The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2024 | Viewed by 9157

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Food Engineering, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Interests: bioactive compounds in food; functional food ingredients; biotechnological production of ingredients; in vitro assays for bioactive compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The availability of food, people's access to it, and adequate consumption from a nutritional point of view are the three pillars on which the concept of food security is based, consolidated by the FAO since the World Food Conference (WFP) in Rome in 1996. Food security occurs when all people have permanent physical, social, and economic access to safe, nutritious food in a sufficient quantity to satisfy their nutritional needs and food preferences, thus leading an active and healthy life. Despite the almost 30 years that have passed since the consolidation of this concept, we still live in a world in which food insecurity permeates all societies and is present in the reality of people who do not have access to enough food, as is part of the lives of those who have access to food but are poorly nourished, and result in developing all sorts of metabolic diseases. Dealing with these two faces of food insecurity that harm our current society is very challenging, and the role of the food industry in this challenge is fundamental.

The mechanization and automation of the entire food production chain will continue to be essential for us to continue increasing productivity in a sustainable way and guaranteeing the availability of safe food for everyone. The challenge is to improve the health promotion aspects of processed foods. In this scenario, the search for viable sources of bioactive compounds and all the stages involved in obtaining them, up to their application in foods with proven functional efficacy, are of great importance to support this new industry of health-promoting foods. Therefore, this Special Issue welcomes the contribution of high-level works which prospect new interesting sources of bioactive compounds for food, develop processes for obtaining or biotransforming these compounds for greater availability and bioactivity, studies on the formulation and application of bioactive compounds in food matrices for the production of functional foods, and studies to prove the functional efficacy of bioactive compounds and ingredients, all in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

Prof. Dr. Juliana Alves Macedo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • functional foods
  • health efficacy
  • functional ingredients
  • clinical assays
  • in vitro assays

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

19 pages, 5702 KiB  
Article
Kaempferol Improves Exercise Performance by Regulating Glucose Uptake, Mitochondrial Biogenesis, and Protein Synthesis via PI3K/AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways
by Xiaoning Ji, Chaozheng Zhang, Jing Yang, Yaru Tian, Lijuan You, Hui Yang, Yongning Li, Haibo Liu, Deng Pan and Zhaoping Liu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071068 - 30 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid with reported bioactivities found in many fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. However, its effects on exercise performance and muscle metabolism remain inconclusive. The present study investigated kaempferol’s effects on improving exercise performance and potential mechanisms in vivo and [...] Read more.
Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid with reported bioactivities found in many fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. However, its effects on exercise performance and muscle metabolism remain inconclusive. The present study investigated kaempferol’s effects on improving exercise performance and potential mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. The grip strength, exhaustive running time, and distance of mice were increased in the high-dose kaempferol group (p < 0.01). Also, kaempferol reduced fatigue-related biochemical markers and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) related to antioxidant capacity. Kaempferol also increased the glycogen and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the liver and skeletal muscle, as well as glucose in the blood. In vitro, kaempferol promoted glucose uptake, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function and decreased oxidative stress in both 2D and 3D C2C12 myotube cultures. Moreover, kaempferol activated the PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in the C2C12 cells. It also upregulated the key targets of glucose uptake, mitochondrial function, and protein synthesis. These findings suggest that kaempferol improves exercise performance and alleviates physical fatigue by increasing glucose uptake, mitochondrial biogenesis, and protein synthesis and by decreasing ROS. Kaempferol’s molecular mechanism may be related to the regulation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
Relation between Strawberry Fruit Redness and Bioactivity: Deciphering the Role of Anthocyanins as Health Promoting Compounds
by Elsa Martínez-Ferri, Tamara Yuliet Forbes-Hernandez, Lucía Cervantes, Carmen Soria, Maurizio Battino and María Teresa Ariza
Foods 2024, 13(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010110 - 28 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
The red colour of most berries is often associated to fruit healthiness, since it has been linked to enrichment in anthocyanins (polyphenol with antioxidative properties). However, recent studies suggest that anthocyanins could not be the major contributors to bioactivity leading to uncertainty about [...] Read more.
The red colour of most berries is often associated to fruit healthiness, since it has been linked to enrichment in anthocyanins (polyphenol with antioxidative properties). However, recent studies suggest that anthocyanins could not be the major contributors to bioactivity leading to uncertainty about their role as important molecules in the generation of health-promoting properties. To shed light on this issue, spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques were used for characterizing the content of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, in fruits of red (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. Fortuna) and white strawberry (Fragaria vesca spp. XXVIII) species (distinguishing receptacle from achene). In addition, the effect of these extracts on the reduction of intracellular ROS was tested, as well as on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the quantification of cell oxidation markers. The results showed that white receptacle extracts (deprived of anthocyanins) were able to protect cells from oxidative damage to a greater extent than red fruits. This could be due per se to their high antioxidant capacity, greater than that shown in red fruits, or to the ability of antioxidants to modulate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, thus questioning the positive effect of anthocyanins on the wholesomeness of strawberry fruits. The results shed light on the relevance of anthocyanins in the prevention of health-associated oxidative damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
n-3 PUFA Enriched Eggs as a Source of Valuable Bioactive Substances
by Ana Radanović, Gordana Kralik, Ines Drenjančević, Olivera Galović, Manuela Košević and Zlata Kralik
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4202; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234202 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
This research elaborates the process of enriching table eggs with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and presents the effect of such enriched eggs on human health. The experiment was performed on 480 TETRA SL laying hens divided into three groups. Feeding mixtures [...] Read more.
This research elaborates the process of enriching table eggs with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and presents the effect of such enriched eggs on human health. The experiment was performed on 480 TETRA SL laying hens divided into three groups. Feeding mixtures contained 5% of oils (K = soybean oil, P1 = 3.5% linseed oil + 1.5% fish oil, P2 = 3% linseed oil + 2% fish oil). Referring to the content of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eggs of P1 and P2 groups were significantly richer in n-3 PUFA than eggs of the control group (p = 0.001). Atherogenic (AI), thrombogenic (TI), and hypo/hypercholesterolemic (HHI) indexes of egg yolks were more favourable in enriched eggs than in conventional eggs. Fatty acid profiles in the blood of examinees that consumed conventional and enriched eggs (treatments K and P1, respectively) differed significantly in total saturated fatty acids (ΣSFA) (p = 0.041) and in the content of ALA (p = 0.010). The consumption of n-3 PUFA-enriched eggs lowered the Σn-6 PUFA/Σn-3 PUFA ratio in the examinees’ blood serum (27%) and had a favourable effect on some blood biochemical indicators. This research confirmed the assumption that the use of a combination of fish and linseed oil in mixtures for laying hens in an amount of up to 5% will increase the content of omega-3 in table eggs, but it was not confirmed that the consumption of these eggs in a short period of time (21 days) has a positive effect on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
14 pages, 3137 KiB  
Article
Effect of Enzymatic Biotransformation on the Hypotensive Potential of Red Grape Pomace Extract
by Daniel Batista, Gabriela de Matuoka e Chiocchetti and Juliana Alves Macedo
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224109 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Hypertension is a widespread health risk, affecting over a billion people and causing 9 million deaths per year. The Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System (RAAS) is a primary target for hypertension treatment, and it is primarily treated through drugs that inhibit the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE). [...] Read more.
Hypertension is a widespread health risk, affecting over a billion people and causing 9 million deaths per year. The Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System (RAAS) is a primary target for hypertension treatment, and it is primarily treated through drugs that inhibit the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE). In addition to pharmacological treatment, various plants are recommended in traditional medicine for blood pressure regulation. This study aimed to produce high-phenolic-content extracts with and without enzymatic assistance from red grape pomace and evaluate their antioxidant capacity and ACE inhibitory potential. The total phenolic content (TPC) was measured, and phenolic identification was performed using HPLC analysis. In addition, the antioxidant capacity and anti-hypertensive potential were determined via in vitro assays. There was no statistical difference in the TPC antioxidant capacity between the extraction methods. Otherwise, when considering the extraction yield, the enzymatic process recovered around 70% more phenolic compounds from the pomace, and the phenolic profile was changed. Enzymatic assistance also significantly increased the ACE inhibitory potential in the grape pomace extract. This study demonstrates the viability of upcycling grape pomace to obtain bioactive compounds and to reduce their environmental impact, and highlights the influence of the enzymatic extraction on the hypotensive potential of the extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 1669 KiB  
Article
Bioaccessibility Evaluation of Soymilk Isoflavones with Biotransformation Processing
by Gabriela Alves Macedo, Cíntia Rabelo e Paiva Caria, Paula de Paula Menezes Barbosa, Marina Rodrigues Mazine and Alessandra Gambero
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183401 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Soy isoflavones are considered important sources of bioactive compounds, but they are poorly absorbable, due to their large hydrophilic structures. Some biotransformation strategies have been used to convert the glycosidic form into aglycones, making them available for absorption. This study evaluated the potential [...] Read more.
Soy isoflavones are considered important sources of bioactive compounds, but they are poorly absorbable, due to their large hydrophilic structures. Some biotransformation strategies have been used to convert the glycosidic form into aglycones, making them available for absorption. This study evaluated the potential of enzymatic and/or microbial fermentation combined bioprocesses in a soymilk extract before and after gastrointestinal in vitro digestion. Commercial β-glucosidase (ET) and a mix of commercial probiotics (F) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium lactis were used to biotransform the soymilk phenolic extract. An isoflavone profile was identified using HPLC-DAD, total phenolic content was identified using the Folin–Ciocalteu test, and antioxidant capacity was identified using ORAC and FRAP. Soymilk enzymatically treated (ET) followed by microbial fermentation (ET + T) resulted in better conversion of glycosylated isoflavones (6-fold lower than control for daidzin and 2-fold for genistin) to aglycones (18-fold greater than control for dadzein and genistein). The total phenolic content was increased (3.48 mg/mL for control and 4.48 mg/mL for ET + T) and the antioxidant capacity was improved with treatments of ET + T (120 mg/mL for control and 151 mg/mL with ORAC) and with FRAP (285 µL/mL for control and 317 µL/mL). After the in vitro digestion, ET + T samples resulted in a higher content of genistein (two-fold higher than control); also, increases in the total phenolic content (2.81 mg/mL for control and 4.03 mg/mL for ET + T) and antioxidant capacity measured with ORAC were greater compared to undigested samples. In addition, the isolated microbial fermentation process also resulted in positive effects, but the combination of both treatments presented a synergistic effect on soy-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1190 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Standardized Extract Obtained from Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Bagasse in DSS-Induced Mouse Colitis
by Gisele Goulart da Silva, Lucia Elaine de Oliveira Braga, Ellen Cristina Souza de Oliveira, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Ana Paula Dionísio and Ana Lucia Tasca Gois Ruiz
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173318 - 4 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several studies relate eating habits to different aspects of IBD, such as progression and worsening of the clinical condition. Therefore, many natural products (NPs) such as polyphenols and carotenoids have been identified as [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Several studies relate eating habits to different aspects of IBD, such as progression and worsening of the clinical condition. Therefore, many natural products (NPs) such as polyphenols and carotenoids have been identified as promising agents in supporting IBD. An interesting source for obtaining bioactive NPs is the by-products of the food industry. The present study evaluated the potential beneficial effect of a standardized extract (CAE) obtained from cashew apple bagasse in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis model in mice. This was the first time that CAE had been evaluated in this experimental model. Chemical evaluation of CAE identified carotenoids (96.28 ± 0.15 mg/100 g), phenolic compounds (37.49 ± 0.64 mg/100 g), and a mixture of anacardic acids (C15:3 = 94.2 ± 0.6 mg/100 g; C15:2 = 108.4 ± 0.1 mg/100 g; C15:1 = 214.8 ± 0.2 mg/100 g). Administration of CAE (500 mg/kg, 4 days, p.o.) after DSS challenge was more effective in delaying disease progression compared with prior treatment (500 mg/kg, 30 days, p.o.), according to the disease activity index. However, no treatment strategy with CAE was able to prevent or inhibit disease progression, since all parameters evaluated (macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological) in CAE-treated animals were similar to those observed in DSS-challenged animals. Despite the high dose (500 mg/kg), the standardized extract (CAE) did not result in an effective concentration of carotenoids. Furthermore, as some anacardic acids have been reported as histone acetyltransferases inhibitors, there could be a possible antagonistic relationship between carotenoids and anacardic acids. Complementary research will be necessary to test the hypothesis of antagonism. Thus, an optimized extract, with an even higher concentration of carotenoids, obtained from cashew apple bagasse, can be developed as a possible adjuvant food supplement for inflammatory bowel diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 4090 KiB  
Article
Fresh and Browned Lotus Root Extracts Promote Cholesterol Metabolism in FFA-Induced HepG2 Cells through Different Pathways
by Shuyuan Zhong, Jingfang Li, Meng Wei, Zeyuan Deng and Xiaoru Liu
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091781 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Browning of fresh-cut plants is mainly attributed to the enzymatic browning of phenolic compounds induced by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), producing browning products such as anthraquinones, flavanol oxides, and glycosides, which are usually considered to be non-toxic. Could browning bring any benefits on behalf [...] Read more.
Browning of fresh-cut plants is mainly attributed to the enzymatic browning of phenolic compounds induced by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), producing browning products such as anthraquinones, flavanol oxides, and glycosides, which are usually considered to be non-toxic. Could browning bring any benefits on behalf of their bioactivity? Our previous study found that browned lotus root extracts (BLREs) could reduce the cholesterol level in obese mice as fresh lotus root extracts (FLREs) did. This study aimed to compare the mechanisms of FLRE and BLRE on cholesterol metabolism and verify whether the main component’s monomer regulates cholesterol metabolism like the extracts do through in vitro experiments. Extracts and monomeric compounds are applied to HepG2 cells induced by free fatty acids (FFA). Extracellular total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were also detected. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to observe cholesterol metabolism-related gene and protein expression. The in vitro results showed that BLRE and FLRE could reduce TC and TG levels in HepG2 cells. In addition, BLRE suppressed the synthesis of cholesterol. Meanwhile, FLRE promoted the synthesis of bile acid (BA) as well as the clearance and efflux of cholesterol. Furthermore, the main monomers of BLRE also decreased cholesterol synthesis, which is the same as BLRE. In addition, the main monomers of FLRE promoted the synthesis of BAs, similar to FLRE. BLRE and FLRE promote cholesterol metabolism by different pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Food-Derived Bioactive Ingredients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop