New Insights into the Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strain in the Fermentation

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbial Metabolism, Physiology & Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 43755

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Graduate Institute of Food Culture and Innovation, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, No.1, Songhe Rd., Xiaogang Dist., Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Interests: wine; fermentation; bioactive compounds; food process
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food fermentation has been used to add value to food since ancient times. Many lactic acid bacteria play an important role as beneficial components of the human microbiota. In the last few years, an increase in the knowledge of the biochemical changes occurring during fermentation, such as the production of healthier wines, has been pursued by increasing the knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, or application of lactic acid bacteria fermented plant material against neuronal damage. Additionally, due to their probiotic properties, they are currently extensively used as index material in food fermentation, and many have been confirmed to be related to the metabolic process of microorganisms to produce substances beneficial for human health. Therefore, this Special Issue aims to collect original research articles and reviews on fermentation application and characterize the functional properties of these bacteria and also analyze their capability to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), conjugated fatty acids (CFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), or other functional compounds and their ability to affect the gut microbiota. In addition, the biological activity of intestinal next-generation probiotics has attracted more and more attention. Many metabolic diseases, aging diseases, and rare diseases have been found to be related to intestinal microbes. Therefore, some next-generation probiotics, such as auxiliary biological treatments, are the future. This issue also aims to accept papers on the progress, development, and application-related research of next-generation probiotics and their metabolites.

Dr. Chih Yao Hou
Dr. Bao-Hong Lee
Dr. Ming-Kuei Shih
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
  • Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB)
  • Functional fermentation products
  • Prophylactic treatment
  • Nutraceutical production
  • Bioactive compounds
  • next-generation probiotics
  • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) therapeutics
  • Multifunctional lactic acid bacteria(LAB)

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
New Insights into the Application of Lactic Acid Bacterial Strains in Fermentation
by Ming-Kuei Shih, Bao-Hong Lee and Chih-Yao Hou
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090442 - 6 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1612
Abstract
In recent years, lactic acid bacteria, widely used in food fermentation, have been recognized as beneficial components of the human microbiome in which they play an important role [...] Full article

Research

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11 pages, 1738 KiB  
Article
Microbiota and Mycobiota of Soy Sauce-Supplied Lactic Acid Bacteria Treated with High Pressure
by Chiung-Yu Lai, Chih-Yao Hou, Pei-Ting Chuang, Wei-Hsuan Hsu and She-Ching Wu
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070338 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Background: Ethyl carbamate (EC), a byproduct that naturally forms in fermented foods, can cause tumors and cell death and is classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A). EC is naturally formed through the alcoholysis reaction between ethanol and carbamyl compounds. The major [...] Read more.
Background: Ethyl carbamate (EC), a byproduct that naturally forms in fermented foods, can cause tumors and cell death and is classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A). EC is naturally formed through the alcoholysis reaction between ethanol and carbamyl compounds. The major precursors and dominantly emerging stages of EC differ with disparate food types, including soy sauce. This work aimed to clarify the formation of EC and its influence factors throughout the soy sauce production process with or without high-pressure process (HPP) treatment. Methods: Tetragenococcus halophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and Candida versatilis were added to soy sauce. The levels of citrulline and EC were measured, and a 16S and ITS assay investigated the microbiota. Results: L-citrulline production was found in each group after fermentation for one month. In addition, L-citrulline levels were generated the most in group D (500 MPa treated raw soy sauce with 12% saltwater and mixed fermentation bacteria, including T. halophilus,P. acidilactici,Z. rouxii, and C. versatilis) and group E (soy sauce fermentation with 12% saltwater without HPP treatment) compared to group F (soy sauce fermentation with 18% saltwater without HPP treatment). Conclusions: These results indicated that salt concentration and mixed fermentation bacteria (T. halophilus,P. acidilactici,Z. rouxii,C. versatilis) might not be major factors for L-citrulline production. Full article
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10 pages, 2686 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of the Antihypertensive Effect of Fermented Sargassum horneri with Lactiplantibacillus pentosus SN001
by Momoko Tamura, Satoshi Shimizu, Hiroshi Nagai, Orie Yoshinari and Naoko Hamada-Sato
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070330 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Sargassum horneri is a seaweed with antihypertensive properties. However, it is underutilized in some areas, and effective utilization methods are being sought. In this study, we prepared a fermented S. horneri using lactic acid bacteria Lactiplantibacillus pentosus SN001 and investigated its effective utilization [...] Read more.
Sargassum horneri is a seaweed with antihypertensive properties. However, it is underutilized in some areas, and effective utilization methods are being sought. In this study, we prepared a fermented S. horneri using lactic acid bacteria Lactiplantibacillus pentosus SN001 and investigated its effective utilization by enhancing its antihypertensive effect. The ACE inhibitory activity of S. horneri ranged from 3.6% to a maximum of 63.3% after fermentation. In vivo studies using mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) suggested an antihypertensive effect of fermented S. horneri. Purification and NMR analysis of the ACE inhibitory component in fermented S. horneri identified glycerol. Therefore, it is suggested that glycerol is responsible for the strong antihypertensive effect of fermented S. horneri. In conclusion, S. horneri is expected to be used as a dietary ingredient with enhanced antihypertensive effect by fermentation with L. pentosus SN001. Full article
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12 pages, 2422 KiB  
Article
Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid by Levilactobacillus brevis CD0817 by Coupling Fermentation with Self-Buffered Whole-Cell Catalysis
by Haixing Li, Tianyi Sun, Mengya Jia, Lingqin Wang, Cheng Wei, Jinfeng Pei, Zhiyu Lin and Shuixing Wang
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070321 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
There is a recent trend of using lactic acid bacteria for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study described a method that combines fermentation and self-buffered whole-cell catalysis for the efficient production of GABA using Levilactobacillus brevis CD0817. Upon the completion of [...] Read more.
There is a recent trend of using lactic acid bacteria for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study described a method that combines fermentation and self-buffered whole-cell catalysis for the efficient production of GABA using Levilactobacillus brevis CD0817. Upon the completion of GABA fermentation, cells were recovered to conduct whole-cell catalysis by which the substrate L-glutamic acid was catalytically decarboxylated to GABA. L-glutamic acid itself maintained the acidity essential for decarboxylation. To maximize the whole-cell catalysis ability, the effects of the cell culture method, catalysis temperature, catalysis time, cell concentration, and L-glutamic acid dosage were investigated. The results illustrate that the cells that were cultivated for 16 h in a fermentation medium supplemented with 20.0 g/L of glucose were the most suitable for the whole-cell catalytic production of GABA. At 16 h, the fermentative GABA content reached 204.2 g/L. Under optimized whole-cell catalytic conditions (temperature 45.0 °C, time 12.0 h, wet cells 25.0 g/L, and L-glutamic acid 120.0 g/L), 85.1 g/L of GABA was obtained, with 3.7 ± 0.9 g/L of substrate residue. GABA was recovered from the system by sequentially performing rotary vacuum evaporation, precipitation with ethanol, filtration with filter paper, and drying. The purity of the GABA product reached 97.1%, with a recovery rate of 87.0%. These data suggest that the proposed method has potential applications in the production of GABA. Full article
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6 pages, 351 KiB  
Communication
Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Raw Material for Cocoa Bean Fermentation in the Brazilian Amazon
by Gilson Celso Albuquerque Chagas Junior, Nelson Rosa Ferreira, Maria Beatriz A. Gloria, Rubens Menezes Gobira, Felipe de Andrade Maia and Alessandra Santos Lopes
Fermentation 2022, 8(5), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8050199 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
The prevalent microbiota during cocoa fermentation is one of the main factors responsible for the chemical and biochemical changes that lead to desirable chocolate characteristics. However, the microbiota can be affected by several factors, including the edaphoclimatic conditions, which are typical of the [...] Read more.
The prevalent microbiota during cocoa fermentation is one of the main factors responsible for the chemical and biochemical changes that lead to desirable chocolate characteristics. However, the microbiota can be affected by several factors, including the edaphoclimatic conditions, which are typical of the production region. The objective of this study was to identify LAB in Amazonian cocoa prior to fermentation. LAB were isolated using MRS agar. By sequencing the 16S region of isolated LAB in MRS agar, it was possible to identify five LAB species that were registered in the GenBank database (accessions from MT117900 to MT117915). They included Pediococcus acidilactici, which was the most prevalent, followed by Lactobacillus farraginis, L. parafarraginis, L. zeae, and L. casei. Studies are needed to ascertain their specific roles and impact on cocoa quality. It is likely that they can be available as starter cultures to enhance the quality characteristics of chocolate. Full article
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13 pages, 1898 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of a Cholesterol-Lowering Bacteria from Bubalus bubalis Raw Milk
by Abdul Hameed, Carla Condò, Isfahan Tauseef, Maryam Idrees, Shakira Ghazanfar, Arshad Farid, Muhammad Muzammal, Mohammed Al Mohaini, Abdulkhaliq J. Alsalman, Maitham A. Al Hawaj, Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Wadzani Palnam Dauda, Yasir Hameed, Yousef N. Alhashem and Abeer A. Alanazi
Fermentation 2022, 8(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8040163 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3895
Abstract
Probiotics retrieved from animal sources have substantial health benefits for both humans and animals. The present study was designed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from domestic water buffalo milk (Bubalus bubalis) and to evaluate their potential as target-based probiotics. [...] Read more.
Probiotics retrieved from animal sources have substantial health benefits for both humans and animals. The present study was designed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from domestic water buffalo milk (Bubalus bubalis) and to evaluate their potential as target-based probiotics. Forty-six LAB strains were isolated and, among them, five strains (NMCC-M2, NMCC-M4, NMCC-M5, NMCC-M6, and NMCC-M7) were regarded as possible probiotics on the basis of their phenotypic and biochemical properties. These isolates were molecularly identified as Weissella confusa (NMCC-M2), Leuconostoc pseudo-mesenteroides (NMCC-M4), Lactococcus lactis Subsp. hordniae (NMCC-M5), Enterococcus faecium NMCC-M6, and Enterococcus lactis NMCC-M7. The tested bacterial strains showed significant antimicrobial activity, susceptibility to antibiotics, acid and bile tolerance, sugar fermentation, enzymatic potential, and nonhemolytic characteristics. Interestingly, NMCC-M2 displayed the best probiotic features including survival at pH 3 and 0.5% (w/v) bile salts, complete susceptibility to the tested antibiotics, high enzymatic potential, and in vitro cholesterol reduction (48.0 µg/mL for NMCC-M2) with 0.3% bile salt supplementation. Therefore, the isolated strain NMCC-M2 could be considered as a potential target-based probiotic in cholesterol-lowering fermented food products. Full article
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13 pages, 1431 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Lactic Acid Fermentation of Pomegranate Juice by an Acid Tolerant and Potentially Probiotic LAB Isolated from Kefir Grains
by Ioanna Mantzourani, Antonia Terpou, Argyro Bekatorou and Stavros Plessas
Fermentation 2022, 8(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8040142 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
The present study describes the application of an acid tolerant and potentially probiotic L. paracasei SP3 strain, recently isolated from kefir grains, in the production of a novel functional beverage based on the fermentation of pomegranate juice. The fermentation ability of the novel [...] Read more.
The present study describes the application of an acid tolerant and potentially probiotic L. paracasei SP3 strain, recently isolated from kefir grains, in the production of a novel functional beverage based on the fermentation of pomegranate juice. The fermentation ability of the novel strain was assessed during pomegranate juice fermentations at 30 °C for 24 h and storage at 4 °C for 4 weeks. Various parameters were assessed such as residual sugar, organic acid and alcohol levels, total phenolics content, antioxidant activity, astringency, cell viability, and consumer acceptance. Residual sugar was decreased by approximately 25%, while respectable amounts of lactic acid were determined (4.8 g/L) on the 28th day of storage, proving that the novel strain was effective at lactic acid fermentation. The concentration of ethanol was maintained at low levels (0.3–0.4 % v/v) and low levels of acetic acid were detected (0.6 g/L). The viability of L. paracasei SP3 cells retained high levels (>7 log cfu/mL), even by the 4th week. The total phenolic content (123.7–201.1 mg GAE/100 mL) and antioxidant activity (124.5–148.5 mgTE/100 mL) of fermented pomegranate juice were recorded at higher levels for all of the studied time periods compared to the non-fermented juice. The employment of the novel strain led to a significant reduction in the levels of hydrolysable tannins (42%) in the juice, reducing its astringency. The latter was further proven through sensorial tests, which reflected the amelioration of the sensorial features of the final product. It should be underlined that fruit juices as well as pomegranate juice comprised a very harsh food matrix for microorganisms to survive and ferment. Likewise, the L. paracasei SP3 strain showed a significant potential, because it was applied as a free culture, without the application of microencapsulation methods that are usually employed in these fermentations, leading to a product with possible functional properties and a high nutritive value. Full article
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12 pages, 3334 KiB  
Article
Polysaccharide Extracts Derived from Defloration Waste of Fruit Pitaya Regulates Gut Microbiota in a Mice Model
by Bao-Hong Lee, Kung-Ting Hsu, You-Zuo Chen, You-Lin Tain, Chih-Yao Hou, Yong-Chong Lin and Wei-Hsuan Hsu
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030108 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4858
Abstract
Flower thinning is often used during the planting of fruit trees to improve fruit quality and promote large fruit. Flower buds become an agricultural by-product of the planting process. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) is a popular fruit in many tropical regions, which [...] Read more.
Flower thinning is often used during the planting of fruit trees to improve fruit quality and promote large fruit. Flower buds become an agricultural by-product of the planting process. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) is a popular fruit in many tropical regions, which is widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus plantarum have been shown to exhibit an anti-obesity effect by regulating gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of polysaccharides from pitaya flower buds (PFW) extracted with water on the regulation of gut microbiota and body weight control in mice fed with a high-fat diet. The effects of PFW on the growth of L. plantarum were analyzed and the propagation of L. plantarum was promoted in an aqueous solution containing PFW. In an in vivo study, mice were fed with a high-fat diet supplemented with PFW for 12 weeks; PFW treatment effectively controlled body weight and reduced short bowel syndrome of mice induced by the high-fat diet. Gut microbiota sequencing revealed that Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillaceae were the main bacteria targeted by PFW. Moreover, transcript analysis demonstrated that PFW alleviated obesity through amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and glycan metabolism. Overall, PFW is a valuable food supplement that can regulate gut microbiota and may have potential to ameliorate the physiological damage caused by a high-fat diet. Full article
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22 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
Cytoprotective Effects of Lactobacilli on Mouse Epithelial Cells during Salmonella Infection
by Guangzhi Zhang, Abdul Raheem, Xintao Gao, Jianwei Zhang, Lijun Shi, Mingyan Wang, Ming Li, Yajie Yin, Shaohan Li, Xiaodong Cui, Xinlei Yan, Min Yue, Hefei Wen and Tong Qin
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030101 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Treatment of common pathogens, such as Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, etc., is a big challenge for a practitioner. Antibiotics’ side effects during their application for the treatment of infectious diseases should not be underestimated as they have many [...] Read more.
Treatment of common pathogens, such as Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, etc., is a big challenge for a practitioner. Antibiotics’ side effects during their application for the treatment of infectious diseases should not be underestimated as they have many issues, such as the transfer of antibiotics-resistant genes, dysbiosis, and antibiotic-resistant strains, which is the main hurdle in the eradication of diseases. To avoid these antibiotics complications, in modern countries, the interest of using probiotics in feed supplementation to promote health and prevent or treat intestinal infectious diseases has been increasing. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the probiotic potential of three Lactobacilli strains isolated from clinically healthy dogs for their further utilization as a dietary supplement for dogs to avoid pathogenic and antibiotic complication. After 16SrRNA sequencing, in vitro tests were conducted to assess the survival potential of Lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and adhesion ability to the MODE-K cell line, effects on epithelial barrier function, anti-inflammatory activities, effects on host defensin peptides (beta-defensin 3), and inhibitory effects on common pathogens. Lactobacilli showed considerable potential to survive in simulated gastrointestinal environmental conditions, low pH, and high bile salt concentrations along with good adhesion properties with MODE-K cells. Pathogenic bacterial growth and their adhesion to MODE-K cells were significantly inhibited by Lactobacilli. Real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that the L. acidophilus strain AR1 and AR3 inhibit Salmonella-induced proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β) production and reinforce the expression of tight junction protein (occludin). None of the strains induce mRNA expression of beta-defensin 3 in MODE-K cells. Based on the in vitro results, the L. acidophilus strain AR1 has the potential to be supplemented in canine feed. However, further in vivo studies investigating health-promoting effects are awaited. Full article
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12 pages, 2289 KiB  
Article
The Bacterial and Fungi Microbiota of Soy Sauce-Supplied Lactic Acid Bacteria Treated with High-Pressure Process
by Yeu-Ching Shi, Chiung-Yu Lai, Bao-Hong Lee and She-Ching Wu
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030097 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4724
Abstract
Background: Soy sauce is applied as a seasoning in daily life in East Asia. High amounts of salt in soy sauce can inhibit microbial growth in its production and preservation. However, the elevated salt content in food might increase the health risk. Low [...] Read more.
Background: Soy sauce is applied as a seasoning in daily life in East Asia. High amounts of salt in soy sauce can inhibit microbial growth in its production and preservation. However, the elevated salt content in food might increase the health risk. Low salt fermentation is rarely used in soil sauce production because of the potential harmful lactic acid bacteria growth. Therefore, dilution after high salt fermentation is commonly used to reduce the salt concentration. Methods: This study aims to treat the low salt fermented soy sauce with a high hydrostatic pressure process (HPP) to eliminate the harmful bacteria and to analyze the microbial community change compared with that in traditional high salt fermentation. Results: The results showed that the bacterial diversity was increased in low-salt and high-pressure (LS-HP)-treated soy sauce, though the bacterial abundance was decreased. Relative abundance in high-salt (HS), low-salt (LS), and LS-HP-treated soy sauce showed specific bacterial strains in the LS-HP group. Similarly, the fungal diversity was also increased in LS-HP-fermented soy sauce and the detected OTUs were increased. The fungi sensitive to salinity and pressure were indicated in our results. Conclusions: The present study suggests the enhanced bacterial and fungal diversity and different microbial community in HS, LS, and LS-HP-treated soy sauce, as well as the availability of LS and HPP treatment on soy sauce production. Full article
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11 pages, 18308 KiB  
Article
Probiotics-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Protect Oxidative Stress against H2O2 Induction in Placental Cells
by Le-Ming Wang, Bao-Hong Lee, Chih-Yao Hou, Wei-Hsuan Hsu and Chen-Jei Tai
Fermentation 2022, 8(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8020074 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
(1) Background: The microbial phase in the vaginal environment has been found to regulate the physiological activity of host cells. Studies have demonstrated that abnormal microbial growth in the vagina and a significant reduction in the proportion of lactic acid bacteria promote the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The microbial phase in the vaginal environment has been found to regulate the physiological activity of host cells. Studies have demonstrated that abnormal microbial growth in the vagina and a significant reduction in the proportion of lactic acid bacteria promote the occurrence of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). However, the contributing mechanism remains unknown. (2) Methods: This study uses extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by the probiotic Lactobacillus crispatus, commonly found in the vagina, to explore their potential to attenuate placental cells caused by oxidative stress induction. (3) Results: We found that L. crispatus-derived EVs improved Akt phosphorylation and attenuated both cell senescence and death in placental cells caused by oxidative stress induction. In addition, L. crispatus-derived EVs enhanced the resistance to H2O2 induction mediated by increasing mitochondrial fusion. (4) Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate that L. crispatus in the vagina can not only regulate the physiological functions of placental cells through the delivery of L. crispatus-EVs but also reduce cell senescence. As cell senescence is related to the occurrence of sPTB, these results indicate that maintaining the population of L. crispatus in the vaginal environment should be an adjuvant treatment strategy to avoid sPTB. Full article
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11 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Pediococcus sp. HLV1 from Fermented Idly Batter
by Harika Katepogu, Young-Jung Wee, Khalid S. Almaary, Yahya B. Elbadawi, Ramachawolran Gobinath, Suresh V. Chinni and Veeranjaneya Reddy Lebaka
Fermentation 2022, 8(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8020061 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3400
Abstract
The aim of the present study is the isolation and characterization of the lactic acid bacteria from idly batter, a traditional Indian fermented product. To achieve the aim, 10 idly batter samples were selected from different regions of Kadapa district. In the primary [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is the isolation and characterization of the lactic acid bacteria from idly batter, a traditional Indian fermented product. To achieve the aim, 10 idly batter samples were selected from different regions of Kadapa district. In the primary isolation and screening process, 50 lactic-acid-producing bacteria were isolated, and from them, six strains were selected based on their lactic acid yielding capacity for further evaluation. The selected cultures were studied for their phenotypic characters, and all cultures were Gram positive, cocci, and catalase negative. All the six strains were tested for their growth and lactic acid production at above 35 °C, and finally, one strain that showed good growth at 50 °C was selected for further characterization. Molecular characterization by 16S rRNA gene analysis and BLAST analysis revealed 99% similarity with Pediococcus pentosaceus Ni1142. The isolated culture was named as Pediococcus sp. HLV1, and the sequence was submitted to the NCBI databank as accession number MH921241. The isolated strain is able to utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and xylose. The major fermentation product from glucose is lactic acid. Pediococcus sp. HLV1 showed optimum growth and production of lactic acid with glucose as carbon source (10%) and yeast extract as nitrogen source (0.3%) at pH 7.0 and 40 °C. As well-known probiotic bacteria, the isolated Pediococcus spp. also showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and more specifically inhibited Gram-positive Bacillus. Using the above optimal conditions, lactic acid from a fresh mango peel extract was studied, and at the end of the fermentation, 5.2% (v/v) of lactic acid was produced. In conclusion, the isolated LAB Pediococcus sp. strain HLV1 is able to grow and produce lactic acid at a high temperature (45 °C) and to survive at 50 °C. Mango peel, a by-product of mango pulp industries, can be utilized as one of the economically cheap feedstocks for industrial production of lactic acid by the Pediococcus sp. strain HLV1. Full article
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17 pages, 1423 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Microbiological Quality and Biochemical Parameters of Traditional Hard Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat Milk
by Eleni C. Pappa, Thomas G. Bontinis, John Samelis and Kyriaki Sotirakoglou
Fermentation 2022, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8010020 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Traditional hard Xinotyri cheese was manufactured using raw or pasteurized goat milk, without starter cultures, and the changes in microbiological and biochemical characteristics were studied during ripening and storage. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominated (>8.5 log CFU/g) in freshly fermented Xinotyri cheeses [...] Read more.
Traditional hard Xinotyri cheese was manufactured using raw or pasteurized goat milk, without starter cultures, and the changes in microbiological and biochemical characteristics were studied during ripening and storage. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominated (>8.5 log CFU/g) in freshly fermented Xinotyri cheeses (pH 4.5–4.6), regardless of milk pasteurization. Enterobacteria, pseudomonads and staphylococci were suppressed below 6 and 4–5 log CFU/g in fresh cheeses from raw and pasteurized milk, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria spp. were absent in 25 g cheese samples. Coagulase-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh raw milk cheeses, which also had 10-fold higher levels of enterococci than pasteurized milk cheeses. Non-LAB groups declined <100 CFU/g, whereas yeasts increased to 5–6 log CFU/g in both cheeses during ripening. Milk pasteurization affected the protein, fat, ash, moisture, nitrogen fractions, total free fatty acids and total free amino acids content of cheeses. Primary proteolysis, detectable by urea-PAGE, was more intense in raw milk cheeses than in pasteurized milk cheeses. However, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides and their ratio in the water-soluble fraction were similar in both cheeses. Cheeses discriminated clearly according to the milk kind (raw, pasteurized) and the stage of ripening, based on the examined biochemical characteristics. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 2153 KiB  
Review
Microbial Exopolysaccharides in Traditional Mexican Fermented Beverages
by Martha L. Cázares-Vásquez, Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera, Cristóbal N. Aguilar-González, Aidé Sáenz-Galindo, José Fernando Solanilla-Duque, Juan Carlos Contreras-Esquivel and Adriana C. Flores-Gallegos
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040249 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are biopolymers produced by many microorganisms, including some species of the genus Acetobacter, Bacillus, Fructobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Lactiplantibacillus, Pediococcus, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomycodes, Schizosaccharomyces, and Sphingomonas, which have been reported [...] Read more.
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are biopolymers produced by many microorganisms, including some species of the genus Acetobacter, Bacillus, Fructobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Lactiplantibacillus, Pediococcus, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomycodes, Schizosaccharomyces, and Sphingomonas, which have been reported in the microbiota of traditional fermented beverages. Dextran, levan, glucan, gellan, and cellulose, among others, are EPS produced by these genera. Extracellular biopolymers are responsible for contributing to specific characteristics to fermented products, such as modifying their organoleptic properties or contributing to biological activities. However, EPS can be easily found in the dairy industry, where they affect rheological properties in products such as yogurt or cheese, among others. Over the years, LAB has been recognized as good starter strains in spontaneous fermentation, as they can contribute beneficial properties to the final product in conjunction with yeasts. To the best our knowledge, several articles have reported that the EPS produced by LAB and yeasts possess many both biological and technological properties that can be influenced by many factors in which fermentation occurs. Therefore, this review presents traditional Mexican fermented beverages (tavern, tuba, sotol, and aguamiel) and relates them to the microbial EPS, which affect biological and techno-functional activities. Full article
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