Sustainable Omega-3 Foods: Fish, Vegetable and Innovative Sources

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2023) | Viewed by 17397

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
1. IPMA, I.P - Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, Division of Aquaculture, Upgrading and Bioprospection, 1495-165 Lisboa, Portugal
2. CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Interests: Seafood science and technology; quality of fish/shellfish/macroalgae (wild and farmed); innovative technologies for fish/shellfish/seafood processing/preservation; effect of rearing conditions, feeding strategies and slaughter methods on the final quality of farmed fish; safe and healthy seafood; sustainable seafood production; cell-based fish fillets; seafood analysis (sensory and physicochemical)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Division of Aquaculture, Upgrading and Bioprospection, IPMA, I.P.—Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, Av. Dr. Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho 6, 1495-165 Lisboa, Portugal
2. CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Terminal de Cruzeiros de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Interests: lipidomics; seafood; nutrition; benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in health; biotechnology applied to micro- and macroalgae utilization in human food and feeds; marine biomolecules; functional ingredients such as squalene, phytosterols, EPA and DHA
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The beneficial role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in human health is widely recognised. Marine products, in particular fish and algae, are unique sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3), while vegetables and fruits are good sources of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3). However, despite increasing demand for health-promoting foods, diets low in seafood and vegetables remain prevalent. This situation has led to the development of foods enriched or supplemented with mega-3 PUFA, such as dairy products (milk and yogurts), bread and meat (chicken, pork and beef). For these reasons, and with the ONU 2030  goals “Establish Good Health and Well-Being” and “Influence Responsible Consumption and Production” in mind, it is of extreme importance to devote particular attention to recent innovations in the field of healthy food.  The aim of this Special Issue is to gather the most advanced research on naturally rich and enriched omega-3 PUFA foods, focusing on ingredients and product prototypes that could contribute to sustainable diets. Conventional and alternative sources of omega-3 PUFA (e.g., plant-based, microbe-based, marine-based (fish, algae, invertebrates), animal-based, insect-based), as well as the processing or production technologies, will be considered to improve the knowledge on the characteristics of each source of omega-3 PUFA, including the nutritional quality (e.g., bioavailability, bioaccessibility, bioactivity) and sensory properties. In addition, studies on the storage and shelf life of the products will be considered in order to obtain comprehensive knowledge about omega-3 foods. Researchers are invited to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting original research articles or reviews.

Dr. Amparo Goncalves
Dr. Narcisa Maria Bandarra
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • novel sources of omega-3 PUFA
  • lipidomic and lipid profile
  • healthy properties of omega-3 PUFA
  • bioavailability, bioaccessibility and bioactivity
  • sustainable production
  • food processing and packaging
  • food storage and shelf-life
  • lipid oxidation
  • sensory profile

Published Papers (6 papers)

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20 pages, 6919 KiB  
Article
Effect of DHA-Enriched Phospholipids from Fish Roe on Rat Fecal Metabolites: Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis
by Xiaodan Lu, Luyao Huang, Yanjun Chen, Ling Hu, Rongbin Zhong, Lijiao Chen, Wenjian Cheng, Baodong Zheng and Peng Liang
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081687 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Lipid metabolism disorder has become an important hidden danger threatening human health, and various supplements to treat lipid metabolism disorder have been studied. Our previous studies have shown that DHA-enriched phospholipids from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys Crocea) roe (LYCRPLs) have lipid-regulating [...] Read more.
Lipid metabolism disorder has become an important hidden danger threatening human health, and various supplements to treat lipid metabolism disorder have been studied. Our previous studies have shown that DHA-enriched phospholipids from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys Crocea) roe (LYCRPLs) have lipid-regulating effects. To better explain the effect of LYCRPLs on lipid regulation in rats, the fecal metabolites of rats were analyzed from the level of metabolomics in this study, and GC/MS metabolomics measurements were performed to figure out the effect of LYCRPLs on fecal metabolites in rats. Compared with the control (K) group, 101 metabolites were identified in the model (M) group. There were 54, 47, and 57 metabolites in the low-dose (GA), medium-dose (GB), and high-dose (GC) groups that were significantly different from that of group M, respectively. Eighteen potential biomarkers closely related to lipid metabolism were screened after intervention with different doses of LYCRPLs on rats, which were classified into several metabolic pathways in rats, including pyrimidine metabolism, the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), the metabolism of L-cysteine, carnitine synthesis, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glycolysis, and bile secretion. L-cysteine was speculated to be a useful biomarker of LYCRPLs acting on rat fecal metabolites. Our findings indicated that LYCRPLs may regulate lipid metabolism disorders in SD rats by activating these metabolic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Omega-3 Foods: Fish, Vegetable and Innovative Sources)
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11 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Feeding Laying Ducks Eucommia ulmoides oliv. Leaves Increases the n-3 Fatty Acids Content and Decreases the n-6: n-3 PUFA Ratio in Egg Yolk without Affecting Laying Performance or Egg Quality
by Yulong Feng, Guotao Dai, Xue Han, Meijuan Li, Degang Zhao, Jiahai Wu, Yongbao Wu and Zhiguo Wen
Foods 2023, 12(2), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020287 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing duck diets with Eucommia ulmoides oliv. leaf powder (EUL). Laying ducks (n = 480) were randomly allocated into 4 experimental treatments and fed diets containing 0, 1, 2, or 4% EUL. Dietary inclusion [...] Read more.
The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing duck diets with Eucommia ulmoides oliv. leaf powder (EUL). Laying ducks (n = 480) were randomly allocated into 4 experimental treatments and fed diets containing 0, 1, 2, or 4% EUL. Dietary inclusion of EUL had no effect (p > 0.05) on laying performance or egg quality, but linearly increased (p < 0.05) total plasma protein, globulin, and HDL-C concentrations with concurrent reductions (p < 0.05) in plasma concentrations of cholesterol and LDL-C. Eggs laid by ducks receiving EUL had yolks with linearly higher phenolic concentrations (p < 0.05) but lower cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.05). EUL supplementation in duck diets significantly reduced n-6: n-3 PUFA ratio by enriching n-3 fatty acids in yolks (p < 0.05) with no changes in n-6 PUFA (p >0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Omega-3 Foods: Fish, Vegetable and Innovative Sources)
16 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Phytogenic Antioxidants Prolong n-3 Fatty Acid-Enriched Eggs’ Shelf Life by Activating the Nrf-2 Pathway through Phosphorylation of MAPK
by Muhammad Suhaib Shahid, Shengyu Zhou, Wei Nie, Liang Wang, Huiyuan Lv and Jianmin Yuan
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203158 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Helpful for human health, omega-3 (n-3)-enriched eggs are preferred by consumers. However, antioxidants should be added to the hen’s diet to prevent n-3 fatty acid oxidation due to their unsaturated bonds. A study was designed to investigate the effects of different antioxidants on [...] Read more.
Helpful for human health, omega-3 (n-3)-enriched eggs are preferred by consumers. However, antioxidants should be added to the hen’s diet to prevent n-3 fatty acid oxidation due to their unsaturated bonds. A study was designed to investigate the effects of different antioxidants on performance, egg quality, fatty acid profile, oxidation parameters, gene expression, and magnum morphology. A total of 450 hens were divided into five dietary groups. Wheat–flaxseed was used for the basic diet (control) and supplemented with vitamin E (VE), chlorogenic acid (CA), polyphenol (PF), and lutein (L). The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. The eggs were collected on the 5th week and were analyzed for quality, oxidative stability, and fatty acid (FA) content, being stored for 0 d, 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, 28 d, 35 d, and 42 d. The results showed that supplemental VE, PF, CA, and L improved the egg weight and hen day egg production compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The VE, PF, and L groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) and maintained the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the egg yolk. The albumen height and Haugh unit were maintained in the egg yolk till 35 days of storage by the VE, PF, and L groups, while the CA group reduced the albumen quality after 21 d storage. The VE, PF, CA, and lutein maintained the content of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), during the whole storage period. The total n-3 FA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were retained in the egg yolk till 35 and 28 days of storage, respectively, and slightly decreased after 35 and 28 days in the L groups. The total n-6 (Tn-6) FA was maintained in the yolk till 28 days of storage in the CA and PF groups, respectively. The VE, PF, and L groups upregulated the expression of Nrf-2, P38MAPK, HO-1, SOD-1, and GSH-Px as compared to the CA and control groups. The VE, PF, and L groups significantly increased the magnum primary folds and epithelium height as compared to CA and the control. Thus, it was concluded that the use of PF and L is better at preventing egg quality deterioration and lipid oxidation, maintaining more than 300 mg/egg n-3 FA during storage, by activating the Nrf-2 pathway through the phosphorylation of P38MAPK, and enhancing the phase-2 antioxidant defense enzymes, namely, SOD, GSH-Px, and HO-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Omega-3 Foods: Fish, Vegetable and Innovative Sources)
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14 pages, 2024 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Fish Oil-DHA Supplementation for Cognitive Function in Thai Children: A Randomized, Doubled-Blind, Two-Dose, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
by Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn, Akkarach Bumrungpert, Prayoon Suyajai and Con Stough
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172595 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3942
Abstract
The effects of fish oil (FO) or omega-3 supplementation on cognition has been the subject of several previous clinical trials. However, the effect of different doses taken chronically on cognition in children has not been well studied. In order to address this gap [...] Read more.
The effects of fish oil (FO) or omega-3 supplementation on cognition has been the subject of several previous clinical trials. However, the effect of different doses taken chronically on cognition in children has not been well studied. In order to address this gap in our knowledge, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of one hundred and twenty healthy, cognitively normal Thai children aged 6–12 years old consumed daily low dose FO (260 mg Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), high dose FO (520 mg DHA), or placebo (Soybean oil) for 12 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed using a computerized cognitive battery, including the Go/NoGo, N-Back, and Digit Span tests as well as concurrent event-related potentials (ERPs), which together measured attention, processing speed, inhibition, and memory at baseline and 12 weeks. We hypothesized that compared to placebo, the two FO groups would show improved cognitive performance and shorter ERP latencies. In total, 42, 39, and 39 participants completed each of the test (FO-A, FO-B) and placebo groups (P) allocations, respectively, and were analyzed (120 in total across the three groups). No significant differences were observed between reaction times (RTs), accuracy, or error rates for all three of the cognitive tests. The ERP measurement and analysis of brain activity during the cognitive tests showed an increase in ERP amplitude. For all cognitive tests, there was a dose-response effect of FO on ERP amplitudes. These findings indicate that fish oil intake leads to a consistent improvement in attention and cognitive processing ability measured by changes in brain activity during working and long-term memory processes. This is the first study to directly quantify such an effect through simultaneous measurement of manual and mental activity during cognitive tasks following chronic FO use in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Omega-3 Foods: Fish, Vegetable and Innovative Sources)
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14 pages, 2731 KiB  
Article
Mayonnaise Enriched with Flaxseed Oil: Omega-3 Fatty Acids Content, Sensory Quality and Stability during the Storage
by Mohammed El-Waseif, Badr Saed, Hany Fahmy, Ahmed Sabry, Hamdy Shaaban, Mohamed Abdelgawad, Ali Amin and Amr Farouk
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152288 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
This study aimed to produce healthy mayonnaise with a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases, containing omega-3 fatty acids (FA), using flaxseed oil (FXO), which includes a high percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3). The mayonnaise was prepared by replacing soybean oil with FXO [...] Read more.
This study aimed to produce healthy mayonnaise with a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases, containing omega-3 fatty acids (FA), using flaxseed oil (FXO), which includes a high percentage of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3). The mayonnaise was prepared by replacing soybean oil with FXO at 20, 30, and 40% levels. The effect on the organoleptic, physical, and chemical quality was studied compared to a control, prepared only with soybean oil (70%). The oxidative and microbial stability during 12 weeks of storage at 25 and 7 °C was also evaluated. The results showed that the use of FXO in mayonnaise (20, 30, and 40%) led to an increase in TUFA (from 79.37 (control) to 82.48, 85.49, and 87.66%, respectively), particularly in PUFAn-3, due to the rise of ALA (from 6.5 to 18.38, 24.02 and 37.87%, respectively) and a decrease in TSFA (from 20.63 to 17.52, 14.51 and 12.34%, respectively). The panelists did not perceive significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the “new” mayonnaise. A decrease in the oxidation rates of the “new” mayonnaise during the storage period was observed. A significant effect on microbial growth was not reported, although the permissible limits were not exceeded after 12 weeks of storage, even at 25 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Omega-3 Foods: Fish, Vegetable and Innovative Sources)
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16 pages, 4110 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Yin-Xiu Liu, Jun-Hui Yu, Ji-Han Sun, Wen-Qin Ma, Jin-Jing Wang and Gui-Ju Sun
Foods 2023, 12(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040725 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4812
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) supplementation on serum lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane library from database [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) supplementation on serum lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane library from database inception to 30 April 2022. This meta-analysis included eight trials with 387 participants. We found that supplementation of n-3 PUFAs has no significant reduction in TC level (SMD = −0.02; 95% CI: −0.22 ~ 0.18, I2 = 23.7%) and LDL-c level in serum (SMD = 0.18; 95% CI: −0.18 ~ 0.53, I2 = 54.9%) of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, we found no significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (SMD = 0.02; 95% CI: −0.21 ~ 0.25, I2 = 0%) in patients with metabolic syndrome after consuming n-3 PUFAs. In addition, we found that n-3 PUFAs can significantly decrease serum triglyceride levels (SMD= −0.39; 95% CI: −0.59 ~ −0.18, I2 = 17.2%), systolic blood pressure (SMD = −0.54; 95% CI: −0.86 ~ −0.22, I2 = 48.6%), and diastolic blood pressure (SMD = −0.56; 95% CI: −0.79 ~ 0.33, I2 = 14.0%) in patients with metabolic syndrome. The results from the sensitivity analysis confirmed that our results were robust. These findings suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation may serve as a potential dietary supplement for improving lipids and blood pressure in metabolic syndrome. Given the quality of the included studies, further studies are still needed to verify our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Omega-3 Foods: Fish, Vegetable and Innovative Sources)
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