide metabolites (NOx); nitrotyrosine (3-NT); and lipid peroxidation (8-iso-PGF2α) assessment. Creatinine and neopterin were analyzed as markers of renal function and damage. Measurements were performed on saliva and urine samples obtained at four time points: pre; deep; post; and 24 h post. Four divers were included in the study. After the saturation dive (post), significant (p < 0.05) increases in ROS (0.12 ± 0.03 vs. 0.36 ± 0.06 µmol.min−1), TAC (1.88 ± 0.03 vs. 2.01 ± 0.08 mM), NOx (207.0 ± 103.3 vs. 441.8 ± 97.3 µM), 3-NT (43.32 ± 18.03 vs. 18.64 ± 7.45 nM·L−1), and 8-iso-PGF2α (249.7 ± 45.1 vs. 371.9 ± 54.9 pg·mg−1 creatinine) were detected. Markers of renal damage were increased as well after the end of the saturation dive (creatinine 0.54 ± 0.22 vs. 2.72 ± 1.12 g-L−1; neopterin 73.3 ± 27.9 vs. 174.3 ± 20.53 μmol·mol−1 creatinine). These results could ameliorate commercial or military diving protocols or improve the understanding of symptoms caused by oxygen level elevation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese Employees: Cross-Level Interaction of Organizational Justice Climate and Family Flexibility
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196954 - 23 Sep 2020
Abstract
This study aims to examine how organizational and family factors protect employees from depressive symptoms induced by work-family conflict. With a cross-sectional design, a total of 2184 Chinese employees from 76 departments completed measures of work-family conflict, organizational justice, family flexibility, and depressive [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine how organizational and family factors protect employees from depressive symptoms induced by work-family conflict. With a cross-sectional design, a total of 2184 Chinese employees from 76 departments completed measures of work-family conflict, organizational justice, family flexibility, and depressive symptoms. The results showed that work-family conflict including work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms. In cross-level analysis, organizational justice climate weakened the adverse effect of work-family conflict on depressive symptoms and the buffering effects of procedural and distributive justice climate in the association between work-family conflict and depressive symptoms depended on family flexibility. Specifically, compared with employees with high family flexibility, procedural and distributive justice climate had a stronger buffering effect for employees with low family flexibility. These results indicate that organization and family could compensate each other to mitigate the effect of work-family conflict on employees’ depressive symptoms. Cultivating justice climate in organization and enhancing family flexibility might be an effective way to reduce employees’ depressive symptoms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Is Rescuer Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Jeopardised by Previous Fatiguing Exercise?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186668 - 13 Sep 2020
Abstract
Survival outcomes increase significantly when cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is provided correctly, but rescuer’s fatigue can compromise CPR delivery. We investigated the effect of a 100-m maximal run on CPR and physiological variables in 14 emergency medical technicians (age 29.2 ± 5.8 years, height [...] Read more.
Survival outcomes increase significantly when cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is provided correctly, but rescuer’s fatigue can compromise CPR delivery. We investigated the effect of a 100-m maximal run on CPR and physiological variables in 14 emergency medical technicians (age 29.2 ± 5.8 years, height 171.2 ± 1.1 cm and weight 73.4 ± 13.1 kg). Using an adult manikin and a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2, participants performed 4-min CPR after 4-min baseline conditions (CPR) and 4-min CPR after a 100-m maximal run carrying emergency material (CPR-run). Physiological variables were continuously measured during baseline and CPR conditions using a portable gas analyzer (K4b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy) and analyzed using two HD video cameras (Sony, HDR PJ30VE, Japan). Higher VO2 (14.4 ± 2.1 and 22.0 ± 2.5 mL·kg−1·min−1) and heart rate (123 ± 17 and 148 ± 17 bpm) were found for CPR-run. However, the compression rate was also higher during the CPR-run (373 ± 51 vs. 340 ± 49) and between every three complete cycles (81 ± 9 vs. 74 ± 14, 99 ± 14 vs. 90 ± 10, 99 ± 10 vs. 90 ± 10, and, 101 ± 15 vs. 94 ± 11, for cycle 3, 6, 9 and 12, respectively). Fatigue induced by the 100-m maximal run had a strong impact on physiological variables, but a mild impact on CPR emergency medical technicians’ performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with the Health Literacy on Social Determinants of Health: A Focus on Socioeconomic Position and Work Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186663 - 13 Sep 2020
Abstract
Though impressive progress has been made in healthcare worldwide, many people still experience disproportionate health burdens and inequities in healthcare services. For establishing sustainable development goals, health literacy on social determinants of health (HL-SDH) has been recognized as a key to creating better [...] Read more.
Though impressive progress has been made in healthcare worldwide, many people still experience disproportionate health burdens and inequities in healthcare services. For establishing sustainable development goals, health literacy on social determinants of health (HL-SDH) has been recognized as a key to creating better social and physical environments. In particular, low levels of health literacy among industrial workers are considered as a major barrier to benefitting from the progress made in healthcare. This study aimed to describe levels of HL-SDH and to examine the relationships among socioeconomic status, working environment, and HL-SDH among workers in Korea. A total of 660 workers from an online panel participated in Korea from 30 May to 7 June 2018. The Korean version of HL-SDH instrument consisted of 33 items and four dimensions: access, understand, appraise, and apply. Descriptive statistics, a t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were conducted. The mean score of HL-SDH was 2.48. Perceived mental health status, annual income, and the number of employees per worksite were found to be statistically significant factors related to HL-SDH (F = 3.64, p = <0.001). The HL-SDH score was considerably higher, indicating that nursing interventions to enhance HL-SDH are required for health promotion, especially among workers in poor social and working environments. Full article
Open AccessReview
Determinants of Occupational Safety Culture in Hospitals and other Workplaces—Results from an Integrative Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186588 - 10 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background: The aim of the present study was to obtain an overview of occupational safety culture by assessing and mapping determinants in different workplaces (hospital workplaces and workplaces in construction, manufacturing, and other industry sectors) using an already established theoretical framework with seven [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the present study was to obtain an overview of occupational safety culture by assessing and mapping determinants in different workplaces (hospital workplaces and workplaces in construction, manufacturing, and other industry sectors) using an already established theoretical framework with seven clusters developed by Cornelissen and colleagues. We further derived implications for further research on determinants of occupational safety culture for the hospital workplace by comparing the hospital workplace with other workplaces. Methods: We conducted an integrative literature review and searched systematically for studies in four research databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO). The search was undertaken in 2019, and updated in April 2020. Results of the included studies were analyzed and mapped to the seven clusters proposed by Cornelissen and colleagues. Results: After screening 5566 hits, 44 studies were included. Among these, 17 studies were conducted in hospital workplaces and 27 were performed in other workplaces. We identified various determinants of an occupational safety culture. Most studies in hospital and other workplaces included determinants referring to management and colleagues, to workplace characteristics and circumstances, and to employee characteristics. Only few determinants in the studies referred to other factors such as socio-economic factors or to content relating to climate and culture. Conclusions: The theoretical framework used was helpful in classifying various determinants from studies at different workplaces. By comparing and contrasting results of studies investigating determinants at the hospital workplace with those addressing other workplaces, it was possible to derive implications for further research, especially for the hospital sector. To date, many determinants for occupational safety culture known from workplaces outside of the healthcare system have not been addressed in studies covering hospital workplaces. For further studies in the hospital workplace, it may be promising to address determinants that have been less studied so far to gain a more comprehensive picture of important determinants of an occupational safety culture in the hospital sector. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Get Vigorous with Physical Exercise and Improve Your Well-Being at Work!
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176384 - 02 Sep 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate whether people who exercise regularly have higher levels of psychological well-being at work. Doing physical exercise is a habit that not only has consequences for physical and mental health, but it can also have positive [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate whether people who exercise regularly have higher levels of psychological well-being at work. Doing physical exercise is a habit that not only has consequences for physical and mental health, but it can also have positive consequences for organizations because physical exercise makes it easier for the employee to recover from physical, mental, and emotional effort during the workday, thus showing higher levels of engagement the next day. Through the analysis of structural equation models in a sample of 485 workers from different Spanish and Latin American companies, this study shows that subjects who exercise more have higher levels of vigor in physical exercise, which is positively related to high levels of well-being at work. This means that organizations that promote activities related to physical exercise among their employees are building a process of resource recovery, which, through the vigor of these activities, makes workers feel less stressed and more satisfied, thus experiencing greater well-being at work. Therefore, at a practical level, these results suggest that the practice of physical exercise is a tool for organizations that want to promote their employees’ psychological well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Review of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 Viability, Susceptibility to Treatment, and the Disinfection and Reuse of PPE, Particularly Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176117 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
In the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, hospitals are often stretched beyond capacity. There are widespread reports of dwindling supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly N95-type filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), which are paramount to protect frontline medical/nursing staff, and to minimize further [...] Read more.
In the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, hospitals are often stretched beyond capacity. There are widespread reports of dwindling supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly N95-type filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), which are paramount to protect frontline medical/nursing staff, and to minimize further spread of the virus. We carried out a rapid review to summarize the existing literature on the viability of SARS-CoV-2, the efficacy of key potential disinfection procedures against the virus (specifically ultraviolet light and heat), and the impact of these procedures on FFR performance, material integrity, and/or fit. In light of the recent discovery of SARS-CoV-2 and limited associated research, our review also focused on the closely related SARS-CoV-1. We propose a possible whole-of-PPE disinfection solution for potential reuse that could be rapidly instituted in many health care settings, without significant investments in equipment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Biomechanical Waist Comfort Model for Manual Material Lifting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165948 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder that affects the working population worldwide. LBP causes more disability than any other conditions all around the world. Most existing studies focus on the occupational physical factors in association with LBP, while few focus on [...] Read more.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder that affects the working population worldwide. LBP causes more disability than any other conditions all around the world. Most existing studies focus on the occupational physical factors in association with LBP, while few focus on individual factors, especially the lack of quantitative calculation of waist comfort in biomechanics. Based on the physical statistics of Chinese men, this research used human posture analysis (HPA) to establish the waist strength formula and analyzed the waist strength during a manual material handling. It also explored the influence of weight and height of lifting objects on the L5-S1 spinal load. On this basis, a waist comfort model was proposed in combination with the recommended weight limit (RWL) recommended by NIOSH, and the parameter selection and waist comfort value were verified by Jack simulation software. The results show that pulling force of the Erector Spinae of the waist is closely related to the weight and lifting height of the object. Parameter verification and Jack software simulation results show that the force of L5-S1 is less than 3400 N, which proves that the waist force under this posture is acceptable. The developed waist comfort model can be applied to evaluate work risk, to adjust working intensity and powered exoskeleton design, aiming to decrease the prevalence of LBP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of the Unitary Prevention Delegates in the Participative Management of Occupational Risk Prevention and Its Impact on Occupational Accidents in the Spanish Working Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165678 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
The aim of this research was to study the impact of the unitary prevention delegates (UPDs) on the Spanish working environment. To this end, a cross-sectional study was carried out using microdata from the National Survey on Health and Safety Management in Companies [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to study the impact of the unitary prevention delegates (UPDs) on the Spanish working environment. To this end, a cross-sectional study was carried out using microdata from the National Survey on Health and Safety Management in Companies (ENGE-2009) with a sample of 5147 work centres. To measure the relationship between the presence of UPD in workplaces with preventive management indicators and damage to health, individual and multiple logistic regression models were carried out, calculating the crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) odds ratios by sociodemographic covariates, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Ambivalent results were obtained. On the one hand, a positive impact of the UPDs was found, in the management of prevention showing a higher probability of prevention plans being carried out (aOR = 3.97; 95% CI: 3.26–4.83), risk assessments (aOR = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.44–8.01) and preventive actions were planned (aOR = 3.01; 95% CI: 2.55–3.56), as well as 1.56 times less likely to register minor occupational accidents (aOR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.53–0.76). On the other hand, the presence of the UPDs did not promote the activation of a participatory culture and did not reduce the probability of suffering serious and fatal accidents at work. In conclusion, UPDs need to activate workers’ participation to improve results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trends in Work Conditions and Associations with Workers’ Health in Recent 15 Years: The Role of Job Automation Probability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155499 - 30 Jul 2020
Abstract
Job automation and associated psychosocial hazards are emerging workplace challenges. This study examined the trends in work conditions and associations with workers’ health over time in jobs with different automation probabilities. We utilized data from six waves of national questionnaire surveys of randomly [...] Read more.
Job automation and associated psychosocial hazards are emerging workplace challenges. This study examined the trends in work conditions and associations with workers’ health over time in jobs with different automation probabilities. We utilized data from six waves of national questionnaire surveys of randomly selected 95,762 employees between 2001 and 2016. The Job Content Questionnaire, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, and the Self-Rated Health Scale were applied, and working time was self-reported. Automation probability was derived for 38 occupations and then categorized into three groups. Trends in work conditions and the associations between automation probability, work conditions and health were examined. We observed a 7% decrease in high automation probability jobs, an overall increase in job demands for and prevalence of shift work, and a decrease in job control. Workers with high automation probability jobs had low job demands, low job control and high job insecurity. Low automation probability was associated with burnout in logistic regression models. The odds ratio of job insecurity, long working hours, and shift work relating to health was higher in the later years of the surveys. In conclusion, there has been a decrease in high automation probability jobs. Workers employed in jobs with different levels of automation probability encountered different work condition challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Symptoms in Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 Epidemic. A Cross-Sectional Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145218 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
In March–April 2020, the Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic suddenly hit Italian healthcare facilities and in some of them many staff members became infected. In this work 595 health care workers from a public company were tested for Severe acute respiratory syndrome [...] Read more.
In March–April 2020, the Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic suddenly hit Italian healthcare facilities and in some of them many staff members became infected. In this work 595 health care workers from a public company were tested for Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (82 positive) and asked to complete a questionnaire on early COVID-19 symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were present in 56.1% of cases. Anosmia and dysgeusia in COVID-19 cases were found to have an odds ratio (OR) = 100.7 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 26.5–382.6) and an OR = 51.8 (95%CI 16.6–161.9), respectively. About one in three of the cases (29.3%) never manifested symptoms. Anxiety was reported by 16.6% of COVID-19 cases and depression by 20.3%, with a significant increase in the estimated risk (OR = 4.3; 95%CI = 2.4–7.4 for anxiety, OR = 3.5; 95%CI = 2.0–6.0 for depression). In cases, sleep was a significant moderating factor in the relationship between occupational stress, or organizational justice, and anxiety. The early diagnosis of COVID-19 in health care workers, must consider, in addition to respiratory disorders and fever, anosmia, dysgeusia, exhaustion, myalgias and enteric disorders. The frequency of anxiety and depression disorders in the population examined was not higher than that commonly recorded in the same company during periodic checks in the years preceding the epidemic. In COVID-19 cases there was a significant risk of anxiety, especially in those who had low sleep quality. Mental health support and improvement interventions must mainly concern workers with positive tests and should also tend to improve sleep quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Is Work–Life Balance Arrangement Associated with Organisational Performance? A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124446 - 21 Jun 2020
Abstract
The impacts of the work–life balance arrangement on organisational performance is a growing concern amongst researchers and practitioners. This study synthesised 202 records from 58 published papers to evaluate the relationship between the work–life balance arrangement and organisational performance by means of a [...] Read more.
The impacts of the work–life balance arrangement on organisational performance is a growing concern amongst researchers and practitioners. This study synthesised 202 records from 58 published papers to evaluate the relationship between the work–life balance arrangement and organisational performance by means of a meta-analysis. The organisational performance was measured based on six perspectives, including career motivation, employee attendance, employee recruitment, employee retention, organisational commitment, and productivity. The results showed a positive relationship between the work–life balance arrangement and organisational performance (OR: 1.181, 95% CI: 1.125–1.240, p < 0.001). Of the six perspectives, only career motivation, employee attendance, employee recruitment, and employee retention were significantly associated with the work–life balance arrangement. The moderators affecting the relationship between the work–life balance arrangement and organisational performance were gender, sector, and employee hierarchy. The results provide theoretical suggestions on the effectiveness of the work–life balance arrangement in terms of the six perspectives related to organisational performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Crafting Jobs for Occupational Satisfaction and Innovation among Manufacturing Workers Facing the COVID-19 Crisis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113953 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
China’s manufacturing employees are confronted with unprecedent occupational and innovation challenges caused by the ongoing COVID-19 crisis coupled with the pressure of being replaced by digital technologies. To gain a better understanding of the rising occupational uncertainty during this critical time, based on [...] Read more.
China’s manufacturing employees are confronted with unprecedent occupational and innovation challenges caused by the ongoing COVID-19 crisis coupled with the pressure of being replaced by digital technologies. To gain a better understanding of the rising occupational uncertainty during this critical time, based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, we examined the associations of employees’ job crafting behaviors (JCB) with their occupational satisfaction and innovation workplace behavior (IWB), as well as the mediating effect of work engagement on the above relationships. The final usable data were obtained from the formal survey of 311 employees of six manufacturing companies that have returned to work amid COVID-19. Structural equation modelling was adopted to analyze the data. Results show that employees’ JCB strengthens their occupational satisfaction and IWB via work engagement. Theoretically, our research enriches the existing body of knowledge about JCB from a cross-disciplinary angle integrating the perspectives of career and psychology. Practically, we offer valuable first-hand evidence about how manufacturing employees conducted JCB to re-orient their careers and to innovate in the face of the high unemployment situation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tailoring Safety Training Material to Migrant Farmworkers: An Ergonomic User-Centred Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062104 - 22 Mar 2020
Abstract
Lectures are the most commonly used training method but may not be effective in communicating safety information among migrant workers because of language and cultural barriers. The comprehension of safety information is particularly urgent in highly hazardous sectors such as agriculture, which has [...] Read more.
Lectures are the most commonly used training method but may not be effective in communicating safety information among migrant workers because of language and cultural barriers. The comprehension of safety information is particularly urgent in highly hazardous sectors such as agriculture, which has a high migrant workforce rate. In this study, an ergonomic user-centred approach was adopted to develop and evaluate safety training material targeting migrants employed on Italian farms. Focus groups with both trainers and migrants were carried out to collect information on critical issues in traditional training material, the most and least comprehended topics and suggestions for training improvement. Based on the focus group analysis, the training material was developed considering several visual factors and more engaging interaction between trainers and migrant trainees. The usability of the developed material was then evaluated in a group of 20 migrant farmworkers through a questionnaire assessing the knowledge of safety information before (T0) and after (T1) the training (effectiveness), perceived effort in learning (efficiency) and user satisfaction after training. The results showed improved knowledge, low perceived effort and high satisfaction, pointing to the positive effects of active user involvement when designing targeted training materials. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Consequences of Circadian Disruption in Shift Workers on Chrononutrition and their Psychosocial Well-Being
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062043 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
The workers and employees in various institutions are subjected to different shifts and work schedules. The employees work not only at daytime but also during odd hours at night. The biological clock of an individual is often altered during night shifts. This affects [...] Read more.
The workers and employees in various institutions are subjected to different shifts and work schedules. The employees work not only at daytime but also during odd hours at night. The biological clock of an individual is often altered during night shifts. This affects the psychosocial well-being and circadian nutritional intake of the worker. Disturbance in circadian rhythm results in the development of metabolic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and abdominal obesity. In the present review, we discuss the nature of shift work, sleep/wake cycle of an individual, chrononutrition, dietary habits, and meal changes with regard to timing and frequency, related to shift work. We also discuss the relationship between nutritional intake and psychosocial well-being among shift workers. The review may be beneficial for prevention of metabolic disorders and maintaining sound psychological condition in shift workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Personality Factors and Sick Leave Days. Evidence from a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study in Germany.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031089 - 09 Feb 2020
Abstract
Background: The question of whether employees’ sickness absence from the workplace depends on personality has been researched. Existing evidence mostly stems from cross-sectional studies, mainly showing that personality factors were not associated with the number of sick leave days, except for neuroticism, which [...] Read more.
Background: The question of whether employees’ sickness absence from the workplace depends on personality has been researched. Existing evidence mostly stems from cross-sectional studies, mainly showing that personality factors were not associated with the number of sick leave days, except for neuroticism, which was positively associated with sick leave days. Based on the above, it remains an under researched question whether intraindividual changes in personality factors are associated with changes in sick leave days. Thus, based on a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality factors and sick leave days longitudinally based on a nationally representative sample of individuals in Germany. Methods: The present study used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), a longitudinal survey of private households in Germany. Information from the years 2005, 2009, 2013 were used. The Big Five Inventory-GSOEP (BFI-S) was used to measure personality. Sick leave days in the preceding year were recorded. Poisson fixed effects regressions were used. Results: Adjusting for potential confounders, regressions showed that increases in neuroticism were associated with increased sick leave days. The longitudinal association between extraversion and sick leave days was marginally significant (p < 0.10). Other personality factors were not significantly associated with sick leave days. In addition, sick leave days increased with worsening self-rated health, presence of severe disability and increasing age. Conclusions: The findings of the current study highlight the association between neuroticism and sick leave days longitudinally. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Computer Vision Syndrome and Its Relationship with Ergonomic and Individual Factors in Presbyopic VDT Workers Using Progressive Addition Lenses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031003 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This cross-sectional study estimated computer vision syndrome (CVS) prevalence and analysed its relationship with video display terminal (VDT) exposure, as well as sociodemographic, refractive, environmental, and ergonomic characteristics in 109 presbyopic VDT workers wearing progressive addition lenses (PALs). Usual spectacles were measured with [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study estimated computer vision syndrome (CVS) prevalence and analysed its relationship with video display terminal (VDT) exposure, as well as sociodemographic, refractive, environmental, and ergonomic characteristics in 109 presbyopic VDT workers wearing progressive addition lenses (PALs). Usual spectacles were measured with a lens analyser, and subjective refraction was performed by an optometrist. CVS was measured with the CVS-Q©. VDT exposure was collected. Ergonomic evaluations were conducted in a normal working posture looking at the screen. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured (thermohygrometer), and illumination was measured (luxmeter). Descriptive analysis and differences in CVS prevalence, as a function of the explanatory variables, were performed (chi-square test). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with CVS (OR and 95% CI). The mean age was 54.0 ± 4.8 years, and 43.1% were women. The mean hours of VDT use at work was 6.5 ± 1.3 hours/day. The prevalence of CVS was 74.3%. CVS was significantly associated with women (OR 3.40; 95% CI, 1.12–10.33), non-neutral neck posture (OR 3.27; 95% CI, 1.03–10.41) and altered workplace lighting (OR 3.64; 95% CI, 1.22–10.81). Providing training and information to workers regarding the importance of adequate lighting and ergonomic postures during VDT use is advised to decrease CVS and increase workplace quality of life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Occupational Determinants of Leptospirosis among Urban Service Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020427 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study was carried out to determine the risk factors of leptospirosis infection among local urban service workers in Sabah. This is a cross-sectional study involving 394 workers in Kota Kinabalu City, Sabah, conducted from February to March 2017. Information on demography, occupational [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to determine the risk factors of leptospirosis infection among local urban service workers in Sabah. This is a cross-sectional study involving 394 workers in Kota Kinabalu City, Sabah, conducted from February to March 2017. Information on demography, occupational exposures and environmental factors was obtained by a modified validated questionnaire. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to determine the prevalence of positive leptospirae. The overall figure for positive leptospirae was 9.4% (95% CI: 6.8–12.8). Urban sweepers and lorry drivers made up the highest proportion of positive leptospirae respondents, contributing 15.5% and 9.4%, respectively. The significant risk factors for positive leptospirae were older age (p-value = 0.001), higher monthly salary (p-value = 0.039), longer duration of employment (p-value = 0.011) and working as an urban sweeper (p-value = 0.021). Leptospirae was prevalent among healthy urban service workers and relates to their working activities. Full article

2019

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Impact of Selected Physical Environmental Factors on the Health of Employees: Creating a Classification Model Using a Decision Tree
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245080 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
During the process of designing and implementing a working environment, there is a need to guarantee adequate conditions for future workers’ health and well-being. This article addresses the classification of employees characterized by several basic input variables (gender, age, class of work). The [...] Read more.
During the process of designing and implementing a working environment, there is a need to guarantee adequate conditions for future workers’ health and well-being. This article addresses the classification of employees characterized by several basic input variables (gender, age, class of work). The investigated variable was the health of employees. This article aims to create a prediction classification model using the classification tree, which can be used to classify new cases into appropriate classes as accurately as possible. Objective measurements of microclimatic parameters were performed by the Testo 435 instrument. The subjective evaluation was performed by a questionnaire survey formed from the training group of 80 respondents and independently verified by the test group of 80 more respondents. The result confusion matrix shows that the number of correctly classified respondents was 69 from a total of 80 respondents. The overall accuracy was A C = 0.863 , which means that the likelihood that respondents are properly classified in the correct health class is 86.3%. Based on the model obtained using the classification tree, we can classify respondents into the relevant class for their state of health. The respondent is classified into the class of work for which particular health and working conditions are most likely. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Slip and Fall Incidents at Work: A Visual Analytics Analysis of the Research Domain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244972 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Slip and fall incidents at work remain an important class of injury and fatality causing mechanisms. An extensive body of safety research has accumulated on this topic. This article presents an analysis of this research domain. Two bibliometric visualization tools are applied: VOSviewer [...] Read more.
Slip and fall incidents at work remain an important class of injury and fatality causing mechanisms. An extensive body of safety research has accumulated on this topic. This article presents an analysis of this research domain. Two bibliometric visualization tools are applied: VOSviewer and HistCite. Samples of 618 slip and fall related articles are obtained from the Web of Science database. Networks of institutions, authors, terms, and chronological citation relationships are established. Collaboration and research activities of the slip and fall research community show that most contributors are from the United States, with the (now closed) Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety the most influential research organization. The results of a term clustering analysis show that the slip and fall research can be grouped into three sub-domains: epidemiology, gait/biomechanics, and tribology. Of these, early research focused mainly on tribology, whereas research on gait/biomechanics and epidemiological studies are relatively more recent. Psychological aspects of slip and fall incident occurrence represent a relatively under-investigated research topic, in which future contributions may provide new insights and safety improvements. Better linking of this research domain with other principles and methods in safety science, such as safety management and resilience, may also present valuable future development paths. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Occupational Precariousness of Nursing Staff in Catalonia’s Public and Private Nursing Homes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244921 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nursing staff who provide care in the nursing homes of Catalonia have more precarious work conditions, including more demanding schedules and work overload, than those in other areas of care. This situation entails two major problems: Detrimental health results for nurses who face [...] Read more.
Nursing staff who provide care in the nursing homes of Catalonia have more precarious work conditions, including more demanding schedules and work overload, than those in other areas of care. This situation entails two major problems: Detrimental health results for nurses who face psychosocial and physical risks and a negative impact on the care provided to patients, with a decrease in the quality of care. This study aimed to describe the precarious employment situation of nursing staff in nursing homes. We carried out a descriptive study based on the employment precariousness scale (EPRES), which was administered to a sample of 239 nurses and nursing assistants working in public and private nursing homes in Catalonia. The highest level of job insecurity occurred among nursing assistants and in privately managed nursing homes. The precariousness of the working conditions of nursing staff poses a risk both to the workers themselves and to the people they tend to. For this reason, there is a need for greater knowledge on the scale of the problem and the implementation of appropriate legislative measures to alleviate it. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Association Between Fitness Test Scores and Musculoskeletal Injury in Police Officers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234667 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A police officer’s career is hazardous and physically demanding. In order to perform occupational tasks effectively and without injury, officers require adequate physical abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on several fitness tests and musculoskeletal injury [...] Read more.
A police officer’s career is hazardous and physically demanding. In order to perform occupational tasks effectively and without injury, officers require adequate physical abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on several fitness tests and musculoskeletal injury in a group of municipal police officers. This retrospective study used existing data to examine the relationship between risk of injury and fitness test performance. Injured and uninjured police officers scored significantly differently on several fitness measures. A multivariate regression indicated that a combination of age, sex, number of pull ups completed and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) best explained injury risk. Additionally, the findings indicated an interaction between sex and VO2max, and so the effect of VO2max on injury risk cannot be understood without accounting for sex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation and Ergonomic Evaluation of Welders’ Standing Posture Using Jack Software
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224354 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Ergonomics research strives to make workers’ labor more efficient, safer, and more comfortable. Therefore, six digital humans and welding torch model were built and evaluated based on the Jack software in order to improve the ergonomics of welders’ standing postures. Three sets of [...] Read more.
Ergonomics research strives to make workers’ labor more efficient, safer, and more comfortable. Therefore, six digital humans and welding torch model were built and evaluated based on the Jack software in order to improve the ergonomics of welders’ standing postures. Three sets of standing welding actions were designed: walking, raising arm, and contracting arm. Through the Lower Back Analysis, Ovako Working Posture Analysis, Comfort Assessment, and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment, this paper evaluated the optimum range of the weight of the welding torch, the upper limb posture, and the neck posture of the welder. Firstly, the results show that Chinese welders should not use a welding torch with a weight of more than 6 kg when standing up. Secondly, for adult males in the 5th, 50th, 95th percentile of body size, the best operating distance is 321 mm, 371 mm, and 421 mm, respectively, and the best operating height is 1050 mm, 1100 mm, and 1150 mm, respectively; for females in the same percentiles, the optimal operating distance is 271 mm, 321 mm, and 371 mm, respectively, and the optimal operating height is 1000 mm, 1050 mm, and 1100 mm, respectively. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical rotation angle of the welder’s neck should not exceed 15° and 8.7°. The adjustment strategy not only has a positive effect on improving welders’ operational posture and preventing fatigue and injury to the welder, but it also develops research ideas for promoting safety from the perspective of ergonomics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deaths in Australia from Work-Related Heat Stress, 2000–2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193601 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The infrequency of deaths from work-related heat stress may be due to self-pacing, whereby workers adjust their work rate in response to thermal discomfort. Thirteen cases attributed after coronial investigation to work-related heat stress were studied to evaluate the causal contribution of environmental [...] Read more.
The infrequency of deaths from work-related heat stress may be due to self-pacing, whereby workers adjust their work rate in response to thermal discomfort. Thirteen cases attributed after coronial investigation to work-related heat stress were studied to evaluate the causal contribution of environmental and personal risk factors. Meteorological records and coronial records were examined to estimate environmental and metabolic heat loads and to identify any personal risk factors likely to have contributed to death. Seven deaths occurred in workers within one week of hiring, demonstrating not only the importance of acclimatisation but also the likelihood of compromised self-pacing in recently-hired workers. Personal risk factors identified included intercurrent illness, cardiovascular disease and obesity. Four deaths occurred following indoor work, where the probable critical risk parameter was low air velocity. Cerebral and pulmonary oedema were reported in some autopsy reports, and uncal herniation was found in one case. Modified work rates and close supervision are essential in recently-hired workers. The risk of death from raised intracranial pressure suggests the need for specific remediation of cerebral oedema in hyperthermic individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle
New Patterns of Information and Communication Technologies Usage at Work and Their Relationships with Visual Discomfort and Musculoskeletal Diseases: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study of Spanish Organizations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173166 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This cross-sectional study analyses the usage patterns of the new communication and information technologies (ICTs) and their relationship with visual discomfort and musculoskeletal diseases in an intentional sample of 1259 workers of Spanish organizations. The usage pattern with the greatest incidence of visual [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study analyses the usage patterns of the new communication and information technologies (ICTs) and their relationship with visual discomfort and musculoskeletal diseases in an intentional sample of 1259 workers of Spanish organizations. The usage pattern with the greatest incidence of visual and muscular-skeletal disorders, especially in the wrist and neck, combines the use of laptops and desktops during long working hours. However, the group of workers primarily using mobile devices and working mostly at mobile posts does not appear to be particularly vulnerable to the musculoskeletal diseases and visual fatigue. The ratio of taking a short pause per hour and the implantation of certain technical and preventive measures is related to lower incidence of disorders in the workers as a whole. Current usage of ICTs is very complex and should be addressed using empirical analysis of the different forms of usage and their impacts on health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Subjective Well-Being Challenge in the Accounting Profession: The Role of Job Resources
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173073 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The main activity of the accountant is the preparation and audit of the financial information of a company. The subjective well-being of the accountant is important to ensure a balanced professional judgment and to offer a positive image of the profession in the [...] Read more.
The main activity of the accountant is the preparation and audit of the financial information of a company. The subjective well-being of the accountant is important to ensure a balanced professional judgment and to offer a positive image of the profession in the face of the incorporation and retention of talent. However, accountants are subjected to intense pressures that affect their well-being in the performance of their tasks. In this paper, the job demands–resources theoretical framework is adopted to analyze the relationships between job demands, job resources, and the subjective well-being of a large sample of 739 accounting experts at the European level. Applying a structural equations model, the results confirm, on the one hand, the direct effects provided in the theoretical framework and, on the other, a new mediating role of job demands–subjective well-being relationship resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Work Fatigue in a Non-Deployed Military Setting: Assessment, Prevalence, Predictors, and Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162892 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although work fatigue represents an important issue among military personnel in combat settings, little attention has been paid to work fatigue in the non-deployed setting. This issue was addressed by (a) validating the Three-Dimensional Work Fatigue Inventory (3D-WFI) among non-deployed military personnel, (b) [...] Read more.
Although work fatigue represents an important issue among military personnel in combat settings, little attention has been paid to work fatigue in the non-deployed setting. This issue was addressed by (a) validating the Three-Dimensional Work Fatigue Inventory (3D-WFI) among non-deployed military personnel, (b) assessing the prevalence of work fatigue in a non-deployed setting, and (c) exploring several potential predictors and outcomes of work fatigue in this setting. Data came from a large national probability sample (N = 1375) of non-deployed Royal Canadian Air Force military personnel. Results demonstrated that the 3D-WFI provided a psychometrically sound assessment of physical, mental, and emotional work fatigue among military personnel, which was invariant across sex, age, military component, and military role. All three types of work fatigue were highly prevalent among military personnel in a non-deployed setting. In terms of predictors, job demands were positively associated, and distributive justice, perceived organizational support, physical activity and sleep quality were negatively associated with each type of work fatigue, whereas role ambiguity was positively associated with mental and emotional work fatigue, and interpersonal justice was negatively associated with physical and emotional fatigue. Abusive supervision and sleep quantity were unrelated to work fatigue. In terms of outcomes, the three types of fatigue were positively associated with workplace cognitive failures and work-to-family conflict. In contrast, mental and emotional work fatigue were negatively related to military morale and positively associated with turnover intentions. This study demonstrates that work fatigue is a critical issue among military personnel in non-deployed settings, and an essential issue for military policy development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Application of an Improved Model for Accident Analysis: A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152756 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
An improved accident causation model which demonstrates the relationships among different causal factors was proposed in this study. It provides a pathway for accident analysis from the individual level to the organizational level. Unsafe acts and conditions determined by individuals’ poor safety knowledge, [...] Read more.
An improved accident causation model which demonstrates the relationships among different causal factors was proposed in this study. It provides a pathway for accident analysis from the individual level to the organizational level. Unsafe acts and conditions determined by individuals’ poor safety knowledge, low safety awareness, bad safety habits, etc. are the immediate causes of an accident. Deficiencies in safety management systems and safety culture remain the root causes, which can cause consequences at the individual level. Moreover, the weaknesses of an organization’s safety culture can have a great impact on the formation of a good safety climate and can further lead to poor decision-making and implementation of procedures in the safety management system. In order to contribute to a better perception and understanding of the accident causation model, one typical case in the process industry, the oil leak and explosion of the Sinopec Donghuang pipelines, was selected for this study. The causality from immediate causes to root causes is demonstrated in sequence and can be shown in this model explicitly and logically. Several important lessons are summarized from the results and targeted measures can be taken to avoid similar mistakes in the future. This model provides a clear and resourceful method for the safety and risk practitioner’s toolkit in accident investigation and analysis, and the organization can use it as a tool to conduct staff trainings and thus to keep accidents under control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Work-Family Balance Policy for Enhancing Social Sustainability: A Choice Experiment Analysis of Koreans in their Twenties and Thirties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142553 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Korea is facing problems, such as inequality within society and an aging population, that places a burden on public health expenditure. The active adoption of policies that promote work-family balance (WFB), such as parental leave and workplace childcare centers, is known to help [...] Read more.
Korea is facing problems, such as inequality within society and an aging population, that places a burden on public health expenditure. The active adoption of policies that promote work-family balance (WFB), such as parental leave and workplace childcare centers, is known to help solve these problems. However, there has, as yet, been little quantitative evidence accumulated to support this notion. This study used the choice experiment methodology on 373 Koreans in their twenties and thirties, to estimate the level of utility derived from work-family balance policies. The results show that willingness to pay for parental leave was found to be valued at 7.81 million Korean won, while it was 4.83 million won for workplace childcare centers. In particular, WFB policies were found to benefit workers of lower socioeconomic status or belonging to disadvantaged groups, such as women, those with low education levels, and those with low incomes. Furthermore, the utility derived from WFB policies was found to be greater among those who desire children compared to those who do not. The results suggest that the proactive introduction of WFB policies will help solve problems such as inequality within society and population aging. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Smart Software Can Increase Sit–Stand Desk Transitions During Active Computer Use
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132438 - 09 Jul 2019
Abstract
The objective use of table top adjustable sit–stand desks has yet to be determined, due to the lack of an effective digital evaluation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer prompt software on table top sit–stand desks [...] Read more.
The objective use of table top adjustable sit–stand desks has yet to be determined, due to the lack of an effective digital evaluation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer prompt software on table top sit–stand desks to determine if there was a difference in the frequency of desk position changes. This five month, pre-post pilot study on 47 university staff members used a novel USB accelerometer sensor and computer software reminders to continuously record and prompt increases in desk usage to promote physical activity at the workstation. During the baseline phase (3 months), desk usage data were continuously recorded for all workers. Following the baseline, the results from a two-month intervention of personalized computer reminders doubled the number of desk position changes per work day from 1 desk position change every 2 work days to 1 change every work day. Furthermore, those who changed desk positions once or twice a day increased from 4% to 36% from baseline to intervention. Overall, the intervention was encouraging, but longer intervention studies are warranted to determine if the desk usage behavior change can be improved and sustained for years and whether that change results in health gains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coworking Spaces: The Better Home Office? A Psychosocial and Health-Related Perspective on an Emerging Work Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132379 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the ongoing flexibilization of work, new trends concerning work outside the company’s premises such as coworking spaces are on the rise. Coworking spaces are designed to offer collaboration and community in furnished and equipped workspaces on a rental base. There is a [...] Read more.
With the ongoing flexibilization of work, new trends concerning work outside the company’s premises such as coworking spaces are on the rise. Coworking spaces are designed to offer collaboration and community in furnished and equipped workspaces on a rental base. There is a growing body of scientific literature on coworking spaces with empirical results of qualitative and quantitative research. The present study adds to the latter by examining psychosocial demands experienced by coworkers in Germany based on a quantitative survey (n = 112). Among coworkers the home office was or still is another frequently used workplace. However, can the coworking space be seen as a better alternative to the home office in terms of work- and performance-related, social, environmental and health-related aspects? Results showed moderate to low psychosocial demands regarding quantitative workloads. Compared to the home office, the coworking space proved to be the preferred work arrangement. Results are discussed with regard to current literature and workplace design. In conclusion, coworking spaces can be seen as an alternative to the home office that was highly valued in the present sample. It is recommended to further emphasize aspects of work environment and ergonomics in order to create health-promoting and satisfying workplaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Lifting of Two Types of Barrels on Postural Control, Trunk Muscle Recruitment, and Kinematic Measures in Manual Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122183 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 2 types of beer barrels on postural control, trunk activation, and kinematic measures in adult workers. Twelve (12) males randomly performed 4 tasks on a force platform for 20 s: (1) hold [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 2 types of beer barrels on postural control, trunk activation, and kinematic measures in adult workers. Twelve (12) males randomly performed 4 tasks on a force platform for 20 s: (1) hold an empty recyclable barrel, (2) hold a full recyclable barrel (30 L), (3) hold an empty steel barrel, and (4) hold a full steel barrel (30 L). Trunk muscular activation, force platform and kinematic measures at the trunk, hip, and knee joints were computed. The full steel barrel produced greater postural oscillation than other conditions. Higher trunk activity was also reported during the full steel barrel task. Significant kinematic changes only in the trunk were observed between the empty steel barrel and the full recyclable barrel tasks. In conclusion, the full steel barrel produced a negative impact on postural control, increasing trunk activity and changing trunk flexion angle in adult workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of an Interdisciplinary Approach to Promote Workers Global Health Status in the Oil Industry, Brazil (2006–2015)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122148 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study intends to analyse the behaviour of epidemiological variables of workers in an oil industry of Bahia, Brazil, before and after implementation of interdisciplinary practices in occupational health assessments between 2006 and 2015. This is a retrospective longitudinal study carried out in [...] Read more.
This study intends to analyse the behaviour of epidemiological variables of workers in an oil industry of Bahia, Brazil, before and after implementation of interdisciplinary practices in occupational health assessments between 2006 and 2015. This is a retrospective longitudinal study carried out in two time periods. Data were collected from the workers electronic medical record and time trends were analysed before (2006–2010) and after (2011–2015) the implementation of the interdisciplinary practices focusing on health promotion. The data were complementarily compared to a control group from the same industry. A statistically significant reduction for data on the number of smokers, periodontal disease and of days away from work was obtained. A significant increase in the number of physically active subjects was also observed. While not statistically significant, a reduction in the number of workers with obesity and overweight, with caries and altered glycemia, was identified. Coronary risk and high blood pressure indicators have shown aggravation. It can be concluded that an interdisciplinary health approach during the annual occupational assessments, with action directed to the population needs, can be associated with the improvement of the health indicators assessed, contributing to increased worker productivity in the oil industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Long Working Hours and Overtime on Occupational Health: A Meta-Analysis of Evidence from 1998 to 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122102 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 17
Abstract
There has been no subsequent meta-analysis examining the effects of long working hours on health or occupational health since 1997. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a meta-analysis covering studies after 1997 for a comparison. A total of 243 published records were extracted [...] Read more.
There has been no subsequent meta-analysis examining the effects of long working hours on health or occupational health since 1997. Therefore, this paper aims to conduct a meta-analysis covering studies after 1997 for a comparison. A total of 243 published records were extracted from electronic databases. The effects were measured by five conditions, namely, physiological health (PH), mental health (MH), health behaviours (HB), related health (RH), and nonspecified health (NH). The overall odds ratio between long working hours and occupational health was 1.245 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.195–1.298). The condition of related health constituted the highest odds ratio value (1.465, 95% CI: 1.332–1.611). The potential moderators were study method, cut-point for long weekly working hours, and country of origin. Long working hours were shown to adversely affect the occupational health of workers. The management on safeguarding the occupational health of workers working long hours should be reinforced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Personal Occupational Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in Libraries and Media Libraries, Using Calibrated On-Body Exposimeters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122087 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background and Objectives: With the spread of Wifi networks, safety concerns have arisen, with complaints of somatic disorders, notably in traditional libraries and media libraries. The aim of the present study was to describe the conditions and levels of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: With the spread of Wifi networks, safety concerns have arisen, with complaints of somatic disorders, notably in traditional libraries and media libraries. The aim of the present study was to describe the conditions and levels of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the real-life occupational conditions of those working in traditional libraries and media libraries. Methods: Dynamic measurements, using an exposimeter, were taken in 20 radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5850 MHz. The activity of 28 library workers was analyzed on a space-time budget. An audit of exposure sources and static measurements enabled the work-places to be mapped. Results: In seven libraries, 78,858 samples were taken over the 20 radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5850 MHz. Exposure was described for 28 working days. The median total field was 0.071 V/m (10th percentile: 0.022 V/m, 90th percentile: 0.534 V/m) and for Wifi the median field was 0.005 V/m (10th percentile: 0.005 V/m, 90th percentile: 0.028 V/m). Median individual exposure to Wifi frequency waves ranged from 0.005 to 0.040 V/m. Conclusions: Overall, the occupational exposure in this sector was close to the exposure in the general population. Peaks were due to the use of walkie-talkies by security staff. Exposure due to external sources depended on geographic location. Exposure in this occupation is well below the general occupational exposure levels, notably as regards Wifi. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Engagement Go Awry and Lead to Burnout? The Moderating Role of the Perceived Motivational Climate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111979 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, we propose that when employees become too engaged, they may become burnt out due to resource depletion. We further suggest that this negative outcome is contingent upon the perceived motivational psychological climate (mastery and performance climates) at work. A two-wave [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose that when employees become too engaged, they may become burnt out due to resource depletion. We further suggest that this negative outcome is contingent upon the perceived motivational psychological climate (mastery and performance climates) at work. A two-wave field study of 1081 employees revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship between work engagement and burnout. This finding suggests that employees with too much work engagement may be exposed to a higher risk of burnout. Further, a performance climate, with its emphasis on social comparison, may enhance—and a mastery climate, which focuses on growth, cooperation and effort, may mitigate the likelihood that employees become cynical towards work—an important dimension of burnout. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Emergency Evacuation Plan for Hazardous Chemicals Leakage Accidents Using GIS-based Risk Analysis Techniques in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111948 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Despite improvements in chemical safety management systems, incidents involving the release of hazardous chemicals continue to happen. In some cases, they result in the evacuation of residents. For hazardous chemical release accidents, an evacuation plan needs to be selective enough to consider both [...] Read more.
Despite improvements in chemical safety management systems, incidents involving the release of hazardous chemicals continue to happen. In some cases, they result in the evacuation of residents. For hazardous chemical release accidents, an evacuation plan needs to be selective enough to consider both the indoor and outdoor concentrations of nearby buildings and the time in which the maximum allowable concentration may occur. In this study, a real-time risk analysis tool was developed based on the geographic information system (GIS) in order to establish the emergency response and risk communication plan for effectively assisting decision-making personnel. A selective evacuation plan was also established by a proposed assessment module considering the indoor/outdoor pollution concentration of buildings and the release duration time of chlorine gas leakage. The GIS-based simulated modules were performed based on eleven buildings of Ulsan city, located near an industrial cluster and home to a high population density. As a result of the simulated real-time risk assessment, only four buildings were affected by chlorine gas concentration according to wind direction and diffusion time. In addition, it was considered effective to establish an indoor/outdoor evacuation plan as opposed to an outdoor evacuation plan which is outside the range of the damage. Subsequently, an emergency evacuation plan was established with the concentration of a hazardous chemical according to the decision-making matrix. This study can enlighten the real-time emergency risk assessment based on GIS while effectively supporting the emergency action plans in response to the release of hazardous chemicals in clustered plants and the community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Factors and the Corresponding Interactions That Influence Construction Worker Safety Performance from a Competency-Model-Based Perspective: Evidence from Scaffolders in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111885 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Purpose: Construction workers’ reactions to safety-related issues during operation vary from person to person due to their different occupational levels, which can be attributed to various influencing factors and their correspondingly complicated interactions. This research aims to propose an integrated framework to combine [...] Read more.
Purpose: Construction workers’ reactions to safety-related issues during operation vary from person to person due to their different occupational levels, which can be attributed to various influencing factors and their correspondingly complicated interactions. This research aims to propose an integrated framework to combine the concepts of these factors and provide a holistic interpretation of the interrelationship among them. Methods: Based on items that were mainly extracted from competency theory, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to identify the critical factors from the data collected from 243 scaffolders on Wuhan Metro construction sites. The interactions among the identified factors were then analyzed, and the safety competency model was thus established with the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: A total of 17 items were identified as critical to workers’ safety competency, and these were further tested and attributed to four factors: (1) individual character and inclination; (2) self-adjustment and adaptability; (3) working attitudes; (4) safety-related operation qualification. Subsequent analysis showed that all the factors significantly contributed to one’s safety competency, and individual character and inclination contributed most to the formation of one’s ability, while the intermediating effects of self-adjustment and adaptability should not be neglected both in theoretical and practical terms. The resultant safety competency model consisting of these four factors was revealed to share a hierarchical structure with the classical competency model. Significance: This study provided an integrated theoretical framework and a set of modeling approaches to combine the related concepts and facilitate a greater understanding of construction safety in terms of workers’ characteristics and behaviors. Practical implications: This study presented a tentative approach for assessing construction workers’ safety competency, as well as emphasized to the managers and professionals the necessity of developing training systems to ensure workers are integrated into a crew in an appropriate and smooth manner. Limitations and Future Work: The volume and the scope of samples impeded the study from achieving a more generalized result and a more cost-efficient data collection approach is in need of development for a comprehensive and in-depth investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Work Ability among Italian Bank Video Display Terminal Operators: Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle, and Occupational Correlates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091653 - 12 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bank employees, especially video display terminal (VDT) operators, are constantly exposed to various occupational risks, such as the adoption of awkward postures, repetitive finger movements, and utilization of software with poor usability, which may lead to computer visual syndrome, tension headache, lower back [...] Read more.
Bank employees, especially video display terminal (VDT) operators, are constantly exposed to various occupational risks, such as the adoption of awkward postures, repetitive finger movements, and utilization of software with poor usability, which may lead to computer visual syndrome, tension headache, lower back pain, and/or stress, which compromises their overall health and work ability (WA). Thus, in this cross-sectional study, we aimed to establish that the determinants among socio-demographic, lifestyle, and occupational characteristics are associated with impaired WA in bank VDT operators. To this end, we administered a set of socio-demographic, lifestyle, occupational, and Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaires to 2077 Italian bank VDT operators. Univariate linear regression models reveal that their mean WAI score is inversely associated with gender, age, dependent family members, and a part-time job, whereas it is directly associated with the educational level and physical activity. In addition, multivariate analysis shows that their mean WAI score is inversely associated with age and a part-time job, but was directly associated with the educational level, the marital status, and physical activity. Overall, VDT operators working in Italian banks display high WA even though this latter tends to decline with aging. In light of the progressive aging of the workforce in Italy, our results provide the rationale for the design of interventions aimed to mitigate the detrimental effects of aging on WA of bank VDT operators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Working Conditions to Promote Worker Safety, Health, and Wellbeing for Low-Wage Workers: The Workplace Organizational Health Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081449 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
This paper addresses a significant gap in the literature by describing a study that tests the feasibility and efficacy of an organizational intervention to improve working conditions, safety, and wellbeing for low-wage food service workers. The Workplace Organizational Health Study tests the hypothesis [...] Read more.
This paper addresses a significant gap in the literature by describing a study that tests the feasibility and efficacy of an organizational intervention to improve working conditions, safety, and wellbeing for low-wage food service workers. The Workplace Organizational Health Study tests the hypothesis that an intervention targeting the work organization and environment will result in improvements in workers’ musculoskeletal disorders and wellbeing. This ongoing study is being conducted in collaboration with a large food service company. Formative evaluation was used to prioritize outcomes, assess working conditions, and define essential intervention elements. The theory-driven intervention is being evaluated in a proof-of-concept trial, conducted to demonstrate feasibility and potential efficacy using a cluster randomized design. Ten worksites were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. The 13-month intervention uses a comprehensive systems approach to improve workplace policies and practices. Using principles of participatory engagement, the intervention targets safety and ergonomics; work intensity; and job enrichment. The evaluation will provide a preliminary assessment of estimates of the intervention effect on targeted outcomes and inform understanding of the intervention implementation across worksites. This study is expected to provide insights on methods to improve working conditions in support of the safety and wellbeing of low-wage workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Scales to Measure and Analyse the Relationship of Safety Consciousness and Safety Citizenship Behaviour of Construction Workers: An Empirical Study in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081411 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
China’s construction industry has experienced a long period of development and reform but compared to developed countries, safety on construction sites in China continues to present serious problems. Safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour are influential factors related to safety issues in the [...] Read more.
China’s construction industry has experienced a long period of development and reform but compared to developed countries, safety on construction sites in China continues to present serious problems. Safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour are influential factors related to safety issues in the construction industry and may play a direct role in improving the safety of personnel on construction sites. However, recently no research has been focused on the relationship between safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour. Therefore, this paper aimed to investigate the relationship between safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour for personnel working on construction sites in China by using a questionnaire survey and statistical analysis, so that correlation between safety consciousness and safety citizenship can be demonstrated and effective measures suggested to improve the safety of construction workers in China, and perhaps in other countries as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Survey of Work-Related Pain Prevalence Among Construction Workers in Hong Kong: A Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081404 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Construction workers undertake demanding physical work and face high risk of injuries in poor working environments. This case-control study investigated the extent of their musculoskeletal pain incidence at work. A total of 2021 construction workers in different trades were interviewed on-site in a [...] Read more.
Construction workers undertake demanding physical work and face high risk of injuries in poor working environments. This case-control study investigated the extent of their musculoskeletal pain incidence at work. A total of 2021 construction workers in different trades were interviewed on-site in a survey from December 2017 to December 2018. The survey results revealed that the pain prevalence of the subjects in the last 24 h was 10.6 %. The worst and top most common pain spots caused by work were central lower back, left/right shoulders, and knees. Regarding pain management, their most common method was to ignore the pain (21.4%). The average percentage of pain relief after receiving treatment in the 24 h was 37.12%. Besides, significant differences were found between the pain and non-pain groups regarding their employment duration in current job or their average sleep duration in the 24 h. The study showed that those with multiple and bilateral pain sites had pain interference on their living activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Construction Worker Risk-Taking Behavior Model with Individual and Organizational Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081335 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Behavioral-based safety is an important application of behavioral science that can be used to address safety problems in the construction sector. An understanding of construction worker risk-taking behavior is deemed to be a crucial basis on which concerned authorities and construction companies can [...] Read more.
Behavioral-based safety is an important application of behavioral science that can be used to address safety problems in the construction sector. An understanding of construction worker risk-taking behavior is deemed to be a crucial basis on which concerned authorities and construction companies can develop effective safety interventions to reduce construction accidents. However, no studies have been conducted to examine the effects of safety climate, work condition, attitude toward risk, cognitive bias, and risk perception on construction worker risk-taking behavior through a quantitative approach. Accordingly, this study aims to propose a research model that explains construction worker risk-taking behavior. A total of 188 valid datasets were obtained through a series of questionnaire surveys conducted in representative construction projects in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling was adopted to validate the hypothesized research model. Results show that attitudes toward risk and cognitive bias have a positive influence, whereas risk perception and work conditions have a negative influence on construction worker risk-taking behavior. In addition, safety climate was negatively correlated with construction worker risk-taking behavior. Practical recommendations for reducing construction worker risk-taking behavior are also discussed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strength Decrease, Perceived Physical Exertion and Endurance Time for Backpacking Tasks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071296 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Manual material handling (MMH) tasks create a burden for workers which could result in musculoskeletal injuries. Assessments of the decrease of muscular strength and the maximum endurance time (MET) for MMH tasks are essential in studying the ergonomic risk of MMH tasks. A [...] Read more.
Manual material handling (MMH) tasks create a burden for workers which could result in musculoskeletal injuries. Assessments of the decrease of muscular strength and the maximum endurance time (MET) for MMH tasks are essential in studying the ergonomic risk of MMH tasks. A backpacking experiment was conducted for measuring the MET for MMH tasks. Human participants carried a load on their back and walked on a treadmill under various load, walking speed, and ramp angle conditions until they coud no longer do so. It was found that the participants were able to walk for approximately 15 min to two hours before they needed to have a pause. Their back and leg strengths declined moderately due to performing the tasks. These tasks resulted in an increase in heart rate and elevated perceived physical exertion. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE)/heart rate ratio in our backpacking tasks was 31% higher than that in the literature, implying the calibration of the RPE may be required for such tasks. A MET model incorporating the fMVC_back, body weight, walking speed, and ramp angle was established. This model may be used to determine the work/rest allowance for backpacking tasks under conditions similar to this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Nature of Job Crafting: Positive and Negative Relations with Job Satisfaction and Work-Family Conflict
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071176 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This study investigated job crafting as mediator and its relation with job satisfaction and work-family conflict, considering job autonomy as antecedent. The research involved 389 participants working in a public organization. A structural equations model was estimated revealing that job autonomy is positively [...] Read more.
This study investigated job crafting as mediator and its relation with job satisfaction and work-family conflict, considering job autonomy as antecedent. The research involved 389 participants working in a public organization. A structural equations model was estimated revealing that job autonomy is positively associated with job crafting and job satisfaction, and negatively associated with work-family conflict. Job crafting is positively related with job satisfaction and work-family conflict, as adverse effect of job crafting. As regards mediated effects, results show positive associations between job autonomy and both job satisfaction and work-family conflict through job crafting. This study contributes to literature, considering positive and negative outcomes, covering the lacking literature on job crafting and work-family conflict, and suggesting implications for employees’ well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stress and Strain among Seafarers Related to the Occupational Groups
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071153 - 30 Mar 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
The present study analyses whether the stress and strain experienced by seafarers differ between the various occupational groups on board container ships. In a maritime field study, 323 sailors on 22 container ships were asked to complete a questionnaire and were biometrically surveyed. [...] Read more.
The present study analyses whether the stress and strain experienced by seafarers differ between the various occupational groups on board container ships. In a maritime field study, 323 sailors on 22 container ships were asked to complete a questionnaire and were biometrically surveyed. In addition, a survey of energy expenditure and heart rate (variability) was carried out with the SenseWear® armband monitor and the Polar RS800 watch, respectively. The activity data objectively collected by the armband monitor showed an average sleep duration of 5.0 h per day, with particularly short sleep episodes amongst nautical officers. This occupational group also significantly more frequently reported sleep deficits (67%). The highest work-related energy expenditure per day was among the deck ratings (801 kcal), followed by the engine room personnel (777 kcal), and finally the nautical officers (568 kcal). The last-mentioned group, who were also the most likely to experience mental stress in the workplace, had the lowest heart rate variability compared to the other occupational groups. The average working time was the only stress parameter that correlated significantly negatively with the heart rate variability (r = −0.387; p = 0.002). Overall, job-related stressors of seafarers on board should be objectified in further studies and occupational group-specific health promotion programmes should be developed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of A Safety Climate Scale for Geological Prospecting Projects in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061082 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The geological prospecting industry has developed rapidly in China over the past few years. It has made outstanding contributions to the discovery of new mineral resources, new energy sources, and the excavation and utilization of resources. However, geological prospecting projects do not have [...] Read more.
The geological prospecting industry has developed rapidly in China over the past few years. It has made outstanding contributions to the discovery of new mineral resources, new energy sources, and the excavation and utilization of resources. However, geological prospecting projects do not have effective safety management measures at present. Moreover, the geological prospecting project has its own traits and features that differ from other industries, leading to the fact that safety management measures in other industries cannot be used in geological prospecting projects. Therefore, development of an effective safety management measuring tool is urgent and necessary. In recent years, safety climate has drawn great attention from scholars, and research results have been successfully applied in construction, coal mining and other industries. Based on the extensive literature review on safety climate as well as its organizational structure and employees’ individual behavior characteristics, this paper first extracted the factor structure of the safety climate and then developed a safety climate scale for geological prospecting projects. This paper used the methods of exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis to ensure the developed safety climate scale was valid and reliable. The safety climate scale developed has four dimensions, i.e., project leader’s safety commitment, safety institutions, risk response, and employee’s safety attitude, containing a total of 17 measurable items. This study contributes to the current literature by exploring the factor structure of the safety climate for geological prospecting projects, and further provides a scientific basis for improvements in the geological prospecting industry. Meanwhile, the findings not only provide technical support for investigating and analyzing the safety management levels of the geological prospecting industry, but also contribute to the benchmarking standards among different enterprises and projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Work-Life Conflict among U.S. Long-Haul Truck Drivers: Influences of Work Organization, Perceived Job Stress, Sleep, and Organizational Support
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060984 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Work-life balance and job stress are critical to health and well-being. Long-haul truck driving (LHTD) is among the unhealthiest and most unsafe occupations in the U.S. Despite these disparities, there are no extant published studies examining the influence of work, stress and sleep [...] Read more.
Work-life balance and job stress are critical to health and well-being. Long-haul truck driving (LHTD) is among the unhealthiest and most unsafe occupations in the U.S. Despite these disparities, there are no extant published studies examining the influence of work, stress and sleep outcomes on drivers’ work-life balance. The current study investigated whether adverse work organization, stress, and poor sleep health among LHTDs are significantly associated with work-life conflict. Logistic regression was used to examine how work organization characteristics, job stress, and sleep influenced perceived stress and a composite measure of work-life conflict among a sample of 260 U.S. LHTDs. The pattern of regression results dictated subsequent analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM). Perceived job stress was the only statistically significant predictor for work-life balance. Fast pace of work, sleep duration and sleep quality were predictors of perceived job stress. SEM further elucidated that stress mediates the influences of fast work pace, supervisor/coworker support, and low sleep duration on each of the individual work-life balance indicators. There is an urgent need to address work conditions of LHTDs to better support their health, well-being, and work-life balance. Specifically, the findings from this study illustrate that scheduling practices and sleep outcomes could alleviate job stress and need to be addressed to more effectively support work-life balance. Future research and interventions should focus on policy and systems-level change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Model for Promoting Occupational Safety and Health in Taiwan’s Hospitals: An Integrative Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050882 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Advocating for improving workplace safety and health has gained substantial support in recent years. The medical industry is a high-risk industry and receives considerable public attention. This study used an integrative approach as a starting point and combined the contextual factors of an [...] Read more.
Advocating for improving workplace safety and health has gained substantial support in recent years. The medical industry is a high-risk industry and receives considerable public attention. This study used an integrative approach as a starting point and combined the contextual factors of an organization: perceived organizational support, safety climate, social influence, and shared decision making. Subsequently, the effects of these factors on preventive action and safety satisfaction were investigated. This study surveyed employees of two hospitals, one in Northern Taiwan and one in Eastern Taiwan, collecting valid data from 468 respondents. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to verify our research framework. The finding indicates that (1) All hypotheses proposed in this study were supported. (2) The overall goodness of fit of the model was excellent, and the explained variance of the outcome variables was high. (3) Safety climate had the strongest total effects on preventive action and safety satisfaction simultaneously, whereas preventive action had the strongest direct effect on safety satisfaction. The objective of this study was to obtain empirical conclusions and make suggestions for academic theory and clinical practice. The findings may serve as a reference for future research and for scholars and practitioners, enabling the creation of healthy workplaces and, thus, a brighter future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Work-Related Factors Associated with Lower Back Musculoskeletal Disorders in Female Shellfish Gatherers in Saubara, Bahia-Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050857 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lower back musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important public health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide, but with yet unknown prevalence among shellfish gatherers. To investigate the prevalence and work-related factors associated with lower back MSD in a population of female [...] Read more.
Lower back musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important public health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide, but with yet unknown prevalence among shellfish gatherers. To investigate the prevalence and work-related factors associated with lower back MSD in a population of female shellfish gatherers, an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out in Saubara, Bahia-Brazil, in 2013. The Brazilian version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), in addition to a questionnaire containing the physical demands adapted to the artisanal work, were applied to a random sample of 209 female shellfish gatherers. The prevalence of lower back MSD was 72.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression, the shellfish gatherers who had worked for more than 26 years in the activity showed a prevalence of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.04–1.44) times higher compared to those unexposed. Lower back MSD was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.08–1.42) times higher among those more exposed to work sitting with trunk flexion. Those performed manual handling and muscle force with the arms had a prevalence ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01–1.39). These results show the need for greater awareness of health and social welfare factors impacting workers in small-scale fisheries and will promote the elaboration of health care policies for this occupational class. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Supervisor Support, Coworker Support and Presenteeism among Healthcare Workers in China: The Mediating Role of Distributive Justice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050817 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Healthcare workers in China are exposed to extremely high job stress and inequitable work conditions, and the Healthy China 2030 blueprint has made them an important focus of policymakers. To examine the importance of distributive justice in Chinese medical reform, we analyzed data [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers in China are exposed to extremely high job stress and inequitable work conditions, and the Healthy China 2030 blueprint has made them an important focus of policymakers. To examine the importance of distributive justice in Chinese medical reform, we analyzed data from 1542 healthcare workers employed in 64 primary, secondary and tertiary hospitals in 28 Chinese cities in Western, Central and Eastern China in 2018. Supervisor support, coworker support, distributive justice, and presenteeism were assessed with the supervisor support scale, coworker support scale, distributive justice scale and perceived ability to work scale, respectively. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships among variables. The mediating effect of distributive justice on associations between supervisor support, coworker support, and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. The results revealed that significant indirect effects between supervisor support and presenteeism and between coworker support and presenteeism were significantly mediated by distributive justice. Better supervisor and coworker support might improve distributive justice among healthcare workers in Chinese hospitals, thereby increasing their performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Synergistic Effects of Organizational Justice and Trust to Supervisor on Vagal Tone: Preliminary Findings of an Empirical Investigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050790 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The influence of perceived unfairness at the workplace (organizational injustice) on employee health is well established. Several theories explain the unpleasant and stressful nature of the experience of injustice, using trust as a central element. This study examines the effect of trust to [...] Read more.
The influence of perceived unfairness at the workplace (organizational injustice) on employee health is well established. Several theories explain the unpleasant and stressful nature of the experience of injustice, using trust as a central element. This study examines the effect of trust to supervisor on the association of perceived injustice with vagal tone—an objective marker for stress experience. Questionnaires assessed organizational justice and trust. Vagal tone was measured by indictors of heart rate variability (HRV), which captured parasympathetic (pNN50, RMSSD, and HF) and parasympathetic and sympathetic (SDNN, and LF) regulation. Synergistic effects were tested by linear regressions with interaction terms between organizational justice and trust to supervisor in 38 managers. Organizational justice was related to HRV indicators that reflect in particular the parasympathetic branch (βpNN50 = 0.32, p < 0.05; βRMSSD = 0.27, p < 0.1), and interaction effects with trust to supervisor were also most pronounced there (interaction βpNN50 = −0.41, p < 0.01; βRMSSD = −0.47, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the combination of low perceived justice and trust to supervisor appears substantial to the physiological stress threat of employees. Promoting fairness at the workplace might reduce stress; if not possible, trust to supervisor should be enhanced. Full article
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