Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2024) | Viewed by 20777

Special Issue Editors

National Research Center for Pumps and Systems, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China
Interests: fluid machinery design and optimization; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); cavitation of pump; rotating stall of mixed-flow pump; transient characteristics during the startup period; PIV measurement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Interests: computational fluid dynamics (CFD); computational magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); electromagnetics; computational aeroacoustics; multidisciplinary design and optimization; rarefied gas dynamics and hypersonic flows, bio-fluid dynamics; flow and flight control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
Interests: hydraulic model; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); electric submersible pump (ESP); unstable flow; pressure pulsation; energy characteristics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluid machinery refers to fluid as the working medium for energy conversion machinery, including turbines, pumps, and compressors. Due to the wide application range, diverse applicable environment, and complex structure of fluid machinery, it is difficult to meet the changeable operating conditions through a fixed structure. Therefore, to maximize the structural performance of fluid machinery, it is necessary to optimize the structural parameters of fluid machinery on the basis of fully understanding the internal flow law of fluid machinery, so as to meet the development requirements of wide range, high efficiency, and energy saving in the current fluid machinery industry.

In recent years, with the emergence of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and various advanced optimization algorithms, the design and optimization of fluid machinery has re-entered people’s vision. In particular, with the help of CFD technology, people can observe the abnormal flow phenomenon in fluid machinery more intuitively and achieve the rapid design and automatic optimization of fluid machinery structures by setting different optimization objectives.

This Special Issue seeks high-quality original research focusing on the latest novel advances regarding the design and optimization of fluid machinery. Original research and review articles are welcome.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Design and optimization of fluid machinery;
  • Cavitation performance and its control;
  • Numerical simulation of transient flow and instabilities;
  • Flow-induced vibration in fluid machinery;
  • Advanced optimization algorithm;
  • Application of artificial intelligence and machine learning in optimization;
  • Innovative technologies for flow control;
  • Suppression of unsteady flow.

Dr. Leilei Ji
Prof. Dr. Ramesh Agarwal
Dr. Yang Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • CFD
  • fluid machinery
  • design and optimization
  • shock and vibration
  • unsteady flow
  • cavitation
  • rotor dynamics

Published Papers (19 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

24 pages, 12078 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Hydraulic Efficiency and Internal Flow Characteristics of a Multi-Stage Pump Using RBF Neural Network
by Lei Zhang, Dayong Wang, Gang Yang, Qiang Pan, Weidong Shi and Ruijie Zhao
Water 2024, 16(11), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16111488 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 290
Abstract
In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency and internal flow pattern of a multi-stage pump under multiple flow conditions, an intelligent optimization design was proposed for its hydraulic components. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the key parameters influencing the hydraulic efficiency of [...] Read more.
In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency and internal flow pattern of a multi-stage pump under multiple flow conditions, an intelligent optimization design was proposed for its hydraulic components. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the key parameters influencing the hydraulic efficiency of a multi-stage pump. The optimal Latin hypercube sampling and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm Ⅱ were employed to build a multi-objective optimization system. Moreover, a radial basis function neural network was adopted as the surrogate model of hydraulic efficiency. The research results showed that the impeller outlet width, impeller blade wrap angle, impeller outlet blade angle, and diffuser inlet width were the key factors affecting the hydraulic efficiency. The efficiency of the optimized model increased by 4.35% under the design condition and the matching of the internal flow between the optimized impeller and diffuser was significantly enhanced under the nominal condition. The improved flow pattern could be clearly observed in the flow passage of both the pump impeller and the diffuser. After optimization, the wear performance of the model was also improved compared to the original design. The wear area decreased in size and was distributed more evenly, resulting in a noticeable decrease in the maximum amount of wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7817 KiB  
Article
Structural Analysis and Optimization of Ultra-High-Speed Centrifugal Pump Rotor System Considering Fluid–Structure Interaction
by Shebin Yan, Zhifeng Ye, Dezhao Wang, Ji Ma and Wenjie Zhou
Water 2024, 16(11), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16111471 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 333
Abstract
An ultra-high-speed centrifugal pump plays a crucial role as part of an aircraft engine’s fuel supply system. This paper focuses on the coupled vibration and optimization of a parallel double-stage ultra-high-speed centrifugal pump considering fluid–structure interaction (FSI). The accuracy of the numerical calculation [...] Read more.
An ultra-high-speed centrifugal pump plays a crucial role as part of an aircraft engine’s fuel supply system. This paper focuses on the coupled vibration and optimization of a parallel double-stage ultra-high-speed centrifugal pump considering fluid–structure interaction (FSI). The accuracy of the numerical calculation is verified and compared with the experimental results. The steady and transient characteristics of the rotor system are analyzed to ensure the operational reliability of the rotor system. Moreover, an orthogonal test is conducted to explore the transient structural characteristics of the rotor system. The existing cross-support structure meets high-speed stability requirements and there is no resonance in the cantilevered rotor system. The maximum and minimum errors for the head of Pump 2 are 4% and 0.7%, respectively. The minimum values for maximum average deformation and maximum average stress are less than 0.31 mm and 245 MPa, respectively, at design conditions. The position of Bearing 1 near the multi-stage impeller has the greatest impact on the deformation and stress of the rotor system, and the deformation and stress increase as the distance increases. The results of this study can provide a valuable reference for the design of ultra-high-speed centrifugal pump rotor systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8028 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Non-Uniform Inflow Effects on Impeller Forces in Axial-Flow Pumps Operating as Turbines
by Kan Kan, Qingying Zhang, Hui Xu, Jiangang Feng, Zhenguo Song, Jianping Cheng and Maxime Binama
Water 2024, 16(10), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101428 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Due to the existence of an inlet elbow, transmission shaft, and other structural components, the inflow of axial-flow pumps as turbines (PATs) becomes non-uniform, resulting in the complexity of internal flow and adverse effects such as structural vibration. In this paper, numerical methods [...] Read more.
Due to the existence of an inlet elbow, transmission shaft, and other structural components, the inflow of axial-flow pumps as turbines (PATs) becomes non-uniform, resulting in the complexity of internal flow and adverse effects such as structural vibration. In this paper, numerical methods were employed to explore the non-uniform inflow effects on impeller forces and internal flow field characteristics within an axial-flow PAT. The study results indicated that non-uniform inflow caused uneven pressure distribution inside the impeller, which leads to an imbalance in radial forces and offsetting the center of radial forces. With an increasing flow rate, the asymmetry of radial forces as well as the amplitude of their fluctuations increased. Non-uniform inflow was found to induce unstable flow structures inside the impeller, leading to low-frequency, high-amplitude pressure fluctuations near the hub. Using the enstrophy transport equation, it was shown that the relative vortex generation term played a major part in the spatiotemporal evolution of vortices, with minimal viscous effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 12082 KiB  
Article
Research on Energy Loss of Optimization of Inducer–Impeller Axial Fit Dimensions Based on Wave-Piercing Theory
by Zhiqin Yang, Puyu Cao, Jinfeng Zhang, Shuyu Gao, Xinyan Song and Rui Zhu
Water 2024, 16(10), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16101385 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 444
Abstract
With the development of modern fluid machinery, the energy density of pumps is gradually being improved, and at the same time, higher demands are being placed on the cavitation performance, hence the introduction of the inducer and centrifugal impeller to form a dynamic–dynamic [...] Read more.
With the development of modern fluid machinery, the energy density of pumps is gradually being improved, and at the same time, higher demands are being placed on the cavitation performance, hence the introduction of the inducer and centrifugal impeller to form a dynamic–dynamic series structure. However, there are strict constraints on the axial size of pumps in fields such as firefighting and aerospace. The traditional empirical formula no longer satisfies the need to fit the axial dimensions between the induced wheel and the impeller at high velocities. Therefore, based on the wave-piercing theory, the drag reduction coefficient is introduced to explore the optimal axial fit size from the perspective of energy characteristics. This paper focuses on the influence of the inducer’s wake on the energy characteristics of downstream impellers, and conducts the following research: by adjusting the axial matching dimensions between the upstream inducer and the centrifugal impeller in the initial model, ten sets of axial distance models with matching dimensions of KD are designed, and the drag reduction coefficient is embedded to determine the optimal axial distance. The results show that the optimal axial distance is 0.2D, which is far lower than the axial distance value of 0.42D obtained from the traditional empirical formula for axial matching dimensions. Meanwhile, this paper uses tangential velocity, the inlet flow angle of the impeller, entropy production theory, and other indicators to analyze the internal energy loss of the high-speed vehicular fire pumps one by one. All of them confirm that the impeller in the high-speed vehicular fire pump has the lowest energy loss and optimal performance at an axial distance of 0.2D. Specifically, at this axial distance, the head can reach 259 m, and the hydraulic efficiency is as high as 83.62%. Thus, the feasibility of determining the axial placement of the impeller using the drag coefficient is validated. This research provides new insights into determining the axial coordination dimensions between the inducer and the impeller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6175 KiB  
Article
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Based Response Analysis of Inlet Distortion on a Waterjet Pump
by Puyu Cao, Rui Yue, Jinfeng Zhang, Xinrui Liu, Gang Wu and Rui Zhu
Water 2024, 16(9), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091282 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 525
Abstract
This study addresses the challenge of performance degradation in waterjet pumps due to non-uniform suction flow. Utilizing the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method, it decomposes and reconstructs the flow features within a waterjet pump under non-uniform inflow into a series of modes ranked [...] Read more.
This study addresses the challenge of performance degradation in waterjet pumps due to non-uniform suction flow. Utilizing the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method, it decomposes and reconstructs the flow features within a waterjet pump under non-uniform inflow into a series of modes ranked in descending order of energy. By analyzing the modes with dominant energy, which contain complex information about the flow field, it is revealed that modes 1 and 2 predominantly represent the formation of a concentrated vortex, whereas modes 3 and 4 illustrate its spatial offset. Notably, in the hub section, mode 3 exhibits a delayed flow separation caused by the reduction of circumferential vortex (CV), with a consequent lift in blade loading at the leading edge and a higher head compared to mode 1. In the shroud section, the delayed flow separation in mode 3 suppressed reverse flow and the concentrated separation vortex (CSV) and then increased the blade loading, ultimately enhancing the pump head. The findings provide significant insights into optimizing waterjet pump performance by detailing the interactions between various flow structures and pump components, effectively filling a knowledge gap in applying dimensionality reduction techniques within the distorted flow fields of water jet pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5208 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Two-Dimensional Tandem Cascades
by Puyu Cao, Luanjiao Liu, Jinfeng Zhang, Guidong Li, Rui Zhu and Zhiqin Yang
Water 2024, 16(5), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050679 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 642
Abstract
In comparison to single-row cascades, tandem cascades offer the advantages of reduced losses and enhanced operational capabilities, making them widely employed in compressor applications. However, current research on tandem cascades in hydraulic equipment remains relatively limited. In order to explore the potential application [...] Read more.
In comparison to single-row cascades, tandem cascades offer the advantages of reduced losses and enhanced operational capabilities, making them widely employed in compressor applications. However, current research on tandem cascades in hydraulic equipment remains relatively limited. In order to explore the potential application of two-dimensional tandem cascade structures in hydrodynamics and investigate their performance differences from single-row cascades, this study proposes a design scheme for a tandem cascade based on an existing single-row cascade design. Numerical simulation technology is utilized to compare and analyze the impact of these two designs on various flow losses under identical working conditions. The results indicate that compared to single-row vanes, the vane configuration of a serial-row design can better reduce losses and increase the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the vanes, thereby enhancing their load-bearing capacity and stability. This research finding is expected to provide valuable insights for future water pump design and optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 10912 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Analysis of Tip Leakage Phenomena in Axial Flow Pumps Using a Square-Cavity Jet Model
by Xinyan Song, Puyu Cao, Jinfeng Zhang, Zikai Lv, Guidong Li and Luanjiao Liu
Water 2024, 16(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050676 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 881
Abstract
In the field of pump impeller studies, tip leakage flow (TLF) and the resultant tip leakage vortex (TLV) significantly influence hydraulic efficiency, cavitation, and noise generation. This paper builds a novel square-cavity jet model combined with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technology to obtain [...] Read more.
In the field of pump impeller studies, tip leakage flow (TLF) and the resultant tip leakage vortex (TLV) significantly influence hydraulic efficiency, cavitation, and noise generation. This paper builds a novel square-cavity jet model combined with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technology to obtain precise the dynamic properties of the TLV, significantly simplifying the computational resources required for numerical simulations. The novel square-cavity jet model simplifies a single blade channel to a square-cavity, and then adds a longitudinal slit on the top wall of the square-cavity. The analysis of both instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields indicates that the interaction between the main flow and the jet is the primary source of TLV generation. This study successfully captures the formation process of the TLV and accurately reveals its turbulent coherent structures. The evolution of the TLV is divided into three main parts: the first part is the jet slot, predominantly characterized by negative vorticity flow. The second part is the TLV formation, which is mainly composed of significant negative streamwise vortices. The third part is the development of the TLV, where positive and negative vorticities begin to interact, resulting in a more complex overall structure. The entire evolution of the TLV phenomenon starts with a concentrated negative vortex, which, after breakdown, develops at a certain angle to the slot and continuously advances towards the sidewall, ultimately resulting in the formation of a large-scale intermingled group of small-scale positive and negative vortices. This research not only provides a new physical model for investigating the tip leakage phenomenon in axial flow pumps but also offers a powerful tool and methodology for future studies in similar complex flow domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 12765 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Pressure Pulsation and Structural Characteristics of Vertical Shaft Cross-Flow Pumps
by Yadong Zhu, Haifeng Jiao, Shihui Wang, Wenbo Zhu, Mengcheng Wang and Songshan Chen
Water 2024, 16(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020324 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
In order to study the pressure pulsation characteristics and structural dynamic response characteristics of a vertical shaft cross-flow pump, this study used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation method to analyze the pressure pulsation characteristics of the inlet passage, impeller, and guide [...] Read more.
In order to study the pressure pulsation characteristics and structural dynamic response characteristics of a vertical shaft cross-flow pump, this study used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation method to analyze the pressure pulsation characteristics of the inlet passage, impeller, and guide vane positions of the vertical shaft cross-flow pump device. At the same time, this study analyzed the equivalent stress–strain characteristics of the impeller and guide vane of a vertical shaft cross-flow pump based on fluid structure coupling technology and comprehensively analyzed the deformation modes of the impeller blades and guide vanes under dynamic water flow. This research shows that due to the influence of rotor–stator interaction, the amplitude of pressure pulsation at the interface between the impeller and guide vane of the pump device is the largest and that the main frequency distribution at this position is relatively complex. The non-uniformity of stress distribution at the impeller position gradually decreases with an increase in the radial distance. The high stress and strain zones of the impeller and guide vane are concentrated at the root of the blade. This study can provide reference for hydraulic optimization design and stable operation of similar pump devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5502 KiB  
Article
Optimization Design of the Elbow Inlet Channel of a Pipeline Pump Based on the SCSO-BP Neural Network
by Libin Zhang, Yin Luo, Zhenhua Shen, Daoxing Ye and Zihan Li
Water 2024, 16(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010074 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
A vertical pipeline pump is a type of single-stage, single-suction centrifugal pump with a curved elbow input. The inhomogeneous flow of the impeller inlet coexists with the unique elbow inlet channel, making it simple to generate the inlet vortical secondary flow. This paper [...] Read more.
A vertical pipeline pump is a type of single-stage, single-suction centrifugal pump with a curved elbow input. The inhomogeneous flow of the impeller inlet coexists with the unique elbow inlet channel, making it simple to generate the inlet vortical secondary flow. This paper aimed to optimize elbow inlet channel performance using a backpropagation (BP) neural network enhanced by the Sand Cat Swarm algorithm. The elbow flow channel’s midline and cross section shapes were fitted with a spline curve, and the parametric model of the curve was then constructed. Nine initial variables were filtered down to four optimization variables using the partial factor two-level (P2) and Plackett-Burman (P-B) experimental designs and multivariate analysis of variance. The sample space was generated by 50 groups of experiment samples, and the Sand Cat Swarm algorithm to optimize the BP (SCSO-BP) neural network and the approximation model of four variables were built. A genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to determine the optimal parameters among the approximate models in the sample space, and the ideal parameter combination of the elbow inlet channel was achieved. The findings demonstrated a strong agreement between the experimental and numerical simulation results. With reduced error fluctuation in inaccuracy and a more consistent fluctuation range, the approximate prediction model based on the optimized Sand Cat Swarm algorithm performed better. The optimized inlet model minimized the impact loss on the inlet wall, improved the velocity distribution uniformity of the inlet impeller, increased the pump efficiency by about 5% and the head by about 7.48% near the design flow, and broadened the efficient region of the pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 7744 KiB  
Article
Study of Tip Clearance on Dynamic and Static Head of a Spiral Axial-Flow Blade Pump under Cavitation Conditions
by Haigang Wen, Wenjuan Lv and Guangtai Shi
Water 2023, 15(24), 4304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244304 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
A spiral axial-flow blade pump (SABP) is an indispensable device in the closed gathering and transporting technology of oil and natural gas exploitation; it can not only transport a gas–liquid mixture with a high gas content, but also transport a gas–liquid–solid mixture containing [...] Read more.
A spiral axial-flow blade pump (SABP) is an indispensable device in the closed gathering and transporting technology of oil and natural gas exploitation; it can not only transport a gas–liquid mixture with a high gas content, but also transport a gas–liquid–solid mixture containing a small amount of sand. However, due to the large vortices that often appear in the flow channel of the SABP, cavitation is induced extremely easily. This paper presents a numeric calculation of the cavitation performance of an SABP to reveal the law governing the impact of cavitation on its internal flow. The impact of tip clearance with different sizes on the dynamic and static head of the SABP was analyzed, and the change rules of the absolute velocity, relative velocity, and dynamic and static head were revealed under different cavitation stages, too. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 18907 KiB  
Article
Effect of Flow on the Energy Conversion Characteristics of Multiphase Pumps Based on Energy Transport Theory
by Manqi Tang, Guangtai Shi, Wenjuan Lv, Xiaodong Peng and Zongliu Huang
Water 2023, 15(23), 4188; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234188 - 4 Dec 2023
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Multiphase pumps operate under different flow conditions with different work performance. In order to reveal the energy conversion regulations in multiphase pumps under different flows, this paper presents an analysis of the effects of different flows on the pressure propulsion power, Lamb vector [...] Read more.
Multiphase pumps operate under different flow conditions with different work performance. In order to reveal the energy conversion regulations in multiphase pumps under different flows, this paper presents an analysis of the effects of different flows on the pressure propulsion power, Lamb vector dispersion, and vortex enstrophy dissipation in the pressurization unit of a multiphase pump based on energy transport theory. It is found that at different flows, the pressure propulsion power near the impeller inlet decreases sharply, the pressure propulsion power is mainly located in the first half of the impeller near the suction side of the blade, and with the increase in the flow, the pressure propulsion power in the pressurization unit increases gradually, as well as its energy loss, while the Lamb vector dispersion gradually increases and the area of scattering region tends to be narrow under the small impeller tip clearance, while the Lamb vector dispersion region area slowly decreases with the flow rate when the impeller tip clearance is larger. The effect of flow on the vortex enstrophy dissipation in the multiphase pump is mainly located in the middle of the impeller near the blade pressure surface, and as the flow increases, the value of the vortex enstrophy dissipation in the impeller pressurization unit increases accordingly, and the vortex enstrophy dissipation in the first half of the impeller is even more chaotic. The investigation results have significant theoretical meaning for the deep mastery of the energy conversion characteristics in multiphase pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4566 KiB  
Article
Optimization Research on the Space-V-Type Biomimetic Surface Grooves of a Marine Centrifugal Pump
by Hua Li, Zifeng Yu, Runan Hua, Chenqi Li, Chao Guo, Houlin Liu and Liang Dong
Water 2023, 15(22), 4031; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15224031 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 880
Abstract
The biomimetic surface with Space-V grooves can effectively reduce flow resistance and noise. Our investigation was in order to further enhance the drag reduction and noise reduction performance of a marine centrifugal pump with Space-V-groove-shaped biomimetic surfaces. A regression equation was established with [...] Read more.
The biomimetic surface with Space-V grooves can effectively reduce flow resistance and noise. Our investigation was in order to further enhance the drag reduction and noise reduction performance of a marine centrifugal pump with Space-V-groove-shaped biomimetic surfaces. A regression equation was established with response surface methodology between the total sound pressure level and the height (h), width (s), and spacing (b) of the biomimetic groove structure. The interaction effects of various parameters on the total sound pressure level were analyzed, and the parameter range was determined at the lowest total sound pressure level. The hydraulic performance and interior noise of the model before and after optimization were compared. The results showed that the total sound pressure level initially decreased and then increased with increasing groove height. Similarly, with an increase in groove width, the total sound pressure level decreased at first, then increased. When the height of the bionic groove is 0.5–0.7 mm, the groove width is 0.4–0.7 mm, the groove spacing is 0.7–1.3 mm, and the total sound pressure level of the centrifugal pump is the smallest, which is 180–182 dB. On the other hand, the total sound pressure level increased as groove spacing increased. Through the use of an optimized Space-V groove model, under rated working conditions, the model head is increased by 0.27 m and the efficiency is increased by 1.21%. In addition, the optimized model has excellent drag and noise reduction performance, with the drag reduction rate of 3.73% and noise reduction rate of 1.81%, which are, respectively, increased by 0.87% and 0.45% compared with before optimization. The performance of centrifugal pumps for ships can be greatly improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 10707 KiB  
Article
Development of a High-Rotational Submersible Pump for Water Supply
by Vladyslav Kondus, Ivan Pavlenko, Oleksandr Kulikov and Oleksandr Liaposhchenko
Water 2023, 15(20), 3609; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203609 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Submersible pumps are the leading electricity consumers in centralized water supply systems. Considering the cost structure of the life cycle of pumping equipment, the main costs should include investment costs, electricity costs during operation, and costs of repairing pumping equipment. Considering the growing [...] Read more.
Submersible pumps are the leading electricity consumers in centralized water supply systems. Considering the cost structure of the life cycle of pumping equipment, the main costs should include investment costs, electricity costs during operation, and costs of repairing pumping equipment. Considering the growing cost of electricity in the world, the cost of manufacturing pumping equipment is significantly increasing, which in turn causes an increase in its price. The key factor in increasing the competitiveness of such equipment on the market is its modernization with the achievement of a higher level of energy efficiency with a simultaneous reduction in cost due to a reduction in weight and dimension parameters. In the research, a significant increase in the head from 15 m to 65 m of the submersible pump stage was achieved by increasing the rotation frequency from 3000 rpm to 6000 rpm and designing the pump for this rotation frequency. As a result, the pump head, created by the flowing part with the basic stage (eight pieces), can be provided by the pump using only two designed stages. It creates the prerequisites for reducing the mass of the pump from 200 kg to 45 kg, or by 77.5%. Also, in designing the pump, energy efficiency was increased from 74.6% (for the existing pump) to 79.4% (by 5% for the developed pump). The research results made it possible to significantly contribute to reducing the cost of the life cycle of the submersible pump installation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 15423 KiB  
Article
Influence of Blade Exit Angle on the Performance and Internal Flow Pattern of a High-Speed Electric Submersible Pump
by Chen Han, Junze Liu, Yang Yang and Xionghuan Chen
Water 2023, 15(15), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152774 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
The impeller vane exit placement angle has a critical role in the flow characteristics of the fluid inside the lobe, thus having a profound effect on the overall pump performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the impeller [...] Read more.
The impeller vane exit placement angle has a critical role in the flow characteristics of the fluid inside the lobe, thus having a profound effect on the overall pump performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the impeller exit angle on the operating characteristics of a high-speed well submersible pump, and the numerical calculation results of the original model are in good agreement with the experimental results. In this paper, five different impeller vane exit angles, namely 10°, 15°, 20°, 25° and 30°, are selected for numerical analysis based on the original model, and the flow conditions of 0.6 Q, 1.0 Q and 1.4 Q are analyzed for each angle. The results show that the impeller vane exit placement angle not only affects the static pressure distribution, velocity distribution and streamline distribution within the impeller and guide vane, but also has a significant effect on the head curve, power curve and efficiency curve of the well submersible pump. As the flow slip inside the impeller of high-speed well submersible pumps intensifies, the large impeller outlet angle will cause the power of the impeller to increase linearly with the flow rate, thus reducing the pump efficiency. In the low-flow and high-flow conditions, a small outlet angle of 10° will make the efficiency of high-speed submersible pumps higher than in other conditions, and these findings can provide some reference for the optimal design of high-speed submersible pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 15907 KiB  
Article
Optimization Design of Centrifugal Pump Auxiliary Blades Based on Orthogonal Experiment and Grey Correlation Analysis
by Yi Gao, Wei Li, Leilei Ji, Weidong Cao and Yunfei Chen
Water 2023, 15(13), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132465 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
In order to improve the hydraulic performance of multistage centrifugal pumps through the utilization of auxiliary blades, this paper presents an optimization of these blades using orthogonal experiments and grey relational analysis. The optimization scheme for auxiliary blade structure resulted as follows: Z [...] Read more.
In order to improve the hydraulic performance of multistage centrifugal pumps through the utilization of auxiliary blades, this paper presents an optimization of these blades using orthogonal experiments and grey relational analysis. The optimization scheme for auxiliary blade structure resulted as follows: Z = 2, R = 46.9 mm, and W = 2.5. In the vicinity of the optimal operating point, the optimized scheme showed a 6% increase in head compared to the original scheme. The increase in head was not significant at low flow rates, but at high flow rates, the optimized scheme exhibited a substantial increase in head, approximately 23% higher than the original scheme. Using the L9(34) orthogonal array, the quantity (Z), inner diameter (R), and width (W) of the auxiliary blades were selected as factors, each with three levels, to design nine different impeller structures. An entire flow field numerical simulation of a five-stage centrifugal pump was conducted for the nine designs, obtaining the pump head under rated working conditions. Based on the range analysis method of orthogonal experiment, the optimal design scheme for pump head performance was derived, and the primary and secondary factors affecting the pump head were found to be the inner diameter (R), width (W), and quantity (Z) of the auxiliary blades. The accuracy of the orthogonal experimental results may have been influenced by the different factor level dimensions, and a grey relational analysis was conducted to verify the accuracy of the results, on top of the range analysis of the orthogonal experiment. A prototype was created according to the optimal solution, which under optimal conditions presented a total pump efficiency of 32.6% and a pump head of 41.39 m, significantly higher than the original design without auxiliary blades. This combination of numerical simulation with orthogonal experiments and grey relational analysis is suitable for the optimization design of auxiliary blades in multistage centrifugal pumps. This approach can accurately infer the effect of the primary and secondary factors of the geometric parameters of auxiliary blades on pump performance and their corresponding optimal solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7987 KiB  
Article
Optimized Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Pump Based on Volumetric Loss Reduction by Auxiliary Blades
by Yi Gao, Wei Li, Handong Qi, Leilei Ji and Yunfei Chen
Water 2023, 15(13), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132350 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2492
Abstract
Throat ring leakage is a major factor deteriorating the performance of multistage centrifugal pumps. This paper focuses on the optimization of multistage centrifugal pumps by incorporating the principle of the Tesla valve and adding an auxiliary set of blades to the impeller body. [...] Read more.
Throat ring leakage is a major factor deteriorating the performance of multistage centrifugal pumps. This paper focuses on the optimization of multistage centrifugal pumps by incorporating the principle of the Tesla valve and adding an auxiliary set of blades to the impeller body. By changing the direction and magnitude of the leaking fluid’s flow, the leakage volume of the impeller throat ring is reduced. The study results demonstrate that the experimental error in head calculation with numerical simulation at the optimal working condition was 0.65%, verifying the accuracy of the numerical simulation method. The leakage volume of the throat ring decreased by up to approximately 28.99% compared to the original structure, which significantly increased the pump’s head and overall efficiency. Near the optimal operating point, the pump’s head and overall efficiency increased by approximately 8.1% and 8.7%, respectively. The larger the flow rate, the greater the improvement in the pump’s head and total efficiency. Near high-flow operating conditions, the pump’s head and overall efficiency increased by approximately 116.45% and 110.84%, respectively. The auxiliary blade structure introduces a non-contact seal which, compared to traditional seal structures, improves seal life and reduces seal costs. Additionally, the auxiliary blades can shift the optimal operating point of the multistage centrifugal pump towards a higher flow rate, improving the pump’s delivery capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4615 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effect Mechanism of Inlet Pre-Swirl on Pressure Pulsation within a Mixed-Flow Centrifugal Pump
by Xiaogang Ma, Mengying Bian, Yang Yang, Tingting Dai, Lei Tang and Jun Wang
Water 2023, 15(6), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061223 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1854
Abstract
This article explores the impact of inlet pre-swirl on pressure pulsation in a mixed-flow centrifugal pump through a combination of numerical simulations and experimental verification. Firstly, the mixed-flow centrifugal pump’s performance was initially determined through both numerical calculations and experiments. The comparison between [...] Read more.
This article explores the impact of inlet pre-swirl on pressure pulsation in a mixed-flow centrifugal pump through a combination of numerical simulations and experimental verification. Firstly, the mixed-flow centrifugal pump’s performance was initially determined through both numerical calculations and experiments. The comparison between them indicated the high accuracy of the numerical method adopted in this paper. Next, the flow pattern within the pump at various inlet pre-swirl angles was carefully compared and analyzed. It was found that positive impulse angle and inlet displacement could lead to circumferential inhomogeneity of the flow field within the impeller, while inlet pre-swirl can significantly counteract the effect of positive impulse angle. The impact of inlet pre-swirl on the flow pattern near the blade inlet will change the intensity of the secondary flow within the impeller passage. Variations in the intensity of the secondary flow can directly affect the strength of the wake and jet in the chamber. Then, the pressure pulsations within the chamber were compared and analyzed for various inlet pre-swirl angles. The results revealed that as the inlet pre-swirl angle increased, the intensity of pressure pulsation decreased significantly. This discovery sheds light on the influence mechanism of inlet pre-swirl on pressure pulsation within mixed-flow pumps, potentially serving as a theoretical foundation for enhancing the operational stability of mixed-flow centrifugal pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 620 KiB  
Article
Study on Water Quantity Allocation Optimization for Single Main Canal in Large-Scale Irrigation Area Based on DP Method
by Yi Gong, Wenhao Zou, Xiuwei Yuan, Xiaoling Yang and Yongfeng Chen
Water 2022, 14(23), 3917; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233917 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
The mathematical model of optimal water quantity allocation for a single main canal in a large-scale irrigation area was constructed that took the minimal sum of the squared deviation of water shortage for water receiving areas controlled by the single main canal in [...] Read more.
The mathematical model of optimal water quantity allocation for a single main canal in a large-scale irrigation area was constructed that took the minimal sum of the squared deviation of water shortage for water receiving areas controlled by the single main canal in one given irrigation period as the study target, and the total irrigation quantity of the single main canal as a constraint condition. Taking the optimal allocation of water quantity of each branch canal as decision variables, and several branch canals under the irrigation sequence of the main canal as a state variable, this model was solved by the one-dimensional dynamic programming (DP) method, by which the minimal water shortage and corresponding optimal water quantity allocation of each branch canal was calculated. The proposed method could provide a decision-making reference for optimal water resources allocation of single main canal irrigation areas, and also provide the theoretical basis for optimal water quantity allocation of a main canal with rotation irrigation by strips or with segmented rotation irrigation mode in China’s large-scale irrigation areas. Taking Hengliu Main Canal of Zhouqiao Irrigation Area in Jiangsu Province as a study case, optimization results showed that in a medium drought year (p = 75%) and a special drought year (p = 95%), minimal water shortage for water receiving areas controlled by Hengliu Main Canal was respectively 2.57 × 104 m3 and 23.31 × 104 m3 during the ponding period of rice. The corresponding water quantity allocation for each branch canal has reflected a compellent model solution precision and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

15 pages, 1189 KiB  
Review
Design Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Based on ISIGHT Software: A Review of Methods and Applications
by Fei Tian, Chen Yang, Erfeng Zhang, Dehua Sun, Weidong Shi and Yonghua Chen
Water 2023, 15(11), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112100 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Optimizing hydraulic machinery is a critical research area within the field of fluid mechanics, aiming to enhance product design efficiency and improve performance while reducing development time. The application of intelligent algorithms and combinatorial optimization strategies has become increasingly prevalent in this domain, [...] Read more.
Optimizing hydraulic machinery is a critical research area within the field of fluid mechanics, aiming to enhance product design efficiency and improve performance while reducing development time. The application of intelligent algorithms and combinatorial optimization strategies has become increasingly prevalent in this domain, providing a comprehensive understanding of optimization-related theoretical developments. Recently, the emergence of ISIGHT software as a new technology for software integration platforms has opened new avenues for optimization in hydraulic machinery. By leveraging intelligent algorithms and combinatorial optimization strategies, ISIGHT software provides a comprehensive framework for optimizing hydraulic machinery. This paper serves as an introduction to ISIGHT software, highlighting its advantages in addressing optimization problems. It presents a detailed examination of the process and technology involved in hydraulic machinery optimization based on ISIGHT software, along with its practical application. Furthermore, the paper summarizes the future development trends of ISIGHT software, offering engineers a theoretical foundation and reference for optimizing hydraulic machinery performance. Overall, this paper provides a valuable contribution to the field of hydraulic machinery optimization, showcasing the potential of ISIGHT software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of Fluid Machinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop