Advances in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology in Oncology

A topical collection in Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694). This collection belongs to the section "Cancer Causes, Screening and Diagnosis".

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Editor


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Department of Radiology, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 75014 Paris, France
2. Department of Radiology, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP Centre—Université de Paris, 75014 Paris, France
Interests: abdominal oncologic imaging; radiomics; artificial intelligence; functional imaging; interventional oncology

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Radiology plays a pivotal in the diagnostic, treatment, and follow-up of cancers. At the same time, with the expansion of therapeutic options, interventional radiology is playing a growing part in the curative and palliative management of cancers. Tailored treatment strategies are becoming increasingly available for patients, with a dramatically increasing role of imaging and especially radiomics in the pretreatment assessment of patients as well as follow-up after treatments. This Topical Collection illustrates the growing role of diagnostic radiology and of radiomics in the prognostication of cancer before treatments or at an early stage, and it provides insights into new therapeutic options available thanks to the development of interventional radiology as a standard of care in several cancers, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma. Future perspectives for further tailored strategies and mini-invasive therapeutic options are also presented and discussed.

Prof. Dr. Anthony Dohan
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomarkers
  • radiomics
  • texture analysis
  • artificial intelligence
  • HCC
  • interventional radiology

Published Papers (25 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

11 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
Safety and Diagnostic Efficacy of Image-Guided Biopsy of Small Renal Masses
by Muhamad Serhal, Sean Rangwani, Stephen M. Seedial, Bartley Thornburg, Ahsun Riaz, Albert A. Nemcek, Jr., Kent T. Sato, Kent T. Perry, Jr., Bonnie Choy, Robert J. Lewandowski and Andrew C. Gordon
Cancers 2024, 16(4), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16040835 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Introduction: Image-guided renal mass biopsy is gaining increased diagnostic acceptance, but there are limited data concerning the safety and diagnostic yield of biopsy for small renal masses (≤4 cm). This study evaluated the safety, diagnostic yield, and management after image-guided percutaneous biopsy for [...] Read more.
Introduction: Image-guided renal mass biopsy is gaining increased diagnostic acceptance, but there are limited data concerning the safety and diagnostic yield of biopsy for small renal masses (≤4 cm). This study evaluated the safety, diagnostic yield, and management after image-guided percutaneous biopsy for small renal masses. Methods: A retrospective IRB-approved study was conducted on patients who underwent renal mass biopsy for histopathologic diagnosis at a single center from 2015 to 2021. Patients with a prior history of malignancy or a renal mass >4 cm were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient demographics, tumor size, the imaging modality used for biopsy, procedure details, complications, pathological diagnosis, and post-biopsy management. A biopsy was considered successful when the specimen was sufficient for diagnosis without need for a repeat biopsy. Complications were graded according to the SIR classification of adverse events. A chi-squared test (significance level set at p ≤ 0.05) was used to compare the success rate of biopsies in different lesion size groups. Results: A total of 167 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 65 years (range: 26–87) and 51% were male. The median renal mass size was 2.6 cm (range: one–four). Ultrasound was solely employed in 60% of procedures, CT in 33%, a combination of US/CT in 6%, and MRI in one case. With on-site cytopathology, the median number of specimens obtained per procedure was four (range: one–nine). The overall complication rate was 5%. Grade A complications were seen in 4% (n = 7), consisting of perinephric hematoma (n = 6) and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1). There was one grade B complication (0.5%; pain) and one grade D complication (0.5%; pyelonephritis). There was no patient mortality within 30 days post-biopsy. Biopsy was successful in 88% of cases. A sub-group analysis showed a success rate of 85% in tumors <3 cm and 93% in tumors ≥3 cm (p = 0.01). Pathological diagnoses included renal cell carcinoma (65%), oncocytoma (18%), clear cell papillary renal cell tumors (9%), angiomyolipoma (4%), xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (1%), lymphoma (1%), high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (1%), and metanephric adenoma (1%), revealing benign diagnosis in 30% of cases. The most common treatment was surgery (40%), followed by percutaneous cryoablation (22%). In total, 37% of patients were managed conservatively, and one patient received chemotherapy. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the safety and diagnostic efficacy of image-guided biopsy of small renal masses. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher for masses 3–4 cm in size compared to those <3 cm. The biopsy results showed a high percentage of benign diagnoses and informed treatment decisions in most patients. Full article

2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

13 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Degradable Starch Microspheres Transarterial Chemoembolization with or without Lipiodol for Liver Metastases from Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial
by Thomas J. Vogl, Charlotte Lilienthal, Tatjana Gruber-Rouh, Zahra Afraz and Hamzah Adwan
Cancers 2023, 15(21), 5239; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15215239 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 917
Abstract
To evaluate and compare the outcome of patients with liver metastases from pancreatic cancer treated by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using two different protocols. In this prospective, randomized, single-center trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive TACE therapy either with degradable starch microspheres (DSM) [...] Read more.
To evaluate and compare the outcome of patients with liver metastases from pancreatic cancer treated by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using two different protocols. In this prospective, randomized, single-center trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive TACE therapy either with degradable starch microspheres (DSM) alone or a combination of Lipiodol and DSM. From the initial 58 patients, 26 patients (13 DSM-TACE, 13 Lipiodol + DSM-TACE) who completed 3 TACE treatments at an interval of four weeks were considered for evaluation of tumor responses. Initial and final MRIs were used to evaluate local therapy response by RECIST 1.1; changes in diameter, volume, ADC value, and survival rate were statistically evaluated. The differences between the DSM-TACE and Lipiodol + DSM-TACE were identified for partial response (PR) as 15.4% versus 53.8%, stable disease (SD) as 69.2% versus 46.2%, progressive disease (PD) as 15.4% versus 0%, respectively (p = 0.068). Median overall survival times for DSM-TACE and Lipiodol + DSM-TACE were 20 months (95% CI, 18.1–21.9) and 23 months (95% CI, 13.8–32.2), respectively (p = 0.565). The one-year survival rates for DSM-TACE and Lipiodol + DSM-TACE were 85.4% and 60.4%, the two-year survival rates were 35.9% and 47.7%, and the three-year survival rates were 12% and 30.9%, respectively. The evaluated local therapy response by RECIST 1. was not significantly different between the two studied groups. A longer overall survival time was observed after Lipiodol + DSM-TACE therapy; however, it was not significantly different. Full article
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9 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
Combination Therapy of Bland Transarterial Embolization and Microwave Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma within the Milan Criteria Leads to Significantly Higher Overall Survival
by Hamzah Adwan, Moath Adwan and Thomas J. Vogl
Cancers 2023, 15(20), 5076; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15205076 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
A comparison of the combination therapy consisting of microwave ablation (MWA) after bland lipiodol-based transarterial embolization (TAE) with MWA alone in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria. Forty-nine patients in the TAE-MWA group (12 women and 37 men; mean [...] Read more.
A comparison of the combination therapy consisting of microwave ablation (MWA) after bland lipiodol-based transarterial embolization (TAE) with MWA alone in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria. Forty-nine patients in the TAE-MWA group (12 women and 37 men; mean age: 63.3 ± 9.6 years) with 55 tumors and 63 patients in the MWA group (18 women and 45 men; mean age: 65.9 ± 10.5 years) with 67 tumors were retrospectively enrolled in this study. For the investigation of treatment protocols based upon both safety and efficacy, patients’ cases were analyzed with regard to complications, local tumor progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). There were no cases of major complications in either group. The LTP rate was 5.5% in the MWA-TAE group and 7.5% in the MWA group (p = 0.73). The rate of IDR was 42.9% in the MWA-TAE group and 52.4% in the MWA group (p = 0.42). The 12-, 24-, and 36-month OS rates starting at the date of tumor diagnosis were 97.7%, 85.1%, and 78.8% in the TAE-MWA group, and 91.9%, 71.4%, and 59.8% in the MWA group, respectively (p = 0.004). The 6-, 12-, and 24-month PFS rates were 76.5%, 55%, and 44.6% in the TAE-MWA group, and 74.6%, 49.2%, and 29.6% in the MWA group, respectively (p = 0.18). The combination therapy of TAE-MWA was significantly superior to MWA monotherapy according to OS in treating HCC within the Milan criteria. Full article
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12 pages, 2518 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of the Prognostic Effects of Fine Needle Aspiration and Core Needle Biopsy in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Nationwide Multicenter Prospective Registry
by Hongki Gwak, Sang Seok Woo, Se Jeong Oh, Jee Ye Kim, Hee-Chul Shin, Hyun Jo Youn, Jung Whan Chun, Dasom Lee and Seong Hwan Kim
Cancers 2023, 15(18), 4638; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15184638 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
(1) Background: Breast core needle biopsy (CNB) is preferred over fine needle aspiration (FNA) as it has higher sensitivity and specificity and enables immunohistochemical evaluation. However, breast FNA remains widely used because of its low cost, minimally invasive nature, and quick results. Studies [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Breast core needle biopsy (CNB) is preferred over fine needle aspiration (FNA) as it has higher sensitivity and specificity and enables immunohistochemical evaluation. However, breast FNA remains widely used because of its low cost, minimally invasive nature, and quick results. Studies analyzing the effects of each test on the prognoses of patients with breast cancer are scarce and controversial, and the criteria for test selection remain unknown. (2) Methods: This study included adult female patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at 102 general hospitals. The trend of breast biopsies over time was analyzed, and the prognoses of patients with breast cancer who underwent CNB and FNA were compared. (3) Results: This study included 73,644 patients who underwent FNA (n = 8027) and CNB (n = 65,617). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that patients diagnosed using FNA had significantly worse overall survival (OS) and breast-cancer-specific survival (BCSS) than those diagnosed using CNB. In the subgroup analysis, patients with breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) 5 lesions, palpable tumors, or centrally located tumors had significantly worse OS and BCSS with FNA than with CNB. (4) Conclusions: CNB should be performed preferentially instead of FNA in patients with BI-RADS 5 lesions and nonpalpable or centrally located tumors. Full article
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13 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Preoperative Arterial Embolization of Musculoskeletal Tumors: A Tertiary Center Experience
by Alice Kedra, Anthony Dohan, David Biau, Anissa Belbachir, Raphael Dautry, Alexandre Lucas, Mathilde Aissaoui, Antoine Feydy, Philippe Soyer and Maxime Barat
Cancers 2023, 15(9), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15092657 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1409
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to report the effectiveness of preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of musculoskeletal tumors in terms of blood loss and functional outcomes. Patients who underwent preoperative TAE of hypervascular musculoskeletal tumors between January 2018 and December 2021 were [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to report the effectiveness of preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of musculoskeletal tumors in terms of blood loss and functional outcomes. Patients who underwent preoperative TAE of hypervascular musculoskeletal tumors between January 2018 and December 2021 were retrospectively included. The patients’ characteristics, TAE procedure details, degree of post-TAE devascularization, surgical outcomes in terms of red blood cell transfusion and functional results were collected. The degree of devascularization was compared between patients who had peri-operative transfusion and those who did not. Thirty-one patients were included. The 31 TAE procedures led to complete (58%) or near-complete (42%) tumor devascularization. Twenty-two patients (71%) had no blood transfusion during surgery. Nine patients (29%) had a blood transfusion, with a median number of red blood cell packs of three (q1, 2; q3, 4; range: 1–4). Eight patients (27%) had complete improvement of the initial musculoskeletal symptoms at the end of the follow-up, 15 (50%) had partially satisfying improvement, 4 (13%) had partially unsatisfying improvement and 3 (10%) had no improvement. Our study suggests that preoperative TAE of hypervascular musculoskeletal tumors allowed for bloodless surgery in 71% of patients and minimal transfusion needs for the remaining 29%. Full article
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15 pages, 5586 KiB  
Systematic Review
Performance of Radiomics in Microvascular Invasion Risk Stratification and Prognostic Assessment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis
by Sylvain Bodard, Yan Liu, Sylvain Guinebert, Yousra Kherabi and Tarik Asselah
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030743 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Background: Primary liver cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death. Advances in phenomenal imaging are paving the way for application in diagnosis and research. The poor prognosis of advanced HCC warrants a personalized approach. [...] Read more.
Background: Primary liver cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death. Advances in phenomenal imaging are paving the way for application in diagnosis and research. The poor prognosis of advanced HCC warrants a personalized approach. The objective was to assess the value of imaging phenomics for risk stratification and prognostication of HCC. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of manuscripts published to January 2023 on MEDLINE addressing the value of imaging phenomics for HCC risk stratification and prognostication. Publication information for each were collected using a standardized data extraction form. Results: Twenty-seven articles were analyzed. Our study shows the importance of imaging phenomics in HCC MVI prediction. When the training and validation datasets were analyzed separately by the random-effects model, in the training datasets, radiomics had good MVI prediction (AUC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.76–0.86)). Similar results were found in the validation datasets (AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.72–0.85)). Using the fixed effects model, the mean AUC of all datasets was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76–0.84). Conclusions: Imaging phenomics is an effective solution to predict microvascular invasion risk, prognosis, and treatment response in patients with HCC. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

13 pages, 1685 KiB  
Communication
Feasibility and Safety of Single-Probe Cryoablation with Liquid Nitrogen: An Initial Experience in 24 Various Tumor Lesions
by Tarek Kammoun, Elodie Prévot, Chris Serrand, Romain Perolat, Hélène de Forges, Nadine Houédé, Jean-Paul Beregi and Julien Frandon
Cancers 2022, 14(21), 5432; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14215432 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
Background: Percutaneous cryoablation with liquid nitrogen is a new technique being used in the treatment of some malignant tumors. Our objective was to assess its feasibility in the ablation of tumor lesions of various sizes and locations. Methods: This retrospective, monocentric study included [...] Read more.
Background: Percutaneous cryoablation with liquid nitrogen is a new technique being used in the treatment of some malignant tumors. Our objective was to assess its feasibility in the ablation of tumor lesions of various sizes and locations. Methods: This retrospective, monocentric study included all consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous cryoablation with liquid nitrogen between December 2019 and March 2021. Cryoablation was performed using 10G or 13G cryoprobes. The ablation volume was measured on post-treatment CT or MRI. Results: 22 patients (24 lesions) were included, 16 of whom were men (73%), while median age was 66 years. The lesions were located in the bone (42%), kidney (29%), soft tissue (17%), lung (8%), or liver (4%). It was feasible in all tumor locations and produced median ablation zones 25 mm in width and 35 mm in length, with a 23 min median freezing time. Freezing duration was correlated with the ice volume (p Spearman = 0.02), but not with the ablation volume (p = 0.11). The average difference between the ablation zone and ice ball sizes were −6.4 mm in width and −7.7 mm in length. Both ice and ablation volumes were larger when using the 10G probe as compared to when the 13G was used. No complications were reported. Discussion: We showed that this technique was safe and feasible in all organs tested. The freezing duration was correlated with the ice ball size, but not with the ablation zone. Full article
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13 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Percutaneous Thermal Ablation for Renal Tumors in Patients with Birt–Hogg–Dubé Syndrome
by Sylvain Bodard, Idris Boudhabhay, Charles Dariane, Christophe Delavaud, Sylvain Guinebert, Dominique Joly, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Arnaud Mejean, Virginie Verkarre, Olivier Hélénon, Stéphane Richard and Jean-Michel Correas
Cancers 2022, 14(20), 4969; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14204969 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
BHD syndrome is characterized by an increased risk of bilateral and multifocal renal cell carcinoma (RCCs), but is rarely metastatic. Our report aims to analyze the outcome of patients with BHD syndrome who underwent percutaneous thermal ablation (TA). The present report included six [...] Read more.
BHD syndrome is characterized by an increased risk of bilateral and multifocal renal cell carcinoma (RCCs), but is rarely metastatic. Our report aims to analyze the outcome of patients with BHD syndrome who underwent percutaneous thermal ablation (TA). The present report included six BHD syndrome patients (five men) with a mean age of 66 ± 11 (SD) years who had a proven germline FLCN gene mutation and underwent TA for a renal tumor. Nineteen renal tumors (median two tumors per patient; range: 1–3), including seven chromophobe RCCs, five clear-cell RCCs, four papillary RCCs, two clear-cell papillary RCC, and one hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor were treated in 14 ablation sessions. The mean size of the tumors was 21 ± 11 (SD) mm (median: 20 mm; interquartile range (IQR): 14–25 mm) for a mean volume of 7 ± 11 (SD) mL (median: 3; IQR: 1–5 mL). Technical success was achieved in all ablation sessions (primary success rate, 100%). The procedure was well tolerated under conscious sedation with no significant Clavien–Dindo complication (grade 2, 3, 4). All patients were alive with no distant metastasis during a median follow-up period of 74 months (range: 33–83 months). No local tumor progression was observed. The mean decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate was 8 mL/min/1.73 m2. No patients required dialysis or renal transplantation. In this case series, percutaneous TA appeared as a safe and efficient nephron-sparing treatment for treating RCCs associated with BHD syndrome, even in the case of advanced chronic kidney disease. Full article
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13 pages, 1723 KiB  
Article
Contralesional Cortical and Network Features Associated with Preoperative Language Deficit in Glioma Patients
by Chunyao Zhou, Shengyu Fang, Shimeng Weng, Zhong Zhang, Tao Jiang, Yinyan Wang, Lei Wang and Kai Tang
Cancers 2022, 14(18), 4469; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14184469 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
Lower-grade Gliomas anchored in eloquent areas cause varying degrees of language impairment. Except for a tumor’s features, contralesional compensation may explain these differences. Therefore, studying changes in the contralateral hemisphere can provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of language function compensation in patients [...] Read more.
Lower-grade Gliomas anchored in eloquent areas cause varying degrees of language impairment. Except for a tumor’s features, contralesional compensation may explain these differences. Therefore, studying changes in the contralateral hemisphere can provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of language function compensation in patients with gliomas. This study included 60 patients with eloquent-area or near-eloquent-area gliomas. The participants were grouped according to the degree of language defect. T1 and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained. The contralesional cortical volume and the subcortical network were compared between groups. Patients with unimpaired language function showed elevated cortical volume in the midline areas of the frontal and temporal lobes. In subcortical networks, the group also had the highest global efficiency and shortest global path length. Ten nodes had intergroup differences in nodal efficiency, among which four nodes were in the motor area and four nodes were in the language area. Linear correlation was observed between the efficiency of the two nodes and the patient’s language function score. Functional compensation in the contralesional hemisphere may alleviate language deficits in patients with gliomas. Structural compensation mainly occurs in the contralesional midline area in the frontal and temporal lobes, and manifests as an increase in cortical volume and subcortical network efficiency. Full article
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15 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
Scalloping of the Liver and Spleen on Preoperative CT-Scan of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Patients: Impact on Prediction of Resectability, Grade, Morbidity and Survival
by Vahan Kepenekian, Amaniel Kefleyesus, David Keskin, Nazim Benzerdjeb, Isabelle Bonnefoy, Laurent Villeneuve, Omar Alhadeedi, Abeer Al-Otaibi, Alexandre Galan, Olivier Glehen, Julien Péron and Pascal Rousset
Cancers 2022, 14(18), 4434; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14184434 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2943
Abstract
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is ideally treated by cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), leading to significant morbidity. Beyond the histologic grade, the prognosis lies in the completeness of cytoreduction (CC-score of 0/1 vs. 2/3) and the severe complication rate. The mucinous [...] Read more.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is ideally treated by cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), leading to significant morbidity. Beyond the histologic grade, the prognosis lies in the completeness of cytoreduction (CC-score of 0/1 vs. 2/3) and the severe complication rate. The mucinous nature of the peritoneal implants sometimes induces liver and/or spleen scalloping on imaging. The predictive value of scalloping was assessed regarding resectability, grade, survival and severe morbidity. This monocentric, retrospective analysis compared CC-0/1 with CC-2/3 groups regarding liver and spleen scalloping parameters, assessed on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan, reviewed for the study. In addition, prognostic factors of severe complications and recurrence-free and overall survivals were explored in the CC-0/1 population. Overall, 129 patients were included (109 CC-0/1, 20 CC-2/3), with 58 (45%) exhibiting scalloping. All patients with splenic scalloping also had a liver one. Scalloping was more frequent (75% vs. 39%), with greater median maximal depth (21 vs. 11 mm) and higher PCI (32 vs. 14) in the CC-2/3 population, but was not predictive of either grade or survival. In CC-0/1 patients, survivals and postoperative complications were not affected by scalloping parameters. Scalloping appeared as a marker of advanced PMP, but was not predictive of grade, severe complications, or long-term outcomes. Full article
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15 pages, 3313 KiB  
Article
Loco-Regional Therapies in Oligometastatic Adrenocortical Carcinoma
by Charles Roux, Alice Boileve, Matthieu Faron, Livia Lamartina, Alexandre Delpla, Lambros Tselikas, Jérome Durand-Labrunie, Segolène Hescot, Thierry de Baere, Julien Hadoux, Frederic Deschamps and Eric Baudin
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112730 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Objective: The recommended first-line treatment for low-tumor-burden ACC (stage IVa ACC) not amenable to radical resection is mitotane in association with loco-regional treatments (LRs). The aim of this study was to determine the patient population that would benefit the most from LR. Materials [...] Read more.
Objective: The recommended first-line treatment for low-tumor-burden ACC (stage IVa ACC) not amenable to radical resection is mitotane in association with loco-regional treatments (LRs). The aim of this study was to determine the patient population that would benefit the most from LR. Materials and methods: This retrospective monocentric expert center chart review study was performed from 2008 to 2021 and included stage IVa patients (≤2 tumoral organs) treated with LR (either radiotherapy, surgery, or interventional radiology). The primary endpoint was disease control (DC). Correlations between DC, time to systemic chemotherapy (TTC), overall survival (OS), and tumor characteristics were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox’s proportional hazards regression model for multivariate analysis. Results: Thirty-four women (57%) and 26 men with a median age of 48.1 years (IQR: 38.3–59.8) were included. One hundred and nine LRs were performed, with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) per patient. DC was achieved in 40 out of 60 patients (66.7%). Patients with DC had a significantly longer TTC (HR: 0.27, p < 0.001) and OS (HR: 0.22, p < 0.001). Patients with less than or equal to 5 metastases (HR: 6.15 (95% CI: 1.88–20.0), p = 0.002) or a maximum metastasis diameter below 3 cm had higher rates of DC (HR: 3.78 (95% CI: 1.09–13.14), p = 0.035). Conclusion: stage IVa ACC patients with ≤5 metastases or a maximum metastasis diameter below 3 cm had favorable responses to LR. We propose the name oligometastatic ACC for this subgroup of patients. Full article
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17 pages, 3083 KiB  
Article
Impact of Extended Use of Ablation Techniques in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
by Toulsie Ramtohul, Valérie Vilgrain, Olivier Soubrane, Mohamed Bouattour, Alain Luciani, Hicham Kobeiter, Sébastien Mule, Vania Tacher, Alexis Laurent, Giuliana Amaddeo, Hélène Regnault, Julie Bulsei, Jean-Charles Nault, Pierre Nahon, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski and Olivier Seror
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112634 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Background: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the extended use of ablation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with cirrhosis in an expert ablation center when compared to the non-extended use of ablation in equivalent tertiary care centers. Methods: Consecutive cirrhotic patients with [...] Read more.
Background: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the extended use of ablation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with cirrhosis in an expert ablation center when compared to the non-extended use of ablation in equivalent tertiary care centers. Methods: Consecutive cirrhotic patients with non-metastatic HCC, no prior treatment, and referred to three tertiary care centers between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively identified. The Bondy group, including all of the patients treated at Jean Verdier Hospital, where the extended use of ablation is routinely performed, was compared to the standard of care (SOC) group, including all of the patients treated at the Beaujon and Mondor Hospitals, using propensity score matching. A cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out from the perspective of French health insurance using a Markov model on a lifetime horizon. Results: 532 patients were matched. The Bondy group led to incremental discounted lifetime effects of 0.8 life-years gained (LYG) (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 1.3) and a decrease in lifetime costs of EUR 7288 (USD 8016) (95% confidence interval: EUR 5730 [USD 6303], EUR 10,620 [USD 11,682]) per patient, compared with the SOC group, resulting in a dominant mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). A compliance with the Barcelona Clinic Liver Classification (BCLC) guidelines for earlier stage contributed to the greater part of the ICER. Conclusion: The extended use of ablation in cirrhotic patients with HCC was more effective and less expensive than the non-extended use of the ablation strategy. Full article
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11 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Pain after Interventional Radiology in Oncology: A Case-Control Study from a 5-Year Cohort
by Narimane Ayaden, Philippe Sitbon, Arnaud Pages, Lambros Tselikas and Jean-Louis Bourgain
Cancers 2022, 14(11), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112576 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Background: Interventional radiology plays a major role in oncology both for curative and palliative treatment, but few reports address post-procedural pain. The purpose of this study was to quantify postoperative pain after interventional radiology procedures in oncology and to identify major pain-associated pre [...] Read more.
Background: Interventional radiology plays a major role in oncology both for curative and palliative treatment, but few reports address post-procedural pain. The purpose of this study was to quantify postoperative pain after interventional radiology procedures in oncology and to identify major pain-associated pre and intraoperative factors. Methods: From 2015 to 2019, all patients treated with interventional radiology were included retrospectively in a cohort study. Anesthetic protocols were standardized by the type of radiological procedure. Demographic data, preoperative treatments, analgesic agents, pain score levels, and morphine consumption from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) to hospital discharge were collected from databases. In an additional case-control study, patients reporting strong or intolerable pain in PACU were compared to those with no pain. Matching to control cases was based on the type of intervention, sex, and age. Results: From 4411 procedures, severe pain in PACU was more frequent in women (p < 0.04) and the youngest patients (p < 0.0001), after general anesthesia (p < 0.0001). Higher pain levels were associated with certain procedures, such as arterial embolization, limb cementoplasty, osteosynthesis, and abdominal tumor ablation, and when the intervention duration exceeded 160 min (p = 0.038). In the cohort study, high-dose remifentanil (≥0.055 µg/kg/min) was a risk factor for post-procedural high pain levels (p < 0.001). Intraoperative ketoprofen was associated with a decrease in high pain level incidence (p < 0.0001). Severe pain in PACU was a risk factor for severe pain in wards from day 0 until discharge. Conclusion: Severe pain depends on the type and duration of interventional radiology, type of anesthesia, and preoperative use of opiates. Limiting doses of remifentanil and injecting intraoperative analgesics, especially ketoprofen, may reduce the incidence of post-intervention severe pain. Full article
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12 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Tumor Heterogeneity from Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Using Texture Analysis
by Saleh T. Alanezi, Frank Sullivan, Christoph Kleefeld, John F. Greally, Marcin J. Kraśny, Peter Woulfe, Declan Sheppard and Niall Colgan
Cancers 2022, 14(7), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071631 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
(1) Background: Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) is used to manage patients with PCa. Tumor identification via irregular sampling or biopsy is problematic and does not allow the comprehensive detection of the phenotypic and genetic alterations in a tumor. A non-invasive technique to clinically assess [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) is used to manage patients with PCa. Tumor identification via irregular sampling or biopsy is problematic and does not allow the comprehensive detection of the phenotypic and genetic alterations in a tumor. A non-invasive technique to clinically assess tumor heterogeneity is also in demand. We aimed to identify tumor heterogeneity from multiparametric magnetic resonance images using texture analysis (TA). (2) Methods: Eighteen patients with prostate cancer underwent mp-MRI scans before prostatectomy. A single radiologist matched the histopathology report to single axial slices that best depicted tumor and non-tumor regions to generate regions of interest (ROIs). First-order statistics based on the histogram analysis, including skewness, kurtosis, and entropy, were used to quantify tumor heterogeneity. We compared non-tumor regions with significant tumors, employing the two-tailed Mann–Whitney U test. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) was used to determine diagnostic accuracy. (3) Results: ADC skewness for a 6 × 6 px filter was significantly lower with an ROC-AUC of 0.82 (p = 0.001). The skewness of the ADC for a 9 × 9 px filter had the second-highest result, with an ROC-AUC of 0.66; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). Furthermore, there were no substantial distinctions between pixel filter size groups from the histogram analysis, including entropy and kurtosis. (4) Conclusions: For all filter sizes, there was poor performance in terms of entropy and kurtosis histogram analyses for cancer diagnosis. Significant prostate cancer may be distinguished using a textural feature derived from ADC skewness with a 6 × 6 px filter size. Full article
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14 pages, 990 KiB  
Review
The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Management of Esophageal Cancer
by Anna Pellat, Anthony Dohan, Philippe Soyer, Julie Veziant, Romain Coriat and Maximilien Barret
Cancers 2022, 14(5), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14051141 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth more frequent cancer worldwide, with a poor prognosis. Initial staging is critical to decide on the best individual treatment approach. Current modalities for the assessment of EC are irradiating techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and positron [...] Read more.
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth more frequent cancer worldwide, with a poor prognosis. Initial staging is critical to decide on the best individual treatment approach. Current modalities for the assessment of EC are irradiating techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT, or invasive techniques, such as digestive endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive and non-irradiating imaging technique that provides high degrees of soft tissue contrast, with good depiction of the esophageal wall and the esophagogastric junction. Various sequences of MRI have shown good performance in initial tumor and lymph node staging in EC. Diffusion-weighted MRI has also demonstrated capabilities in the evaluation of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy. To date, there is not enough data to consider whole body MRI as a routine investigation for the detection of initial metastases or for prediction of distant recurrence. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge on MRI for the management of EC. Full article
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20 pages, 3627 KiB  
Review
Adrenal Mass Characterization in the Era of Quantitative Imaging: State of the Art
by Maxime Barat, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Sébastien Gaujoux, Florence Tenenbaum, Mathilde Sibony, Jérôme Bertherat, Rossella Libé, Martin Gaillard, Anne Jouinot, Guillaume Assié, Christine Hoeffel, Philippe Soyer and Anthony Dohan
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030569 - 23 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5061
Abstract
Detection and characterization of adrenal lesions have evolved during the past two decades. Although the role of imaging in adrenal lesions associated with hormonal secretion is usually straightforward, characterization of non-functioning adrenal lesions may be challenging to confidently identify those that need to [...] Read more.
Detection and characterization of adrenal lesions have evolved during the past two decades. Although the role of imaging in adrenal lesions associated with hormonal secretion is usually straightforward, characterization of non-functioning adrenal lesions may be challenging to confidently identify those that need to be resected. Although many adrenal lesions can be readily diagnosed when they display typical imaging features, the diagnosis may be challenging for atypical lesions. Computed tomography (CT) remains the cornerstone of adrenal imaging, but other morphological or functional modalities can be used in combination to reach a diagnosis and avoid useless biopsy or surgery. Early- and delayed-phase contrast-enhanced CT images are essential for diagnosing lipid-poor adenoma. Ongoing studies are evaluating the capabilities of dual-energy CT to provide valid virtual non-contrast attenuation and iodine density measurements from contrast-enhanced examinations. Adrenal lesions with attenuation values between 10 and 30 Hounsfield units (HU) on unenhanced CT can be characterized by MRI when iodinated contrast material injection cannot be performed. 18F-FDG PET/CT helps differentiate between atypical benign and malignant adrenal lesions, with the adrenal-to-liver maximum standardized uptake value ratio being the most discriminative variable. Recent studies evaluating the capabilities of radiomics and artificial intelligence have shown encouraging results. Full article
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10 pages, 4537 KiB  
Article
A New Approach for a Safe and Reproducible Seeds Positioning for Diffusing Alpha-Emitters Radiation Therapy of Squamous Cell Skin Cancer: A Feasibility Study
by Giacomo Feliciani, Salvatore Roberto Bellia, Massimo Del Duca, Giorgio Mazzotti, Manuela Monti, Ignazio Stanganelli, Yona Keisari, Itzhak Kelson, Aron Popovtzer, Antonino Romeo and Anna Sarnelli
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010240 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to discuss how to use an external radio-opaque template in the Diffusing Alpha-emitters Radiation Therapy (DaRT) technique’s pre-planning and treatment stages. This device would help to determine the proper number of sources for tumour coverage, accounting for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to discuss how to use an external radio-opaque template in the Diffusing Alpha-emitters Radiation Therapy (DaRT) technique’s pre-planning and treatment stages. This device would help to determine the proper number of sources for tumour coverage, accounting for subcutaneous invasion and augmenting DaRT safety. The procedure will be carried out in a first phase on a phantom and then applied to a clinical case. A typical DaRT procedure workflow comprises steps like tumour measurements and delineation, source number assessment, and therapy administration. As a first step, an adhesive fiberglass mesh (spaced by 2 mm) tape was applied on the skin of the patient and employed as frame of reference. A physician contoured the lesion and marked the entrance points for the needles with a radio opaque ink marker. According to the radio opaque marks and metabolic uptake the clinical target volume was defined, and with a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS) it was possible to simulate and adjust the spatial seeds distribution. After the implant procedure a CT was again performed to check the agreement between simulations and seeds positions. With the procedure described above it was possible to simulate a DaRT procedure on a phantom in order to train physicians and subsequently apply the novel approach on patients, outlining the major issues involved in the technique. The present work innovates and supports DaRT technique for the treatment of cutaneous cancers, improving its efficacy and safety. Full article
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16 pages, 4699 KiB  
Article
Arterial Administration of DNA Crosslinking Agents with Restraint of Homologous Recombination Repair by Intravenous Low-Dose Gemcitabine Is Effective for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
by Hiromu Mori, Shuichi Tanoue, Ryo Takaji, Shinya Ueda, Mika Okahara and Saori Sugi Ueda
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010220 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
(1) Background: Pretreatment by Rad51-inhibitory substances such as gemcitabine followed by arterial chemotherapy using antineoplastic agents causing DNA crosslink might be more beneficial for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancers than conventional treatments. The efficacy of arterial administration of DNA crosslinking agents with [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Pretreatment by Rad51-inhibitory substances such as gemcitabine followed by arterial chemotherapy using antineoplastic agents causing DNA crosslink might be more beneficial for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancers than conventional treatments. The efficacy of arterial administration of DNA crosslinking agents with pretreatment of intravenous low-dose gemcitabine for patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (LAPC or MPC) is evaluated. (2) Methods: A single-arm, single-center, institutional review board-approved prospective study was conducted between 2005 and 2015. Forty-five patients (23 LAPC, 22 MPC) were included. Patients received a weekly low dose of gemcitabine intravenously for three weeks followed by arterial administration of mitomycin C and epirubicin hydrochloride at tumor-supplying arteries on the fifth or sixth week. This treatment course was repeated at 1.5-to-2-month intervals. Overall survival (OS), local progression-free survival (LPFS), and therapeutic response were evaluated. LAPC or MPC were divided according to treatment compliance, excellent or poor (1 or 2), to subgroups L1, L2, M1, and M2. (3) Results: OS of LAPC and MPC were 23 months and 13 months, respectively. The OS of LAPC with excellent treatment compliance (subgroup L1, 10 patients) was 33 months with 31 months of LPFS, and four patients (40%) had a complete response (CR). The OS of the L1 subgroup was significantly longer than those of other subgroups L2, M1, and M2, which were 17 months, 17 months, and 8 months, respectively. As Grade 3 adverse effects, severe bone marrow suppression, interstitial pneumonitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome were observed in six (13.0%), three (6.5%), and three (6.5%) patients, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Arterial DNA crosslinking with the systemic restraint of homologous recombination repair can be a new treatment option for LAPC. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022

13 pages, 3259 KiB  
Article
Combining Transarterial Radioembolization (TARE) and CT-Guided High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT): A Retrospective Analysis of Advanced Primary and Secondary Liver Tumor Treatment
by Florian Nima Fleckenstein, Maximilian Julius Roesel, Maja Krajewska, Timo Alexander Auer, Federico Collettini, Tazio Maleitzke, Georg Böning, Giovanni Federico Torsello, Uli Fehrenbach and Bernhard Gebauer
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010072 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2850
Abstract
Purpose: Treatment of patients with primary and secondary liver tumors remains challenging. This study analyzes the efficacy and safety of transarterial radioembolization (TARE) combined with CT-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. Patients and Methods: A [...] Read more.
Purpose: Treatment of patients with primary and secondary liver tumors remains challenging. This study analyzes the efficacy and safety of transarterial radioembolization (TARE) combined with CT-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 77 patients (30 female) with various liver malignancies were treated. Primary endpoints were median overall survival (OS) and time to untreatable progression (TTUP). Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed in consideration of diagnosis and procedure sequence. Median OS and TTUP prediction were estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: A total of 115 CT-HDRBT and 96 TARE procedures were performed with no significant complications recorded. Median OS and TTUP were 29.8 (95% CI 18.1–41.4) and 23.8 (95% CI 9.6–37.9) months. Median OS for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-, cholangiocarcinoma carcinoma (CCA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was 29.8, 29.6 and 34.4 months. Patients starting with TARE had a median OS of 26.0 (95% CI 14.5–37.5) compared to 33.7 (95% CI 21.6–45.8) months for patients starting with CT-HDRBT. Hazard ratio of 1.094 per month was shown for patients starting with CT-HDRBT. Conclusion: Combining TARE and CT-HDRBT is effective and safe for the treatment of advanced stage primary and secondary liver tumors. Our data indicate that early TARE during the disease progression may have a positive effect on survival. Full article
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18 pages, 5832 KiB  
Article
Development of an MRI-Guided Approach to Selective Internal Radiation Therapy Using Holmium-166 Microspheres
by Joey Roosen, Mark J. Arntz, Marcel J. R. Janssen, Sytse F. de Jong, Jurgen J. Fütterer, Christiaan G. Overduin and J. Frank W. Nijsen
Cancers 2021, 13(21), 5462; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215462 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a treatment modality for liver tumours during which radioactive microspheres are injected into the hepatic arterial tree. Holmium-166 (166Ho) microspheres used for SIRT can be visualized and quantified with MRI, potentially allowing for MRI guidance [...] Read more.
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a treatment modality for liver tumours during which radioactive microspheres are injected into the hepatic arterial tree. Holmium-166 (166Ho) microspheres used for SIRT can be visualized and quantified with MRI, potentially allowing for MRI guidance during SIRT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MRI compatibility of two angiography catheters and a microcatheter typically used for SIRT, and to explore the detectability of 166Ho microspheres in a flow phantom using near real-time MRI. MR safety tests were performed at a 3 T MRI system according to American Society for Testing of Materials standard test methods. To assess the near real-time detectability of 166Ho microspheres, a flow phantom was placed in the MRI bore and perfused using a peristaltic pump, simulating the flow in the hepatic artery. Dynamic MR imaging was performed using a 2D FLASH sequence during injection of different concentrations of 166Ho microspheres. In the safety assessment, no significant heating (ΔTmax 0.7 °C) was found in any catheter, and no magnetic interaction was found in two out of three of the used catheters. Near real-time MRI visualization of 166Ho microsphere administration was feasible and depended on holmium concentration and vascular flow speed. Finally, we demonstrate preliminary imaging examples on the in vivo catheter visibility and near real-time imaging during 166Ho microsphere administration in an initial patient case treated with SIRT in a clinical 3 T MRI. These results support additional research to establish the feasibility and safety of this procedure in vivo and enable the further development of a personalized MRI-guided approach to SIRT. Full article
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15 pages, 14877 KiB  
Article
Long Term Efficacy and Assessment of Tumor Response of Transarterial Chemoembolization in Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: A 15-Year Monocentric Experience
by Caroline Touloupas, Matthieu Faron, Julien Hadoux, Frédéric Deschamps, Charles Roux, Maxime Ronot, Steven Yevich, Julien Joskin, Maximiliano Gelli, Rémy Barbé, Livia Lamartina, Hubert Tissot, Jean-Yves Scoazec, David Malka, Michel Ducreux, Eric Baudin, Thierry de Baère and Lambros Tselikas
Cancers 2021, 13(21), 5366; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215366 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Background: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an established treatment for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases. The aim was to evaluate the long-term treatment efficacy of TACE for NET liver metastases, and correlate imaging response with survival. Methods: this IRB-approved, single-center, retrospective study evaluated all [...] Read more.
Background: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an established treatment for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases. The aim was to evaluate the long-term treatment efficacy of TACE for NET liver metastases, and correlate imaging response with survival. Methods: this IRB-approved, single-center, retrospective study evaluated all TACE procedures performed for NET liver metastases from 2003–2017 for imaging tumor response (RECIST and mRECIST), time to liver progression (TTLP), time to untreatable progression with TACE (TTUP), and overall survival (OS). Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed as prognostic factors. Survival curves according to the Kaplan–Meier method were compared by Log-rank test. Tumor responses according to RECIST and mRECIST were correlated with OS. Results: 555 TACE procedures were performed in 202 NET patients (38% grade 1, 60% grade 2) with primary tumors originating from pancreas, small bowel, and lung (39, 26, and 22% respectively). Median follow-up was 8.2 years (90–139 months). Median TTLP and TTUP were 19.3 months (95%CI 16.3–22.3) and 26.2 months (95%CI 22.3–33.1), respectively. Median OS was 5.3 years (95%CI 4.2–6.7), and was higher among mRECIST responders (80.5 months; 95%CI 64.6–89.8) than in non-responders (39.6 months; 95%CI = 32.8–60.2; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, age, tumor grade and liver involvement predicted worse OS, whereas administration of somatostatin analogs correlated with improved OS. Conclusion: TACE for NET liver metastases provides objective response and sustained local disease control rates. RECIST and mRECIST responses correlate with OS. Full article
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14 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
European Multicenter Study on Degradable Starch Microsphere TACE: The Digestible Way to Conquer HCC in Patients with High Tumor Burden
by Johannes M. Ludwig, Roberto Iezzi, Jens M. Theysohn, Thomas Albrecht, Alessandro Posa and Alexander Gross
Cancers 2021, 13(20), 5122; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13205122 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization with degradable starch microspheres (DSM-TACE) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a high tumor burden ineligible for or failing other palliative therapies, 121 patients from three European centers were included. Kaplan–Meier analysis [...] Read more.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization with degradable starch microspheres (DSM-TACE) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a high tumor burden ineligible for or failing other palliative therapies, 121 patients from three European centers were included. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used for median overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP, mRECIST criteria) in months with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Uni- (UVA) and multivariate (MVA) analyses were performed using the Cox Proportional Hazard Model. The median OS of the study cohort was 15.5 (13.3–18.7) months. The UVA identified HCC lesions ≤10 cm, unilobar involvement, lower Child–Pugh class and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, absence of vascular invasion, and extrahepatic metastases as factors for prolonged survival. MVA confirmed lesions of ≤10 cm and unilobar disease as independent OS factors. Median TTP was 9.5 (7.6–10.3) months. The best response was achieved after a median of 3 (range: 1–6) treatments with CR/PR/SD/PD in 13.5%/44.5%/25.2%/16.8%, respectively. DSM-TACE was well tolerated with no major clinical adverse events and only limited major laboratory events. Preserved liver function was observed after repetitive DSM-TACE treatments. Repetitive DSM-TACE is a safe, well-tolerated and effective treatment option for HCC patients with high tumor burden ineligible or failing other palliative therapies. Full article
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15 pages, 15189 KiB  
Article
Virtual Monoenergetic Images of Dual-Energy CT—Impact on Repeatability, Reproducibility, and Classification in Radiomics
by André Euler, Fabian Christopher Laqua, Davide Cester, Niklas Lohaus, Thomas Sartoretti, Daniel Pinto dos Santos, Hatem Alkadhi and Bettina Baessler
Cancers 2021, 13(18), 4710; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184710 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2761
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to (i) evaluate the test–retest repeatability and reproducibility of radiomic features in virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) from dual-energy CT (DECT) depending on VMI energy (40, 50, 75, 120, 190 keV), radiation dose (5 and 15 mGy), and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to (i) evaluate the test–retest repeatability and reproducibility of radiomic features in virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) from dual-energy CT (DECT) depending on VMI energy (40, 50, 75, 120, 190 keV), radiation dose (5 and 15 mGy), and DECT approach (dual-source and split-filter DECT) in a phantom (ex vivo), and (ii) to assess the impact of VMI energy and feature repeatability on machine-learning-based classification in vivo in 72 patients with 72 hypodense liver lesions. Feature repeatability and reproducibility were determined by concordance–correlation–coefficient (CCC) and dynamic range (DR) ≥0.9. Test–retest repeatability was high within the same VMI energies and scan conditions (percentage of repeatable features ranging from 74% for SFDE mode at 40 keV and 15 mGy to 86% for DSDE at 190 keV and 15 mGy), while reproducibility varied substantially across different VMI energies and DECTs (percentage of reproducible features ranging from 32.8% for SFDE at 5 mGy comparing 40 with 190 keV to 99.2% for DSDE at 15 mGy comparing 40 with 50 keV). No major differences were observed between the two radiation doses (<10%) in all pair-wise comparisons. In vivo, machine learning classification using penalized regression and random forests resulted in the best discrimination of hemangiomas and metastases at low-energy VMI (40 keV), and for cysts at high-energy VMI (120 keV). Feature selection based on feature repeatability did not improve classification performance. Our results demonstrate the high repeatability of radiomics features when keeping scan and reconstruction conditions constant. Reproducibility diminished when using different VMI energies or DECT approaches. The choice of optimal VMI energy improved lesion classification in vivo and should hence be adapted to the specific task. Full article
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17 pages, 3052 KiB  
Article
Utility of CT to Differentiate Pancreatic Parenchymal Metastasis from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
by Maxime Barat, Rauda Aldhaheri, Anthony Dohan, David Fuks, Alice Kedra, Christine Hoeffel, Ammar Oudjit, Romain Coriat, Maximilien Barret, Benoit Terris, Ugo Marchese and Philippe Soyer
Cancers 2021, 13(13), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133103 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Purpose: To report the computed tomography (CT) features of pancreatic parenchymal metastasis (PPM) and identify CT features that may help discriminate between PPM and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and methods: Thirty-four patients (24 men, 12 women; mean age, 63.3 ± [...] Read more.
Purpose: To report the computed tomography (CT) features of pancreatic parenchymal metastasis (PPM) and identify CT features that may help discriminate between PPM and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and methods: Thirty-four patients (24 men, 12 women; mean age, 63.3 ± 10.2 [SD] years) with CT and histopathologically proven PPM were analyzed by two independent readers and compared to 34 patients with PDAC. Diagnosis performances of each variable for the diagnosis of PPM against PDAC were calculated. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. A nomogram was developed to diagnose PPM against PDAC. Results: PPM mostly presented as single (34/34; 100%), enhancing (34/34; 100%), solid (27/34; 79%) pancreatic lesion without visible associated lymph nodes (24/34; 71%) and no Wirsung duct enlargement (29/34; 85%). At multivariable analysis, well-defined margins (OR, 6.64; 95% CI: 1.47–29.93; p = 0.014), maximal enhancement during arterial phase (OR, 6.15; 95% CI: 1.13–33.51; p = 0.036), no vessel involvement (OR, 7.19; 95% CI: 1.512–34.14) and no Wirsung duct dilatation (OR, 10.63; 95% CI: 2.27–49.91) were independently associated with PPM. The nomogram yielded an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85–0.98) for the diagnosis of PPM vs. PDAC. Conclusion: CT findings may help discriminate between PPM and PDAC. Full article
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15 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
Preoperative Detection of Liver Involvement by Right-Sided Adrenocortical Carcinoma Using CT and MRI
by Alice Kedra, Anthony Dohan, Sébastien Gaujoux, Mathilde Sibony, Anne Jouinot, Guillaume Assié, Lionel Groussin Rouiller, Rossella Libé, Jérôme Bertherat, Philippe Soyer and Maxime Barat
Cancers 2021, 13(7), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071603 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
The major prognosis factor of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is the completeness of surgery. The aim of our study was to identify preoperative imaging features associated with direct liver involvement (DLI) by right-sided ACC. Two radiologists, blinded to the outcome, independently reviewed preoperative CT [...] Read more.
The major prognosis factor of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is the completeness of surgery. The aim of our study was to identify preoperative imaging features associated with direct liver involvement (DLI) by right-sided ACC. Two radiologists, blinded to the outcome, independently reviewed preoperative CT and MRI examinations for eight signs of DLI, in patients operated for right-sided ACC and retrospectively included from November 2007 to January 2020. DLI was confirmed using surgical and histopathological findings. Kappa values were calculated. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed by using a logistic regression model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built for CT and MRI. Twenty-nine patients were included. Seven patients had DLI requiring en bloc resection. At multivariable analysis, focal ACC bulge was the single independent sign associated with DLI on CT (OR: 60.00; 95% CI: 4.60–782.40; p < 0.001), and ACC contour disruption was the single independent sign associated with DLI on MRI (OR: 126.00; 95% CI: 6.82–2328.21; p < 0.001). Both signs were highly reproducible, with respective kappa values of 0.85 and 0.91. The areas under ROC curves of MRI and CT models were not different (p = 0.838). Focal ACC bulge on CT and ACC contour disruption on MRI are independent and highly reproducible signs, strongly associated with DLI by right-sided ACC on preoperative imaging. MRI does not improve the preoperative assessment of DLI by comparison with CT. Full article
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