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Article

Effects of the Addition of Flaxseed and Amaranth on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Instant-Extruded Products

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Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Circuito Universitario, C.P. 31125 Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico
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Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66450 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L., Mexico
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Centro de Biotecnología-FEMSA, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, C.P. 64849 Monterrey, N.L., Mexico
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Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad-Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., Mexico
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Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periférico R. Almada Km 1, C.P. 33820 Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(6), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060183
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
The addition of flaxseed and amaranth on the physicochemical, functional, and microstructural changes of instant-extruded products was evaluated. Six mixtures with different proportions of amaranth (18.7–33.1%), flaxseed (6.6–9.3%), maize grits (55.6–67.3%) and minor ingredients (4.7%) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder. Insoluble and soluble fiber contents in extrudates increased as the proportions of amaranth and flaxseed increased. However, the highest flaxseed proportion had the highest soluble fiber content (1.9%). Extruded products with the highest proportion of flaxseed and amaranth resulted in the highest dietary fiber content and hardness values (5.2 N), which was correlated with the microstructural analysis where the crystallinity increased, resulting in larger, and more compact laminar structure. The extruded products with the highest maize grits proportion had the highest viscosity, expansion, and water absorption indexes, and the lowest water solubility index values. The mixtures with amaranth (18.7–22.9%), flaxseed (8.6–9.3%), and maize grits (63.8–67.3%) resulted in extruded products with acceptable physicochemical and functional properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: extruded products; flaxseed; amaranth; dietary fiber; extrusion-cooking extruded products; flaxseed; amaranth; dietary fiber; extrusion-cooking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tobias-Espinoza, J.L.; Amaya-Guerra, C.A.; Quintero-Ramos, A.; Pérez-Carrillo, E.; Núñez-González, M.A.; Martínez-Bustos, F.; Meléndez-Pizarro, C.O.; Báez-González, J.G.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, J.A. Effects of the Addition of Flaxseed and Amaranth on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Instant-Extruded Products. Foods 2019, 8, 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060183

AMA Style

Tobias-Espinoza JL, Amaya-Guerra CA, Quintero-Ramos A, Pérez-Carrillo E, Núñez-González MA, Martínez-Bustos F, Meléndez-Pizarro CO, Báez-González JG, Ortega-Gutiérrez JA. Effects of the Addition of Flaxseed and Amaranth on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Instant-Extruded Products. Foods. 2019; 8(6):183. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tobias-Espinoza, Jazmin L., Carlos A. Amaya-Guerra, Armando Quintero-Ramos, Esther Pérez-Carrillo, María A. Núñez-González, Fernando Martínez-Bustos, Carmen O. Meléndez-Pizarro, Juan G. Báez-González, and Juan A. Ortega-Gutiérrez 2019. "Effects of the Addition of Flaxseed and Amaranth on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Instant-Extruded Products" Foods 8, no. 6: 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060183

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