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Open AccessArticle

Voltammetric Behavior, Flavanol and Anthocyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Skins and Seeds during Ripening (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah)

1
SPO, Université de Montpellier, INRAE, Montpellier SupAgro, 34000 Montpellier, France
2
MIB, Unité de Recherche Oenologie, EA4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090800
Received: 29 July 2020 / Revised: 25 August 2020 / Accepted: 25 August 2020 / Published: 27 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
Skin and seed grape extracts of three red varieties (Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah) at different stages of ripening were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC) by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by using spectrophotometric and electrochemical assays. Flavanol and anthocyanin compositions were also investigated using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Results showed that seeds had the highest phenolic content and the highest antioxidant potential compared to skins at all stages of ripening. The highest TPC and TAC values were measured in seeds at close to veraison and veraison ripening stages. In skins, the highest values were found at the green stage, it was in accordance with the flavanols content. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using disposable single walled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SWCNT-SPCE). Three peaks on voltammograms were obtained at different oxidation potentials. The first anodic peak that oxidized at a low potential describes the oxidation of ortho-dihydroxy phenols and gallate groups, the second peak corresponds to the malvidin anthocyanins oxidation and the second oxidation of flavonoids. The third voltammetric peak could be due to phenolic acids such as p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid or the second oxidation of malvidin anthocyanins. The high linear correlation was observed between antioxidant tests and flavanols in skins (0.86 ≤ r ≤ 0.94), while in seeds, ‘r’ was higher between electrochemical parameters and flavanols (0.64 ≤ r ≤ 0.8). View Full-Text
Keywords: skins; seeds; Vitis vinifera; antioxidant activity; cyclic voltammetry; phenolic compounds skins; seeds; Vitis vinifera; antioxidant activity; cyclic voltammetry; phenolic compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benbouguerra, N.; Richard, T.; Saucier, C.; Garcia, F. Voltammetric Behavior, Flavanol and Anthocyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Skins and Seeds during Ripening (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah). Antioxidants 2020, 9, 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090800

AMA Style

Benbouguerra N, Richard T, Saucier C, Garcia F. Voltammetric Behavior, Flavanol and Anthocyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Skins and Seeds during Ripening (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah). Antioxidants. 2020; 9(9):800. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benbouguerra, Nawel; Richard, Tristan; Saucier, Cédric; Garcia, François. 2020. "Voltammetric Behavior, Flavanol and Anthocyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Skins and Seeds during Ripening (Vitis vinifera var. Merlot, Tannat, and Syrah)" Antioxidants 9, no. 9: 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090800

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