Special Issue "The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Irene Dini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Interests: nutricosmeceuticals; food chemistry; natural product; analytical chemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Domenico Montesano
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University Federico II of Naples, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: food safety and food quality; metabolomics; food chemistry; chromatography; mass-spectrometry; nutraceuticals; novel foods; methods of extraction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The relationship between health and diet has been recognized since ancient times. A significant body of evidence shows that alteration of the cellular redox state is related to the production of reactive oxygen species, which play critical roles in various steps that initiate and regulate the progression of pathologies. Dietary antioxidants have high potential to act as nutraceuticals and drugs for the prevention or treatment of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. Food fortification and dietary supplements are an alternative way of eating secondary plant metabolites with health properties.

Antioxidants are used as food additives to extend the shelf life of products by retarding adulteration of oxidizable foods (e.g., lipid oxidation) as well as in food packaging to prevent the discoloration of vegetables and fruits. They are also being applied in a new exciting cosmetic market: the nutricosmeceutical market. In this regard, functional foods, supplements, and beverages containing active molecules are used to increase human beauty, particularly in antiaging products. In recent years, numerous analytical methods have been developed to characterize and investigate the dosage of antioxidant compounds in food and supplements, and new nutrition delivery systems have been designed to permit their efficient distribution in the human body. However, unfortunately, excessive consumption of antioxidants is associated with negative toxicological effects.

This Special Issue of Antioxidants aims to collect research articles and review papers dealing with the potential uses of dietary antioxidants in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. In particular, the following topics are of interest: the study of genetically modified foods with high antioxidant potential, the use of agricultural practices to increase the concentration of antioxidant compounds in food, analytical procedures to isolate compounds of interest, the evaluation of their health properties, toxicological aspects related to antioxidant abuse, and the development of targeted delivery systems.

The Italian Society of Food Chemistry (ItaChemFood) founded on 24/12/2018 as the organ of expression of the University Professors belonging to the Italian scientific disciplinary sector "Food Chemistry", is a free, non-profit, non-political, non-confessional, non-commercial association. Members are interested in the didactic, research and training aspects related to the chemical characterization and evaluation of FOODs raw and processed. Moreover, they are interested in the characterization of the bioactive compounds present in foods and food supplements, nutraceutical and functional foods and chemicals, aroma and flavourings aspects, undesirable substances such as contaminants and residues and their metabolites and catabolites through the development of appropriate innovative analytical methods and techniques.

Members focus their analytic skills on the compositional profiles of food, also to determine health claims and related authorization dossiers and the drafting of food labels relating to food safety.

Significant attention is spent on scientific dissemination. The Society recognizing the high value of food education and the importance of issues related to the relationship between food, health and food safety, promotes appropriate initiatives to increase the knowledge among the media and citizens, students of schools and the teaching system at various levels.

Prof. Irene Dini
Dr. Domenico Montesano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidant activity
  • phenolic compounds
  • isolation and characterization
  • metabolomics
  • delivery system
  • cosmetic supplement
  • food supplement
  • functional food
  • nutraceuticals
  • food additives
  • genetically modified food
  • toxicological properties
  • biological activities

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Production and Characterization of Medium-Sized and Short Antioxidant Peptides from Soy Flour-Simulated Gastrointestinal Hydrolysate
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050734 (registering DOI) - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 153
Abstract
Soybeans (Glycine max) are an excellent source of dietary proteins and peptides with potential biological activities, such as antihypertensive, anti-cholesterol, and antioxidant activity; moreover, they could prevent cancer. Also, soy contains all the essential amino acids for nutrition; therefore, it represents [...] Read more.
Soybeans (Glycine max) are an excellent source of dietary proteins and peptides with potential biological activities, such as antihypertensive, anti-cholesterol, and antioxidant activity; moreover, they could prevent cancer. Also, soy contains all the essential amino acids for nutrition; therefore, it represents an alternative to animal proteins. The goal of this paper was the comprehensive characterization of medium-sized and short peptides (two to four amino acids) obtained from simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Two different analytical approaches were employed for peptide characterization, namely a common peptidomic analysis for medium-sized peptides and a suspect screening analysis for short peptides, employing an inclusion list of exact m/z values of all possible amino acid combinations. Moreover, fractionation by preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography was employed to simplify the starting protein hydrolysate. Six fractions were collected and tested for antioxidative activity by an innovative antioxidant assay on human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell lines. The two most active fractions (2 and 3) were then characterized by a peptidomic approach and database search, as well as by a suspect screening approach, in order to identify potential antioxidant amino acid sequences. Some of the peptides identified in these two fractions have been already reported in the literature for their antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Drying Methods on Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Potentials of Phenolic Acids in Lovage Elicited by Jasmonic Acid and Yeast Extract
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050662 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The study presents the effect of drying methods (traditional, convection, microwave, and freeze-drying) on the content and bioactivity (determined as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative potential) of potentially bioavailable fractions of phenolic acids contained in lovage elicited with jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract [...] Read more.
The study presents the effect of drying methods (traditional, convection, microwave, and freeze-drying) on the content and bioactivity (determined as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative potential) of potentially bioavailable fractions of phenolic acids contained in lovage elicited with jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract (YE) and in untreated control leaves. The highest amount of syringic acid was recorded in the convectionally dried lovage samples, while ethanolic extracts from lyophilized lovage had the highest content of protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The drying method significantly influenced the tested properties only in some cases. The traditional drying resulted in lower antioxidant potential, while convectional drying caused a reduction of the lipoxygenase inhibition ability of the samples after simulated digestion. Samples containing the control and elicited lovage leaves dried with convectional and traditional methods exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against a prostate cancer epithelial cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Untargeted Metabolomics of Korean Fermented Brown Rice Using UHPLC Q-TOF MS/MS Reveal an Abundance of Potential Dietary Antioxidative and Stress-Reducing Compounds
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040626 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Free radical-induced oxidative stress is the root cause of many diseases, such as diabetes, stress and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this research was to screen GABA levels, antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds in brown rice. In this study, we first fermented brown [...] Read more.
Free radical-induced oxidative stress is the root cause of many diseases, such as diabetes, stress and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this research was to screen GABA levels, antioxidant activities and bioactive compounds in brown rice. In this study, we first fermented brown rice with different lactic acid bacteria (LABs), and the best LAB was selected based on the levels of GABA in the fermentate. Lactobacillus reuterii generated the highest levels of GABA after fermentation. To ascertain whether germination can improve the GABA levels of brown rice, we compared the levels of GABA in raw brown rice (Raw), germinated brown rice (Germ), fermented brown rice (Ferm) and fermented-germinated brown rice (G+F) to identify the best approach. Then, antioxidant activities were investigated for Raw BR, Germ BR, Ferm BR and G+F BR. Antioxidant activity was calculated using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazile radical assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylene benzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In Ferm BR, DPPH (114.40 ± 0.66), ABTS (130.52 ± 0.97) and FRAP (111.16 ± 1.83) mg Trolox equivalent 100 g, dry weight (DW), were observed as the highest among all samples. Total phenolic content (97.13 ± 0.59) and total flavonoids contents (79.62 ± 1.33) mg GAE/100 g and catechin equivalent/100 g, DW, were also found to be highest in fermented BR. Furthermore, an untargeted metabolomics approach using ultra-high-performance liquid tandem chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry revealed the abundance of bioactive compounds in fermented BR, such as GABA, tryptophan, coumaric acid, L-ascorbic acid, linoleic acid, β-carotenol, eugenol, 6-gingerol, etc., as well as bioactive peptides which could contribute to the health-promoting properties of L. reuterii fermented brown rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
An Extract from Ficus carica Cell Cultures Works as an Anti-Stress Ingredient for the Skin
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040515 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Psychological stress activates catecholamine production, determines oxidation processes, and alters the lipid barrier functions in the skin. Scientific evidence associated with the detoxifying effect of fruits and vegetables, the growing awareness of the long-term issues related to the use of chemical-filled cosmetics, the [...] Read more.
Psychological stress activates catecholamine production, determines oxidation processes, and alters the lipid barrier functions in the skin. Scientific evidence associated with the detoxifying effect of fruits and vegetables, the growing awareness of the long-term issues related to the use of chemical-filled cosmetics, the aging of the population, and the increase in living standards are the factors responsible for the growth of food-derived ingredients in the cosmetics market. A Ficus carica cell suspension culture extract (FcHEx) was tested in vitro (on keratinocytes cells) and in vivo to evaluate its ability to manage the stress-hormone-induced damage in skin. The FcHEx reduced the epinephrine (−43% and −24% at the concentrations of 0.002% and 0.006%, respectively), interleukin 6 (−38% and −36% at the concentrations of 0.002% and 0.006%, respectively), lipid peroxide (−25%), and protein carbonylation (−50%) productions; FcHEx also induced ceramide synthesis (+150%) and ameliorated the lipid barrier performance. The in vivo experiments confirmed the in vitro test results. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL; −12.2%), sebum flow (−46.6% after two weeks and −73.8% after four weeks; on the forehead −56.4% after two weeks and −80.1% after four weeks), and skin lightness (+1.9% after two weeks and +2.7% after four weeks) defined the extract’s effects on the skin barrier. The extract of the Ficus carica cell suspension cultures reduced the transepidermal water loss, the sebum production, the desquamation, and facial skin turning to a pale color from acute stress, suggesting its role as an ingredient to fight the signs of psychological stress in the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
8-Week Supplementation of 2S-Hesperidin Modulates Antioxidant and Inflammatory Status after Exercise until Exhaustion in Amateur Cyclists
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030432 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
Both acute and chronic ingestion of 2S-hesperidin have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in animal studies, but so far, no one has studied this effect of chronic ingestion in humans. The main objective was to evaluate whether an 8-week intake of 2S-hesperidin had [...] Read more.
Both acute and chronic ingestion of 2S-hesperidin have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in animal studies, but so far, no one has studied this effect of chronic ingestion in humans. The main objective was to evaluate whether an 8-week intake of 2S-hesperidin had the ability to modulate antioxidant-oxidant and inflammatory status in amateur cyclists. A parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study was carried out with two groups (500 mg/d 2S-hesperidin; n = 20 and 500 mg/d placebo; n = 20). An incremental test was performed to determine the working zones in a rectangular test, which was used to analyze for changes in antioxidant and inflammatory biomarkers. After 2S-hesperidin ingestion, we found in the rectangular test: (1) an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) after the exercise phase until exhaustion (p = 0.045) and the acute recovery phase (p = 0.004), (2) a decrease in the area under the oxidized glutathione curve (GSSG) (p = 0.016), and (3) a decrease in monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) after the acute recovery phase (p = 0.004), post-intervention. Chronic 2S-hesperidin supplementation increased endogenous antioxidant capacity (↑SOD) after maximal effort and decreased oxidative stress (↓AUC-GSSG) during the rectangular test, decreasing inflammation (↓MCP1) after the acute recovery phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of the Antioxidative Effects of Helichrysum italicum and Helichrysum arenarium Infusions
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030380 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench (abbrev. as HA) has a long tradition in European ethnomedicine and its inflorescences are approved as a herbal medicinal product. In the Mediterranean part of Europe, Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don (abbrev. as HI) is more common. Since infusions [...] Read more.
Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench (abbrev. as HA) has a long tradition in European ethnomedicine and its inflorescences are approved as a herbal medicinal product. In the Mediterranean part of Europe, Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don (abbrev. as HI) is more common. Since infusions from both plants are traditionally used, we aimed to compare their antioxidative potential using in vitro assays. Two morphologically distinct HI plants, HIa and HIb, were compared to a commercially available HA product. Genetic analysis using microsatellites confirmed a clear differentiation between HI and HA and suggested that HIb was a hybrid resulting from spontaneous hybridization from unknown HI subspecies. High-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the highest amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids and total arzanol derivatives in HIa, whereas HIb was richest in monohydroxybenzoic acids, caffeic acids, and coumarins, and HA contained the highest amounts of flavonoids, especially flavanones. HIa exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity; it was more efficient in protecting different cell lines from induced oxidative stress and in inducing oxidative stress-related genes superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and glutathione reductase 1. The antioxidative potential of HI was not only dependent on the morphological type of the plant but also on the harvest date, revealing important information for obtaining the best possible product. Considering the superior properties of HI compared to HA, the evaluation of HI as a medicinal plant could be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Onion Peel: Turning a Food Waste into a Resource
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020304 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Food waste is a serious problem for food processing industries, especially when it represents a loss of a valuable source of nutrients and phytochemicals. Increasing consumer demand for processed food poses the problem of minimizing waste by conversion into useful products. In this [...] Read more.
Food waste is a serious problem for food processing industries, especially when it represents a loss of a valuable source of nutrients and phytochemicals. Increasing consumer demand for processed food poses the problem of minimizing waste by conversion into useful products. In this regard, onion (Allium cepa) waste consisting mainly of onion skin is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds. Here, we characterized the flavonoid profiles and biological activities of onion skin wastes of two traditional varieties with protected geographical indication (PGI), the red “Rossa di Tropea” and the coppery “Ramata di Montoro”, typically cultivated in a niche area in southern Italy. The phytochemical profiles of exhaustive extracts, characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry, revealed that flavonols and anthocyanins were the characteristic metabolite classes of onion skins. Quercetin, quercetin glucosides and their dimer and trimer derivatives, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, were the most abundant bioactive compounds. The potential of onion skins was evaluated by testing several biological activities: ABTS/oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in vitro alpha-glucosidase assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts and of their main compounds, respectively, and proliferative activity was evaluated by MTT assay on human fibroblasts. In the present study, by observing various biological properties of “Rossa di Tropea” and “Ramata di Montoro” onion-dried skins, we clearly indicated that this agricultural waste can provide bioactive molecules for multiple applications, from industrial to nutraceutical and cosmetical sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Antitussive, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Septum Extract Rich in Bioactive Compounds
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010119 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
The antitussive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of a walnut (Juglans regia L.) septum extract (WSE), rich in bioactive compounds were investigated using the citric acid aerosol-induced cough experimental model in rodents. Wistar male rats were treated orally for three days with distilled [...] Read more.
The antitussive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of a walnut (Juglans regia L.) septum extract (WSE), rich in bioactive compounds were investigated using the citric acid aerosol-induced cough experimental model in rodents. Wistar male rats were treated orally for three days with distilled water (control), codeine (reference), and WSE in graded doses. On the third day, all rats were exposed to citric acid aerosols, the number of coughs being recorded. Each animal was sacrificed after exposure, and blood and lung tissue samples were collected for histopathological analysis and the assessment of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. The results of the experiment showed a significant antitussive effect of WSE, superior to codeine. This activity could be due to cellular protective effect and anti-inflammatory effect via the stimulation of the antioxidant enzyme system and the decrease of IL-6 and CXC-R1 concentration in the lung tissue of WSE-treated animals. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of WSE were confirmed by biochemical assays and histopathological analysis. This is the first scientific study reporting the antitussive effect of walnut septum, a new potential source of non-opioid antitussive drug candidates, and a valuable bioactive by-product that could be used in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Quercetin and Egg Metallome
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010080 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the natural flavonoid quercetin dietary supplementation on the alteration of egg metallome by applying the basic principles of elemental metabolomics. One hundred and ninety-two laying hens were allocated into 4 treatment [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the natural flavonoid quercetin dietary supplementation on the alteration of egg metallome by applying the basic principles of elemental metabolomics. One hundred and ninety-two laying hens were allocated into 4 treatment groups: the control (C) group that was fed with a commercial basal diet and the other experimental groups that were offered the same diet further supplemented with quercetin at 200, 400 and 800 mg per kg of feed (Q2, Q4 and Q8 group, respectively) for 28 days. The diets contained the same vitamin and mineral premix, thus all birds received the same amount of elements since no differences on feed intake existed. The egg elemental profile consisted of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn and was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Quercetin supplementation altered the elemental profile. Most notably, quercetin altered the element concentrations predominantly in egg shell and albumen. It increased the concentration of Sb while reduced that of Cr and Se in both egg shell and albumen. Moreover, it increased As, Cd in albumen and V in yolk, while compared to the control, reduced As, Cd, Cr, Cu and V and also raised Ca, Fe, Mg and Ni in egg shell. The presence of quercetin led to differentiation of the deposition of certain trace minerals in egg compartments compared to that of hens fed a basal diet, possibly indicating that tailor made eggs for specific nutritional and health requirements could be created in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Quantification of Antioxidants Paraxanthine and Caffeine in Human Saliva by Electrochemical Sensing for CYP1A2 Phenotyping
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010010 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 854
Abstract
The enzyme CYP1A2 is responsible for the metabolism of numerous antioxidants in the body, including caffeine, which is transformed into paraxanthine, its main primary metabolite. Both molecules are known for their antioxidant and pro-oxidant characteristics, and the paraxanthine-to-caffeine molar ratio is a widely [...] Read more.
The enzyme CYP1A2 is responsible for the metabolism of numerous antioxidants in the body, including caffeine, which is transformed into paraxanthine, its main primary metabolite. Both molecules are known for their antioxidant and pro-oxidant characteristics, and the paraxanthine-to-caffeine molar ratio is a widely accepted metric for CYP1A2 phenotyping, to optimize dose–response effects in individual patients. We developed a simple, cheap and fast electrochemical based method for the simultaneous quantification of paraxanthine and caffeine in human saliva, by differential pulse voltammetry, using an anodically pretreated glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed for the first time that the oxidation of paraxanthine is diffusion controlled with an irreversible peak at ca. +1.24 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in a 0.1 M H2SO4 solution, and that the mechanism occurs via the transfer of two electrons and two protons. The simultaneous quantification of paraxanthine and caffeine was demonstrated in 0.1 M H2SO4 and spiked human saliva samples. In the latter case, limits of detection of 2.89 μM for paraxanthine and 5.80 μM for caffeine were obtained, respectively. The sensor is reliable, providing a relative standard deviation within 7% (n = 6). Potential applicability of the sensing platform was demonstrated by running a small scale trial on five healthy volunteers, with simultaneous quantification by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) of paraxanthine and caffeine in saliva samples collected at 1, 3 and 6 h postdose administration. The results were validated by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and shown to have a high correlation factor (r = 0.994). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Herbal and/or Zinc Dietary Supplementation Improve the Antioxidant and Mineral Status of Lambs with Parasite Infection?
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121172 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 471
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed supplementation with a medicinal herbs mixture (Hmix) and organic zinc (Zn), alone or in combination, on the antioxidant responses and mineral status of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed supplementation with a medicinal herbs mixture (Hmix) and organic zinc (Zn), alone or in combination, on the antioxidant responses and mineral status of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. A total of 24 experimentally infected lambs were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 6). The diets included an unsupplemented control diet (CON) and the CON further supplemented with Hmix, Zn, or both Hmix + Zn. Antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and microelement (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn) concentrations were analyzed in serum, liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa. Zinc treatment elevated the superoxide dismutase activities in the duodenal mucosa and ileal TAC. Intake of Hmix resulted in higher kidney and ileal catalase activity and also influenced the TAC of the liver and intestinal mucosa. The inclusion of Hmix or Zn alone into the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood, liver and duodenal mucosa. Tissue mineral uptake was not affected by herbal supplementation. Organic Zn intake increased the serum and liver Zn levels and influenced the Cu concentration in duodenal mucosa. Dietary supplementation with Hmix and/or Zn might promote the antioxidant status of lambs infected with Haemonchus spp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Phenolics and Fatty Acids Composition and Related Gene Expression during the Development from Seed to Leaves of Three Cultivated Cardoon Genotypes
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111096 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis) has long been used as a food and medicine remedy and nowadays is considered a functional food. Its leaf bioactive compounds are mostly represented by chlorogenic acids and coumaroyl derivatives, known for their nutritional value [...] Read more.
Cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis) has long been used as a food and medicine remedy and nowadays is considered a functional food. Its leaf bioactive compounds are mostly represented by chlorogenic acids and coumaroyl derivatives, known for their nutritional value and bioactivity. Having antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, these molecules are used for medicinal purposes. Apart from the phenolic compounds in green tissues, cultivated cardoon is also used for the seed oil, having a composition suitable for the human diet, but also valuable as feedstock for the production of biofuel and biodegradable bioplastics. Given the wide spectrum of valuable cardoon molecules and their numerous industrial applications, a detailed characterization of different organs and tissues for their metabolic profiles as well as an extensive transcriptional analysis of associated key biosynthetic genes were performed to provide a deeper insight into metabolites biosynthesis and accumulation sites. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the phenylpropanoids profile through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analysis, of fatty acids content through GC-MS analysis, along with quantitative transcriptional analyses by qRT-PCR of hydroxycinnamoyl-quinate transferase (HQT), stearic acid desaturase (SAD), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes in seeds, hypocotyls, cotyledons and leaves of the cardoon genotypes “Spagnolo”, “Bianco Avorio”, and “Gigante”. Both oil yield and total phenols accumulation in all the tissues and organs indicated higher production in “Bianco Avorio” and “Spagnolo” than in “Gigante”. Antioxidant activity evaluation by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays mirrored total phenols content. Overall, this study provides a detailed analysis of tissue composition of cardoon, enabling to elucidate value-added product accumulation and distribution during plant development and hence contributing to better address and optimize the sustainable use of this natural resource. Besides, our metabolic and transcriptional screening could be useful to guide the selection of superior genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemico-Biological Characterization of Torpedino Di Fondi® Tomato Fruits: A Comparison with San Marzano Cultivar at Two Ripeness Stages
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101027 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
Torpedino di Fondi (TF) is a hybrid tomato landrace developed in Sicily and recently introduced in the south Lazio area along with the classical San Marzano (SM) cultivar. The present study aimed at characterizing TF tomatoes at both pink and red ripening stages, [...] Read more.
Torpedino di Fondi (TF) is a hybrid tomato landrace developed in Sicily and recently introduced in the south Lazio area along with the classical San Marzano (SM) cultivar. The present study aimed at characterizing TF tomatoes at both pink and red ripening stages, and at comparing them with traditional SM tomatoes. A multidisciplinary approach consisting of morphological, chemical (FT-ICR MS, NMR, HPLC, and spectrophotometric methods), and biological (antioxidant and antifungal in vitro activity) analyses was applied. Morphological analysis confirmed the mini-San Marzano nature and the peculiar crunchy and solid consistency of TF fruits. Pink TF tomatoes displayed the highest content of hydrophilic antioxidants, like total polyphenols (0.192 mg/g), tannins (0.013 mg/g), flavonoids (0.204 mg/g), and chlorophylls a (0.344 mg/g) and b (0.161 mg/g), whereas red TF fruits were characterized by the highest levels of fructose (3000 mg/100 g), glucose (2000 mg/100 g), tryptophan (2.7 mg/100 g), phenylalanine (13 mg/100 g), alanine (25 mg/100 g), and total tri-unsaturated fatty acids (13% mol). Red SM fruits revealed the greatest content of lipophilic antioxidants, with 1234 mg/g of total carotenoids. In agreement with phenolics content, TF cultivar showed the greatest antioxidant activity. Lastly, red TF inhibited Candida species (albicans, glabrata and krusei) growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Virgin Olive Oil Extracts Reduce Oxidative Stress and Modulate Cholesterol Metabolism: Comparison between Oils Obtained with Traditional and Innovative Processes
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090798 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
This study was aimed at demonstrating the substantial equivalence of two extra virgin olive oil samples extracted from the same batch of Coratina olives with (OMU) or without (OMN) using ultrasound technology, by performing chemical, biochemical, and cellular investigations. The volatile organic compounds [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at demonstrating the substantial equivalence of two extra virgin olive oil samples extracted from the same batch of Coratina olives with (OMU) or without (OMN) using ultrasound technology, by performing chemical, biochemical, and cellular investigations. The volatile organic compounds compositions and phenolic profiles were very similar, showing that, while increasing the extraction yields, the innovative process does not change these features. The antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities of the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenol extracts were also preserved, since OMU and OMN had equivalent abilities to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radicals in vitro and to protect HepG2 cells from oxidative stress induced by H2O2, reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels. In addition, by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme a reductase, both samples modulated the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway leading to increased LDLR protein levels and activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Processing on Polyphenolic and Volatile Composition and Fruit Quality of Clery Strawberries
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070632 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Strawberries belonging to cultivar Clery (Fragaria x ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston)), cultivated in central Italy were subjected to a multi-methodological experimental study. Fresh and defrosted strawberries were exposed to different processing methods, such as homogenization, thermal and microwave treatments. The homogenate samples [...] Read more.
Strawberries belonging to cultivar Clery (Fragaria x ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston)), cultivated in central Italy were subjected to a multi-methodological experimental study. Fresh and defrosted strawberries were exposed to different processing methods, such as homogenization, thermal and microwave treatments. The homogenate samples were submitted to CIEL*a*b* color analysis and Head-Space GC/MS analysis to determine the impact of these procedures on phytochemical composition. Furthermore, the corresponding strawberry hydroalcoholic extracts were further analyzed by HPLC-DAD for secondary metabolites quantification and by means of spectrophotometric in vitro assays to evaluate their total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. These chemical investigations confirmed the richness in bioactive metabolites supporting the extraordinary healthy potential of this fruit as a food ingredient, as well as functional food, highlighting the strong influence of the processing steps which could negatively impact on the polyphenol composition. Despite a more brilliant red color and aroma preservation, non-pasteurized samples were characterized by a lower content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity with respect to pasteurized samples, as also suggested by the PCA analysis of the collected data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
An Innovative Olive Pâté with Nutraceutical Properties
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070581 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Food plays a central role in health, especially through consumption of plant-derived foods. Functional foods, supplements, and nutraceuticals are increasingly entering the market to respond to consumer demand for healthy products. They are foods, supplements, and ingredients which offer health benefits beyond the [...] Read more.
Food plays a central role in health, especially through consumption of plant-derived foods. Functional foods, supplements, and nutraceuticals are increasingly entering the market to respond to consumer demand for healthy products. They are foods, supplements, and ingredients which offer health benefits beyond the standard nutritional value. Some benefits are associated with phenolic compounds and phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. An olive pâté (OP) was added with antioxidants derived from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) to obtain a functional product rich in phenolic compounds. The olive pâté is produced from the ground olive pericarp, which shows an excellent natural antioxidant content. The OMWW is a waste product from oil processing, which is also rich in phenolic compounds. The result was a product rich in trans-resveratrol, OH tyrosol, and tyrosol in concentrations such as satisfying the European community’s claims regarding the possible antioxidant action on plasma lipids with excellent shelf-life stability. The total phenolic content was assayed by a colorimetric method, the antioxidant activity by the ABTS [(2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] test, the phenolic profile by Q Exactive Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. The shelf-life stability was confirmed by yeast, molds, and total microbial count, pH, and water activity determinations, and the best pasteurization parameters were determined. The palatability was judged as excellent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Innovative and Conventional Valorizations of Grape Seeds from Winery By-Products as Sustainable Source of Lipophilic Antioxidants
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070568 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
The aim of this study was to valorize the oil recovery from red and white grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) that remains as by-product after the winemaking process. Oils were extracted by modern techniques, ultrasound assisted (UAE), microwave assisted (MAE) and supercritical [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to valorize the oil recovery from red and white grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) that remains as by-product after the winemaking process. Oils were extracted by modern techniques, ultrasound assisted (UAE), microwave assisted (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and compared to the Soxhlet extraction (SE). Firstly, SFE was optimized at different operating conditions: pressure (250–350 bar), temperature (40–60 °C), CO2 flow rate (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kg h−1), and particle size (315–800 µm and >800 µm). The highest extraction yields were achieved by SFE at the optimal conditions: 350 bar, 60 °C, 0.4 kg h−1. Afterwards, SFE was compared to SE, UAE and MAE with respect to oil extraction yields, and analyzed for fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity. Considering the general classification of fatty acids, it was found that samples had high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of extraction technology. Tocopherol content was significantly influenced by all extraction methods, whereas UAE and MAE resulted in extracts richer with lipophilic antioxidants. In conclusion, modern extractions that are suited for industrial applications had better performance as compared to SE, as judging by the oil yield and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
An Environmentally Friendly Practice Used in Olive Cultivation Capable of Increasing Commercial Interest in Waste Products from Oil Processing
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060466 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
In the Rural Development Plan (2014–2020), the European Commission encouraged the conversion and supported the maintenance of organic farming. Organic olive oil (bioEVOO) production involves the use of environmentally sustainable fertilizers and the recycling of olive pomace (Pom) and olive vegetation waters (VW) [...] Read more.
In the Rural Development Plan (2014–2020), the European Commission encouraged the conversion and supported the maintenance of organic farming. Organic olive oil (bioEVOO) production involves the use of environmentally sustainable fertilizers and the recycling of olive pomace (Pom) and olive vegetation waters (VW) to reduce the environmental impact of these wastes. An ecofriendly way to recycle olive wastes is to reuse them to extract bioactive compounds. In this study, the total phenolic compounds content, their profile and dosage, the antioxidant action in oil, pomace, and vegetation water was evaluated when the Trichoderma harzianum M10 was used as a biostimulant in agriculture. Two spectrophotometric tests (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid (ABTS)) evaluated the antioxidant potential of samples, a spectrophotometric method estimated total phenolic content, and an Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC)–Orbitrap method evaluated the phenolics profile. Our results showed that the biostimulation improved the antioxidant potential and the total concentration of phenolics in the bioEVOO and bio-pomace (bioPom) samples and mainly enhanced, among all classes of phenolic compounds, the production of the flavonoids and the secoiridoids. Moreover, they demonstrated the Trichoderma action in the mevalonate pathway to produce phenols for the first time. The decisive action of the Thricoderma on the production of phenolic compounds increases the economic value of the waste materials as a source of bioactive compounds useful for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Antioxidant and Inflammatory Gene Expression Profiles of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Response to Arthrospira platensis before and after LPS Challenge
Authors: M. Keller#, E. Manzocchi#, D. Rentsch, R. Lugarà, K. Giller*
Affiliation: ETH Zurich, Animal Nutrition, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Abstract: Oxidative stress and inflammatory diseases reduce the health status and productivity of livestock and result in financial losses of farmers. Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely linked processes that need to be controlled or, even better, prevented to ensure the desirable high performance e.g. of dairy cows and fattening bulls. To prevent inflammatory diseases, alternatives to antibiotics are explored in the group of bioactive feed components. One such novel feed is the microalga spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) that has demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in monogastrics but this interplay has not yet been explored in ruminants. To investigate potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in ruminants, we replaced soybean meal in the diets of dairy cows and fattening bulls by spirulina and collected blood samples. We analysed the plasma concentrations of antioxidants (β-carotene, α-tocopherol, polyphenols) and the total antioxidant capacity of serum. In addition, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated them in vitro with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in concentrations of 0, 10 and 100 ng/ml. Subsequently, RNA was isolated, reversely transcribed to cDNA and qPCR was performed to determine the expression of in total 10 inflammation- (e.g. cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10) and nine antioxidant-defense related (e.g. glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase) genes. The β-carotene plasma concentration was higher in spirulina- compared to soybean-meal fed animals but plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and total phenols as well as the total antioxidant capacity of serum did not differ. Stimulation of bovine PBMCs with 10 and 100 ng/ml of LPS significantly increased the expression of most cytokines but did not affect the expression of most antioxidant enzymes. Gene expression did not differ between PBMCs derived from spirulina- compared to soybean meal fed animals at both native as well as LPS challenged state. Our results indicate that despite increasing the β-carotene plasma concentration, spirulina might not have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties similar to those observed in monogastrics, probably due to ruminal degradation of other key bioactive compounds such as phycocyanin. Future studies should evaluate the microbial degradation of spirulina and its compounds to provide further data on potential beneficial health effects in ruminants.

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