Special Issue "Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering"

A special issue of Applied Mechanics (ISSN 2673-3161).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Ruta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, University “La Sapienza”, & National Group for Mathematical Physics, Rome, Italy
Interests: continuum mechanics; structural stability; beam theory; damage modeling and identification; history of mechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Raffaele Barretta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: continuum mechanics; nanostructures; nonlocal models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In contemporary construction engineering, structural performance demands are continually increasing. These include (but are not restricted to) resistance to fire, capability to absorb earthquake vibration, and damping towards winds in tall and slender structures. Simultaneously, from an environmental point of view, there is a growing demand for new materials that are both low-cost and low-impact.

As such, there is a strong need to employ theoretical and applied mechanics in establishing the correct framework for technological problems, resolving these problems analytically or numerically, and verifying the solutions by laboratory or in situ experiences. This Special Issue is thus devoted to all branches of mechanics that tackle challenges in the following fields:

  1. Modeling and realizing measurement chains and instruments for structural monitoring, aiming at the identification of key structural properties, in order to detect damage or property deterioration;
  2. Modeling various kinds of damage and structural deterioration in order to supply suitable data for the previous point;
  3. Modeling various kinds of environmental actions (especially those of wind and fluid flows surrounding tall slender structures and submerged structural parts, respectively) in order to control and mitigate their effects on the considered structure, with a special view towards vibration;
  4. Designing simulation, laboratory, or in situ apparatuses in order to verify theoretical models and numerical outputs;
  5. Modeling, designing, and testing low-cost, low-impact materials and structural components (e.g., clay panels, pultrused beams).

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Ruta
Prof. Dr. Raffaele Barretta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • monitoring
  • identification
  • mitigation
  • fluid–structure interaction
  • control
  • simulation
  • in situ measures
  • damage modeling
  • environmental actions
  • low-impact materials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Interpretation of Cone Penetration Test Data of an Embankment for Coupled Numerical Modeling
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(1), 14-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3010002 - 29 Dec 2021
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Abstract
The Nerang Broadbeach Roadway (NBR) embankment in Australia is founded on soft clay deposits. The embankment sections were preloaded and surcharged-preloaded to limit the post-construction deformation and to avoid stability failure. In this paper, we discuss the NBR embankment’s geology, geotechnical properties of [...] Read more.
The Nerang Broadbeach Roadway (NBR) embankment in Australia is founded on soft clay deposits. The embankment sections were preloaded and surcharged-preloaded to limit the post-construction deformation and to avoid stability failure. In this paper, we discuss the NBR embankment’s geology, geotechnical properties of the subsurface, and long-term field monitoring data from settlement plates and piezometers. We demonstrate a comparison of cone penetration test (CPT) and piezo cone dissipation test (CPT-u) interpreted geotechnical properties and the NBR embankment’s foundation stratification with laboratory and field measured data. We also developed two elasto-viscoplastic (EVP) models for long-term performance prediction of the NBR embankment. In this regard, we considered both the associated and the non-associated flow rule in the EVP model formulation to assess the flow rule effect of soft clay. We also compared EVP model predictions with the Modified Cam Clay (MCC) model to evaluate the effect of viscous behavior of natural Estuarine clay. Both EVP models require six parameters, and five of them are similar to the MCC model. We used the secondary compression index of clay in the EVP model formulations to include the viscous response of clay. We obtained numerical models’ parameters from laboratory tests and interpretation of CPT and CPTu data. We observed that the EVP models predicted well compared with the MCC model because of the inclusion of soft clay’s viscosity in the EVP models. Moreover, the flow rule effect in the embankment’s performance predictions was noticeable. The non-associated flow rule EVP model predicted the field monitoring settlement and pore pressure better compared to the MCC model and the associated flow EVP model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering)
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Article
Investigation on Residual Compressive Distribution of High-Strength Steel for Bridges by Base Metal Hammer Impact Peening
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(4), 932-941; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech2040054 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Various peening techniques have been used to improve the fatigue strength of steel structures. Among them, base metal impact hammer peening shows significant improvement in fatigue strength in ordinary steel, but the effect on high-strength steel has not been sufficiently studied. Accordingly, this [...] Read more.
Various peening techniques have been used to improve the fatigue strength of steel structures. Among them, base metal impact hammer peening shows significant improvement in fatigue strength in ordinary steel, but the effect on high-strength steel has not been sufficiently studied. Accordingly, this study applied base material hammer impact peening to test specimens of 780 MPa grade high-strength steel (HT780) and 490 MPa grade ordinary steel (SM490), and the residual stress was measured and simulated. The experimental results clarified that a large compressive residual stress was introduced into the inner part of the plate thickness near the indentation in the high-strength steel, although the range of introduction of residual stress was equivalent in both the ordinary steel and high-strength steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering)
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Article
Equivalent Shell Model of Elastic Gridshells Including the Effect of the Geometric Curvature
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(3), 630-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech2030036 - 08 Sep 2021
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Abstract
In this work, an equivalent continuum of a barrel gridshell is introduced. Constitutive identification procedures based on periodic homogenization are provided in the literature for this purpose, based on a flat Representative Element Volume (REV), notwithstanding that the geometry of the structures concerned [...] Read more.
In this work, an equivalent continuum of a barrel gridshell is introduced. Constitutive identification procedures based on periodic homogenization are provided in the literature for this purpose, based on a flat Representative Element Volume (REV), notwithstanding that the geometry of the structures concerned is curved. Therefore, the novelty of the present study is the selection of a curved REV to obtain the equivalent elastic constants. The numerical validation of the identification procedure is made comparing gridshell response to that of the equivalent shell under homogeneous load conditions. Finally, in order to highlight the effect of the curved geometry on the constitutive law of the continuum, the response of the proposed model is also compared to that of a continuum obtained from a flat REV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering)
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Article
Deep Learning Based Uncertainty Analysis in Computational Micromechanics of Composite Materials
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(3), 559-570; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech2030031 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Design of new materials is quite a difficult task owing to various time and length scales and affiliated uncertainties. The major challenge is to include all these in a conventional model. Hyperparameter models in machine learning can be used to overcome these issues. [...] Read more.
Design of new materials is quite a difficult task owing to various time and length scales and affiliated uncertainties. The major challenge is to include all these in a conventional model. Hyperparameter models in machine learning can be used to overcome these issues. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed to estimate the effective elastic parameters of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites using representative volume elements (RVE) considering uncertainty in the fiber diameter. The diameter probability distribution is constructed from the acquired gray images by employing image processing operations. The generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) expansion is then used to represent the distribution as a random input parameter for finite element analysis, from where the effective parameters are realized. Similarly, the outputs of the FE model, i.e., elastic parameters, are approximated by gPC expansions having unknown deterministic coefficients and random orthogonal Hermite polynomials. A set of collocation points are generated from roots of the random polynomials; from there, the unknown coefficients are estimated. The realization samples are utilized to train an ANN algorithm based on supervised deep learning. The developed ANN model is later tested and validated for a new sample set of data. It is shown that the ANN model with few hidden layers and neurons has a high accuracy for estimation of the elastic parameters directly from the information on the distribution of fiber diameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering)
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Article
Multiscale Modelling and Mechanical Anisotropy of Periodic Cellular Solids with Rigid-Jointed Truss-Like Microscopic Architecture
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(2), 331-355; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech2020020 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
This paper investigates the macroscopic anisotropic behavior of periodic cellular solids with rigid-jointed microscopic truss-like architecture. A theoretical matrix-based procedure is presented to calculate the homogenized stiffness and strength properties of the material which is validated experimentally. The procedure consists of four main [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the macroscopic anisotropic behavior of periodic cellular solids with rigid-jointed microscopic truss-like architecture. A theoretical matrix-based procedure is presented to calculate the homogenized stiffness and strength properties of the material which is validated experimentally. The procedure consists of four main steps, namely, (i) using classical structural analysis to determine the stiffness properties of a lattice unit cell, (ii) employing the Bloch’s theorem to generate the irreducible representation of the infinite lattice, (iii) resorting to the Cauchy–Born Hypothesis to express the microscopic nodal forces and deformations in terms of a homogeneous macroscopic strain field applied to the lattice, and (iv) employing the Hill–Mandel homogenization principle to obtain the macro-stiffness properties of the lattice topologies. The presented model is used to investigate the anisotropic mechanical behavior of 13 2D periodic cellular solids. The results are documented in three set of charts that show (i) the change of the Young and Shear moduli of the material with respect to their relative density; (ii) the contribution of the bending stiffness of microscopic cell elements to the homogenized macroscopic stiffness of the material; and (iii) polar diagrams of the change of the elastic moduli of the cellular solid in response to direction of macroscopic loading. The three set of charts can be used for design purposes in assemblies involving the honeycomb structures as it may help in selecting the best lattice topology for a given functional stiffness and strength requirement. The theoretical model was experimentally validated by means of tensile tests performed in additively manufactured Lattice Material (LM) specimens, achieving good agreement between the results. It was observed that the model of rigid-joined LM (RJLM) predicts the homogenized mechanical properties of the LM with higher accuracy compared to those predicted by pin-jointed models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering)
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Article
A Monotonic Smeared Truss Model to Predict the Envelope Shear Stress—Shear Strain Curve for Reinforced Concrete Panel Elements under Cyclic Shear
Appl. Mech. 2021, 2(1), 174-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech2010011 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
In previous studies, a smeared truss model based on a refinement of the rotating-angle softened truss model (RA-STM) was proposed to predict the full response of structural concrete panel elements under in-plane monotonic loading. This model, called the “efficient RA-STM procedure”, was validated [...] Read more.
In previous studies, a smeared truss model based on a refinement of the rotating-angle softened truss model (RA-STM) was proposed to predict the full response of structural concrete panel elements under in-plane monotonic loading. This model, called the “efficient RA-STM procedure”, was validated against the experimental results of reinforced and prestressed concrete panels, steel fiber concrete panels, and reinforced concrete panels externally strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymers. The model incorporates equilibrium and compatibility equations, as well as appropriate smeared constitutive laws of the materials. Besides, it incorporates an efficient algorithm for the calculation procedure to compute the solution points without using the classical trial-and-error technique, providing high numerical efficiency and stability. In this study, the efficient RA-STM procedure is adapted and checked against some experimental data related to reinforced concrete (RC) panels tested under in-plane cyclic shear until failure and found in the literature. Being a monotonic model, the predictions from the model are compared with the experimental envelopes of the hysteretic shear stress–shear strain loops. It is shown that the predictions for the shape (at least until the peak load is reached) and for key shear stresses (namely, cracking, yielding, and maximum shear stresses) of the envelope shear stress–shear strain curves are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones. From the obtained results, the efficient RA-STM procedure can be considered as a reliable model to predict some important features of the response of RC panels under cyclic shear, at least for a precheck analysis or predesign. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics Applied in Construction Engineering)
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