Topical Collection "Encyclopedia of Engineering"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Barretta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: continuum mechanics; nanostructures; nonlocal models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ramesh Agarwal
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
William Palm Professor of Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Interests: computational fluid dynamics (CFD); computational magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); electromagnetics; computational aeroacoustics; multidisciplinary design and optimization; rarefied gas dynamics and hypersonic flows, bio-fluid dynamics; flow and flight control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Krzysztof Kamil Żur
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45C, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: applied mathematics; linear and non-linear mechanics of composite structures at macro, micro, and nano scale; non-local continuum mechanics; smart materials and structures; composite materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Ruta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, University “La Sapienza”, & National Group for Mathematical Physics, Rome, Italy
Interests: continuum mechanics; structural stability; beam theory; damage modeling and identification; history of mechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In ancient times, Engineering Science was considered to be an art and led civilization and innovation for the progress of humanity. Machines and structures have been designed and built up thanks to applications of technical methodologies conceived by engineers. Aerospace, chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical disciplines are the main branches of Engineering which thereby signify it has, nowadays, reached the status of being a multidisciplinary science.

This book is intended to provide a first collection of entries falling within the following topics:

(1) History of Mechanics – Editor: Giuseppe Ruta

(2) Civil Engineering – Editor: Raffaele Barretta

(3) Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering – Editor: Ramesh Agarwal

(4) Nanoengineering – Editor: Krzysztof Kamil Zur

A second book of Encyclopedia will subsequently be announced to complement the topical collection of Engineering outlined above.

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Barretta
Prof. Dr. Ramesh Agarwal
Dr. Krzysztof Kamil Żur
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Ruta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Encyclopedia is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (23 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Entry
Two-Lane Highways: Indispensable Rural Mobility
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 625-631; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010042 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 489
Definition
Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at [...] Read more.
Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at those locations. In this entry, two-lane highways strictly refer to roads in rural areas meeting the previous definition and do not include urban and suburban streets. Full article
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Entry
Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 473-485; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010030 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 485
Definition
Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames are a very widespread structural typology all over the world for civil, strategic or productive uses. The damages due to these masonry panels can be life threatening to humans and can severely impact economic losses, as shown during past [...] Read more.
Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames are a very widespread structural typology all over the world for civil, strategic or productive uses. The damages due to these masonry panels can be life threatening to humans and can severely impact economic losses, as shown during past earthquakes. In fact, during a seismic event, most victims are caused by the collapse of buildings or due to nonstructural elements. The damage caused by an earthquake on nonstructural elements, i.e., those not belonging to the actual structural body of the building, is important for the purposes of a more general description of the effects and, of course, for economic estimates. In fact, after an earthquake, albeit of a low entity, it is very frequent to find even widespread damages of nonstructural elements causing major inconveniences even if the primary structure has reported minor damages. In recent years, many territories have been hit worldwide by strong seismic sequences, which caused widespread damages to the nonstructural elements and in particular to the masonry internal partitions and the masonry infill panels of the buildings in reinforced concrete, with damage to the floor and out-of-plane expulsions/collapses of single layers. Unfortunately, these critical issues have arisen not only in historic, but also in recent buildings with reinforced concrete, in many cases exhibiting inadequate seismic behavior, only partly attributable to the intrinsic vulnerability of the masonry panels against seismic actions. Such problems are due to the following aspects: lack of attention to construction details in the realization of the construction, use of poor-quality materials, and above all lack of design tools for the infill masonry walls. In 2018, regarding the design of nonstructural elements, the formulation of floor spectra has been recently introduced in Italy. This entry article wants to focus on all these aspects, describing the state of the art, the literature studies and the design problems to be solved. Full article
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Entry
Substance Release from Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 428-440; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010026 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 489
Definition
Controlled release of substance from polyelectrolyte microcapsules is a triggered degradation of the microcapsule membrane that is extensive enough to release the contained substances out into the environment. Membrane degradation can be a result of enzymatic digestion, ultrasound or light exposure, heating, application [...] Read more.
Controlled release of substance from polyelectrolyte microcapsules is a triggered degradation of the microcapsule membrane that is extensive enough to release the contained substances out into the environment. Membrane degradation can be a result of enzymatic digestion, ultrasound or light exposure, heating, application of a magnetic field, pH or ionic strength changes in the solution or bacteria-mediated processes. This technology can be used for the targeted release of drugs, and for the development of self-healing materials and new generation pesticides. Full article
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Entry
Tsunami Alert Efficiency
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 383-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010023 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 609
Definition
“Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness [...] Read more.
“Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness and preparedness. Full article
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Entry
Energy Storage Flywheel Rotors—Mechanical Design
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 301-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010019 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 680
Definition
Energy storage flywheel systems are mechanical devices that typically utilize an electrical machine (motor/generator unit) to convert electrical energy in mechanical energy and vice versa. Energy is stored in a fast-rotating mass known as the flywheel rotor. The rotor is subject to high [...] Read more.
Energy storage flywheel systems are mechanical devices that typically utilize an electrical machine (motor/generator unit) to convert electrical energy in mechanical energy and vice versa. Energy is stored in a fast-rotating mass known as the flywheel rotor. The rotor is subject to high centripetal forces requiring careful design, analysis, and fabrication to ensure the safe operation of the storage device. Full article
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Entry
Mechanics and Mathematics in Ancient Greece
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 140-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010010 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 525
Definition
This entry presents an overview on how mechanics in Greece was linked to geometry. In ancient Greece, mechanics was about lifting heavy bodies, and mathematics almost coincided with geometry. Mathematics interconnected with mechanics at least from the 5th century BCE and became dominant [...] Read more.
This entry presents an overview on how mechanics in Greece was linked to geometry. In ancient Greece, mechanics was about lifting heavy bodies, and mathematics almost coincided with geometry. Mathematics interconnected with mechanics at least from the 5th century BCE and became dominant in the Hellenistic period. The contributions by thinkers such as Aristotle, Euclid, and Archytas on fundamental problems such as that of the lever are sketched. This entry can be the starting point for a deeper investigation on the connections of the two disciplines through the ages until our present day. Full article
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Entry
Prefabricated Building Systems—Design and Construction
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 70-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010006 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 800
Definition
Modern Methods of Construction with Offsite Manufacturing is an advancement from prefabricated technologies that existed for decades in the construction industry, and is a platform to integrate various disciplines into providing a more holistic solution. Due to the rapid speed of construction, reduced [...] Read more.
Modern Methods of Construction with Offsite Manufacturing is an advancement from prefabricated technologies that existed for decades in the construction industry, and is a platform to integrate various disciplines into providing a more holistic solution. Due to the rapid speed of construction, reduced requirement of labour and minimised work on site, offsite manufacturing and prefabricated building systems are becoming more popular, and perhaps a necessity for the future of the global construction industry. The approach to the design and construction of prefab building systems demands a thorough understanding of their unique characteristics. Full article
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Entry
Aircraft Icing Severity Evaluation
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 56-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010005 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 522
Definition
Aircraft icing refers to the ice buildup on the surface of an aircraft flying in icing conditions. The ice accretion on the aircraft alters the original aerodynamic configuration and degrades the aerodynamic performances and may lead to unsafe flight conditions. Evaluating the flow [...] Read more.
Aircraft icing refers to the ice buildup on the surface of an aircraft flying in icing conditions. The ice accretion on the aircraft alters the original aerodynamic configuration and degrades the aerodynamic performances and may lead to unsafe flight conditions. Evaluating the flow structure, icing mechanism and consequences is of great importance to the development of an anti/deicing technique. Studies have shown computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and machine learning (ML) to be effective in predicting the ice shape and icing severity under different flight conditions. CFD solves a set of partial differential equations to obtain the air flow fields, water droplets trajectories and ice shape. ML is a branch of artificial intelligence and, based on the data, the self-improved computer algorithms can be effective in finding the nonlinear mapping relationship between the input flight conditions and the output aircraft icing severity features. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Entry
Opportunities for Catalytic Reactions and Materials in Buildings
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 36-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010004 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 615
Definition
Residential and commercial buildings are responsible for over 30% of global final energy consumption and accounts for ~40% of annual direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficient and sustainable technologies are necessary to not only lower the energy footprint but also lower [...] Read more.
Residential and commercial buildings are responsible for over 30% of global final energy consumption and accounts for ~40% of annual direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficient and sustainable technologies are necessary to not only lower the energy footprint but also lower the environmental burden. Many proven and emerging technologies are being pursued to meet the ever-increasing energy demand. Catalytic science has a significant new role to play in helping address sustainable energy challenges, particularly in buildings, compared to transportation and industrial sectors. Thermally driven heat pumps, dehumidification, cogeneration, thermal energy storage, carbon capture and utilization, emissions suppression, waste-to-energy conversion, and corrosion prevention technologies can tap into the advantages of catalytic science in realizing the full potential of such approaches, quickly, efficiently, and reliably. Catalysts can help increase energy conversion efficiency in building related technologies but must utilize low cost, easily available and easy-to-manufacture materials for large scale deployment. This entry presents a comprehensive overview of the impact of each building technology area on energy demand and environmental burden, state-of-the-art of catalytic solutions, research, and development opportunities for catalysis in building technologies, while identifying requirements, opportunities, and challenges. Full article
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Entry
Ionospheric Remote Sensing with GNSS
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1246-1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040094 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 891
Definition
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a pivotal role in our modern positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) technologies. GNSS satellites fly at altitudes of approximately 20,000 km or higher. This altitude is above an ionized layer of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, the [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a pivotal role in our modern positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) technologies. GNSS satellites fly at altitudes of approximately 20,000 km or higher. This altitude is above an ionized layer of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, the so called “ionosphere”. Before reaching a typical GNSS receiver on the ground, GNSS satellite signals penetrate through the Earth’s ionosphere. The ionosphere is a plasma medium consisting of free charged particles that can slow down, attenuate, refract, or scatter the GNSS signals. Ionospheric density structures (also known as irregularities) can cause GNSS signal scintillations (phase and intensity fluctuations). These ionospheric impacts on GNSS signals can be utilized to observe and study physical processes in the ionosphere and is referred to ionospheric remote sensing. This entry introduces some fundamentals of ionospheric remote sensing using GNSS. Full article
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Entry
Natural Disasters—Origins, Impacts, Management
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1101-1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040084 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1239
Definition
Natural hazards are processes that serve as triggers for natural disasters. Natural hazards can be classified into six categories. Geophysical or geological hazards relate to movement in solid earth. Their examples include earthquakes and volcanic activity. Hydrological hazards relate to the movement of [...] Read more.
Natural hazards are processes that serve as triggers for natural disasters. Natural hazards can be classified into six categories. Geophysical or geological hazards relate to movement in solid earth. Their examples include earthquakes and volcanic activity. Hydrological hazards relate to the movement of water and include floods, landslides, and wave action. Meteorological hazards are storms, extreme temperatures, and fog. Climatological hazards are increasingly related to climate change and include droughts and wildfires. Biological hazards are caused by exposure to living organisms and/or their toxic substances. The COVID-19 virus is an example of a biological hazard. Extraterrestrial hazards are caused by asteroids, meteoroids, and comets as they pass near earth or strike earth. In addition to local damage, they can change earth inter planetary conditions that can affect the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. This entry presents an overview of origins, impacts, and management of natural disasters. It describes processes that have potential to cause natural disasters. It outlines a brief history of impacts of natural hazards on the human built environment and the common techniques adopted for natural disaster preparedness. It also lays out challenges in dealing with disasters caused by natural hazards and points to new directions in warding off the adverse impact of such disasters. Full article
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Entry
Silicon Micro-Strip Detectors
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1076-1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040082 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Definition
Silicon micro-strip detectors are fundamental tools for the high energy physics. Each detector is formed by a large set of parallel narrow strips of special surface treatments (diode junctions) on a slab of very high quality silicon crystals. Their development and use required [...] Read more.
Silicon micro-strip detectors are fundamental tools for the high energy physics. Each detector is formed by a large set of parallel narrow strips of special surface treatments (diode junctions) on a slab of very high quality silicon crystals. Their development and use required a large amount of work and research. A very synthetic view is given of these important components and of their applications. Some details are devoted to the basic subject of the track reconstruction in silicon strip trackers. Recent demonstrations substantially modified the usual understanding of this argument. Full article
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Entry
Low-Pressure Turbine Cooling Systems
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 893-904; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030068 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 596
Definition
Modern low-pressure turbine engines are equipped with casings impingement cooling systems. Those systems (called Active Clearance Control) are composed of an array of air nozzles, which are directed to strike turbine casing to absorb generated heat. As a result, the casing starts to [...] Read more.
Modern low-pressure turbine engines are equipped with casings impingement cooling systems. Those systems (called Active Clearance Control) are composed of an array of air nozzles, which are directed to strike turbine casing to absorb generated heat. As a result, the casing starts to shrink, reducing the radial gap between the sealing and rotating tip of the blade. Cooling air is delivered to the nozzles through distribution channels and collector boxes, which are connected to the main air supply duct. The application of low-pressure turbine cooling systems increases its efficiency and reduces engine fuel consumption. Full article
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Entry
Automobile Tires’ High-Carbon Steel Wire
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 859-870; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030066 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 562
Definition
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes [...] Read more.
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes or strands. These ropes are called steel cord. Steel cord can be of different constructions. To ensure a good adhesive bond between the rubber of the tire and the steel cord, the cord is either brass-plated or bronzed. The reason brass or bronze is used is because copper, which is a part of these alloys, makes a high-strength chemical composition with sulfur in rubber. For steel cord, the high carbon steel is usually used at 0.70–0.95% C. This amount of carbon ensures the high strength of the steel cord. This kind of high-quality, unalloyed steel has a pearlitic structure which is designed for multi-pass drawing. To ensure the specified technical characteristics, modern metal reinforcing materials for automobile tires, metal cord and bead wire, must withstand, first of all, a high breaking load with a minimum running meter weight. At present, reinforcing materials of the strength range 2800–3200 MPa are increasingly used, the manufacture of which requires high-strength wire. The production of such wire requires the use of a workpiece with high carbon content, changing the drawing regimes, patenting, and other operations. At the same time, it is necessary to achieve a reduction in the cost of wire manufacturing. In this context, the development and implementation of competitive processes for the manufacture of high-quality, high-strength wire as a reinforcing material for automobile tires is an urgent task. Full article
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Entry
Knowledge Integration in Smart Factories
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 792-811; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030061 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 824
Definition
Knowledge integration is well explained by the human–organization–technology (HOT) approach known from knowledge management. This approach contains the horizontal and vertical interaction and communication between employees, human-to-machine, but also machine-to-machine. Different organizational structures and processes are supported with the help of appropriate technologies [...] Read more.
Knowledge integration is well explained by the human–organization–technology (HOT) approach known from knowledge management. This approach contains the horizontal and vertical interaction and communication between employees, human-to-machine, but also machine-to-machine. Different organizational structures and processes are supported with the help of appropriate technologies and suitable data processing and integration techniques. In a Smart Factory, manufacturing systems act largely autonomously on the basis of continuously collected data. The technical design concerns the networking of machines, their connectivity and the interaction between human and machine as well as machine-to-machine. Within a Smart Factory, machines can be considered as intelligent manufacturing systems. Such manufacturing systems can autonomously adapt to events through the ability to intelligently analyze data and act as adaptive manufacturing systems that consider changes in production, the supply chain and customer requirements. Inter-connected physical devices, sensors, actuators, and controllers form the building block of the Smart Factory, which is called the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT uses different data processing solutions, such as cloud computing, fog computing, or edge computing, to fuse and process data. This is accomplished in an integrated and cross-device manner. Full article
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Entry
Geometric Design of Suburban Roundabouts
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 720-743; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030056 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 675
Definition
A modern roundabout is an intersection with a circulatory roadway at which the vehicle speed is low, and the traffic is continuous and circulating in one direction around the central island towards the exits at the approach legs. Modern roundabout design is an [...] Read more.
A modern roundabout is an intersection with a circulatory roadway at which the vehicle speed is low, and the traffic is continuous and circulating in one direction around the central island towards the exits at the approach legs. Modern roundabout design is an iterative process that is composed of the following steps: (1) the identification of the roundabout as the optimal traffic solution; (2) the definition of the number of lanes at the intersection based on the required capacity and the level of service; (3) the initial design of the roundabout geometry; (4) design vehicle swept path, the fastest path analysis, and visibility performance checks; and (5) detailed roundabout design if the results of the performance checks are in line with the design recommendations. Initial roundabout geometry design elements are not independent of each other; therefore, care must be taken to provide compatibility between them. An overview and a comparative analysis of the initial geometric design elements for suburban single-lane roundabouts defined in roundabout design guidelines and norms used in Croatia, Austria, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Serbia, and Switzerland is given in this entry. Full article
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Entry
High-Speed Railway
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 665-688; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030053 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1162
Definition
Union Internationale des Chemins (UIC) defines the high-speed railway (HSR) as a high-speed railway system that contains the infrastructure and the rolling stock. The infrastructure can be newly built dedicated lines enabled for trains to travel with speed above 250 km/h or upgraded [...] Read more.
Union Internationale des Chemins (UIC) defines the high-speed railway (HSR) as a high-speed railway system that contains the infrastructure and the rolling stock. The infrastructure can be newly built dedicated lines enabled for trains to travel with speed above 250 km/h or upgraded conventional lines with a speed up to 200 or even 220 km/h. HSR requires specially built trains with increased power to weight ratio and must have an in-cab signalling system as traditional signalling systems are incapable of above 200 km/h. Full article
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Entry
Novel Bioactive Extraction and Nano-Encapsulation
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 632-664; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030052 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 929
Definition
An extraction technology works on the principle of two consecutive steps that involves mixture of solute with solvent and the movement of soluble compounds from the cell into the solvent and its consequent diffusion and extraction. The conventional extraction techniques are mostly based [...] Read more.
An extraction technology works on the principle of two consecutive steps that involves mixture of solute with solvent and the movement of soluble compounds from the cell into the solvent and its consequent diffusion and extraction. The conventional extraction techniques are mostly based on the use of mild/high temperatures (50–90 °C) that can cause thermal degradation, are dependent on the mass transfer rate, being reflected on long extraction times, high costs, low extraction efficiency, with consequent low extraction yields. Due to these disadvantages, it is of interest to develop non-thermal extraction methods, such as microwave, ultrasounds, supercritical fluids (mostly using carbon dioxide, SC-CO2), and high hydrostatic pressure-assisted extractions which works on the phenomena of minimum heat exposure with reduced processing time, thereby minimizing the loss of bioactive compounds during extraction. Further, to improve the stability of these extracted compounds, nano-encapsulation is required. Nano-encapsulation is a process which forms a thin layer of protection against environmental degradation and retains the nutritional and functional qualities of bioactive compounds in nano-scale level capsules by employing fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials as encapsulation materials. Full article
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Entry
Challenges for Nanotechnology
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 618-631; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030051 - 25 Jul 2021
Viewed by 843
Definition
The term “Nanotechnology” describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with objects and technical components with small dimensions. Typically, bodies that are in–at least–two dimensions smaller than 0.1 µm are regarded as “nanobjects”. By this definition, a lot of advanced [...] Read more.
The term “Nanotechnology” describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with objects and technical components with small dimensions. Typically, bodies that are in–at least–two dimensions smaller than 0.1 µm are regarded as “nanobjects”. By this definition, a lot of advanced materials, as well as the advanced electronic devices, are objects of nanotechnology. In addition, many aspects of molecular biotechnology as well as macromolecular and supermolecular chemistry and nanoparticle techniques are summarized under “nanotechnology”. Despite this size-oriented definition, nanotechnology is dealing with physics and chemistry as well as with the realization of technical functions in the area between very small bodies and single particles and molecules. This includes the shift from classical physics into the quantum world of small molecules and low numbers or single elementary particles. Besides the already established fields of nanotechnology, there is a big expectation about technical progress and solution to essential economic, medical, and ecological problems by means of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology can only meet these expectations if fundamental progress behind the recent state of the art can be achieved. Therefore, very important challenges for nanotechnology are discussed here. Full article
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Entry
Machine Learning for Additive Manufacturing
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 576-588; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030048 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Definition
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the name given to a family of manufacturing processes where materials are joined to make parts from 3D modelling data, generally in a layer-upon-layer manner. AM is rapidly increasing in industrial adoption for the manufacture of end-use parts, which [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the name given to a family of manufacturing processes where materials are joined to make parts from 3D modelling data, generally in a layer-upon-layer manner. AM is rapidly increasing in industrial adoption for the manufacture of end-use parts, which is therefore pushing for the maturation of design, process, and production techniques. Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with training programs to self-improve and has applications in a wide range of areas, such as computer vision, prediction, and information retrieval. Many of the problems facing AM can be categorised into one or more of these application areas. Studies have shown ML techniques to be effective in improving AM design, process, and production but there are limited industrial case studies to support further development of these techniques. Full article
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Entry
Metal Nanoparticles as Free-Floating Electrodes
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 551-565; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030046 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 734
Definition
Colloidal metal nanoparticles in an electrolyte environment are not only electrically charged but also electrochemically active objects. They have the typical character of metal electrodes with ongoing charge transfer processes on the metal/liquid interface. This picture is valid for the equilibrium state and [...] Read more.
Colloidal metal nanoparticles in an electrolyte environment are not only electrically charged but also electrochemically active objects. They have the typical character of metal electrodes with ongoing charge transfer processes on the metal/liquid interface. This picture is valid for the equilibrium state and also during the formation, growth, aggregation or dissolution of nanoparticles. This behavior can be understood in analogy to macroscopic mixed-electrode systems with a free-floating potential, which is determined by the competition between anodic and cathodic partial processes. In contrast to macroscopic electrodes, the small size of nanoparticles is responsible for significant effects of low numbers of elementary charges and for self-polarization effects as they are known from molecular systems, for example. The electrical properties of nanoparticles can be estimated by basic electrochemical equations. Reconsidering these fundamentals, the assembly behavior, the formation of nonspherical assemblies of nanoparticles and the growth and the corrosion behavior of metal nanoparticles, as well as the formation of core/shell particles, branched structures and particle networks, can be understood. The consequences of electrochemical behavior, charging and self-polarization for particle growth, shape formation and particle/particle interaction are discussed. Full article
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Entry
The Foundation of Classical Mechanics
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 482-495; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020040 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 555
Definition
Mechanics is the science of the equilibrium and motion of bodies subject to forces. The adjective classical, hence Classical Mechanics, was added in the 20th century to distinguish it from relativistic mechanics which studies motion with speed close to light speed and quantum [...] Read more.
Mechanics is the science of the equilibrium and motion of bodies subject to forces. The adjective classical, hence Classical Mechanics, was added in the 20th century to distinguish it from relativistic mechanics which studies motion with speed close to light speed and quantum mechanics which studies motion at a subatomic level. Full article
Entry
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 460-471; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020038 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Definition
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing is a finishing processed based on plastic deformation by means of a preloaded ball on a certain surface that rolls over it following a certain trajectory previously programmed while vibrating vertically. The dynamics of the process are based on the [...] Read more.
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing is a finishing processed based on plastic deformation by means of a preloaded ball on a certain surface that rolls over it following a certain trajectory previously programmed while vibrating vertically. The dynamics of the process are based on the activation of the acoustoplastic effect on the material by means of the vibratory signal transmitted through the material lattice as a consequence of the mentioned oscillation of the ball. Materials processed by VABB show a modified surface in terms of topology distribution and scale, superior if compared to the results of the non-assisted process. Subgrain formation one of the main drivers that explain the change in hardness and residual stress resulting from the process. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: CNTs-based Composites for Sensing Applications
Authors: Maurizio Arena and Massimo Viscardi
Affiliation: Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples
Federico II, Italy

Title: SiC-Reinforced Aluminum-Silicon Matrix Composite Powder
Authors: Haris Rudianto 1, Sang Sun Yang 2, Yong Jin Kim 2
1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunadarma University, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
2 Powder Technology Research Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea

Title: PVD Coatings—Development and Applications 
Authors: Bipasha Bose, Mohammad Shariful Islam Chowdhury and Majid Abdoos
Affiliation: McMaster Manufacturing Research Institute (MMRI), McMaster University, Hamilton ON, Canada

Title: Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames
Matteo Bagnoli 1, Ernesto Grande 1, Gabriele Milani 2
1 University of Guglielmo Marconi, Rome, Italy
2 Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy

Title: Substances Release from Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules
Egor V. Musin, Aleksandr L. Kim, Sergey A. Tikhonenko

Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Institutskaya st. 3, 142290 Puschino, Russia

Title: Nano Technology
Author: Salah Ahmed Mohamed Elmoselhy
Affiliation: Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, The University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004 516 Coimbra, Portugal.

Title: Sustainable Energy
Author: Salah Ahmed Mohamed Elmoselhy
Affiliation: Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, The University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004 516 Coimbra, Portugal.

Title: Two Lane Highways: Indispensable Rural Mobility
Author: Ahmed F. Al-Kaisy
Affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering,  Western Transportation Institute Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA

Title: Kinetics of Brittle Fracture in Metals
Author: Valeriy V. Lepov
Affiliation: Academy of Science of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Larionov's Institute of the Physico-Technical Problems of the North, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Siberia, Russia

Title: Systems Monitoring and Diagnostics—Digital Twinning

Author: George Mallouppas and Elias Yfantis
Affiliation: Cyprus Marine and Maritime Institute, Larnaca, Cyprus

Title: Structural Systems for Tall Buildings
Author: Mir M. Ali 1, Kheir Al-Kodmany 2
1 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
2 University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
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