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Open AccessArticle

Development of Durum Wheat Breads Low in Sodium Using a Natural Low-Sodium Sea Salt

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Di3A—Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente, University of Catania, via S. Sofia 100, 95123 Catania, Italy
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CREA—Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca Olivicoltura, Frutticoltura e Agrumicoltura, Corso Savoia 190, 95024 Acireale (Catania), Italy
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DSAAF—Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Forestali, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 4, 90128 Palermo, Italy
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CREA—Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca Cerealicoltura e Colture Industriali, Corso Savoia 190, 95024 Acireale (Catania), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(6), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060752
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
Durum wheat is widespread in the Mediterranean area, mainly in southern Italy, where traditional durum wheat breadmaking is consolidated. Bread is often prepared by adding a lot of salt to the dough. However, evidence suggests that excessive salt in a diet is a disease risk factor. The aim of this work is to study the effect of a natural low-sodium sea salt (Saltwell®) on bread-quality parameters and shelf-life. Bread samples were prepared using different levels of traditional sea salt and Saltwell®. The loaves were packaged in modified atmosphere conditions (MAPs) and monitored over 90 days of storage. No significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found in specific volumes and bread yield between the breads and over storage times, regardless of the type and quantity of salt used. Textural data, however, showed some significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) between the breads and storage times. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is considered, nowadays, as an emerging ubiquitous processing contaminant; bread with the lowest level of Saltwell® had the lowest HMF content, and during storage, a decrease content was highlighted. Sensory data showed that the loaves had a similar rating (p ≤ 0.05) and differed only in salt content before storage. This study has found that durum wheat bread can make a nutritional claim of being “low in sodium” and “very low in sodium”. View Full-Text
Keywords: Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum Desf.; bread; NaCl; low-sodium sea salt; Na+ reduction; physico-chemical and textural attributes; sensory evaluation Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum Desf.; bread; NaCl; low-sodium sea salt; Na+ reduction; physico-chemical and textural attributes; sensory evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arena, E.; Muccilli, S.; Mazzaglia, A.; Giannone, V.; Brighina, S.; Rapisarda, P.; Fallico, B.; Allegra, M.; Spina, A. Development of Durum Wheat Breads Low in Sodium Using a Natural Low-Sodium Sea Salt. Foods 2020, 9, 752.

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