Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 12423

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vlasios Goulas
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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus
Interests: natural products analysis and processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Alexandra Barbouti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Anatomy-Histology-Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Interests: redox signaling; oxidative stress; antioxidants; iron homeostasis; labile iron; apoptotic cell death; cellular senescence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extensive epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data associate the Mediterranean diet with protection against chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases) and increased longevity. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by high amounts of olive oil and frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and aromatic herbs. Since oxidative stress has been linked with numerous pathological conditions, it is proposed that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet are due to the wide variety of dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, carotenoids, (poly)phenols, and minerals, that it provides. Consequently, several molecular mechanisms of action of dietary antioxidants have been proposed in an attempt to shed some light on the preventive effect of the Mediterranean diet.

Contributions to this Special Issue may cover all research aspects related to the characterization of antioxidant compositions of Mediterranean plant foods, the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of dietary antioxidants, In Vitro and In Vivo methods for the assessment of antioxidant potency of the Mediterranean diet’s components, state-of-the-art techniques to determine the contribution of dietary compounds to antioxidant intake, and the mechanisms of action of dietary antioxidants in disease prevention.

Dr. Vlasios Goulas
Dr. Alexandra Barbouti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • bioactive compounds
  • chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques
  • structural elucidation of antioxidants
  • in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity
  • high resolution antioxidant screening techniques
  • mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • reactive oxygen species
  • oxidative stress -related diseases
  • mediterranean diet

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Dietary Antioxidants in the Mediterranean Diet
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081213 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Epidemiological studies performed during the second half of the previous century have correlated the diet that prevailed in the north shores of the Mediterranean basin with beneficial health effects, including reduced mortality risk and lower incidences of cardiovascular diseases [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)

Research

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Article
The Potential of Sun-Dried Grape Pomace as a Multi-Functional Ingredient for Herbal Infusion: Effects of Brewing Parameters on Composition and Bioactivity
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040586 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 968
Abstract
Wine and by-products are essential elements of a Mediterranean diet and considered as a reservoir of bioactive compounds with various health effects. Grape pomace, an easily available natural material of low cost, shares a similar wealth of health benefiting bioactive phytochemicals. The objective [...] Read more.
Wine and by-products are essential elements of a Mediterranean diet and considered as a reservoir of bioactive compounds with various health effects. Grape pomace, an easily available natural material of low cost, shares a similar wealth of health benefiting bioactive phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to explore the utilization of grape pomace from Commandaria dessert wine as main ingredient for functional infusions. Therefore, the ratio of water to grape pomace powder (40–200 mL g−1), infusion time (3–15 min) and temperature (55–95 °C) were optimized in terms of composition and bioactivity. Multiple response optimization indicated that brewing 200 mL water per g of material for 12.2 min at 95 °C, was the optimum method for preparing the infusion. Results also revealed a significant impact of three parameters as well as quadratic and interactive effects on composition and bioactivity of infusions. Furthermore, the infusion presents antimicrobial effects against Listeria monocytogenes serotypes and other common food pathogenic bacteria. Finally, a sensory evaluation was performed to assess the organoleptic attributes of the infusion and its improvement, with the addition of Mediterranean aromatic plants. Overall, the present work describes a promising strategy for the re-use of sun-dried grape pomace as a functional ingredient of infusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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Article
Total Analysis of the Major Secoiridoids in Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Validation of an UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040540 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), one of the key foods of the Mediterranean diet, is distinguished by its high content of nutritional and antioxidant compounds compared to other vegetable oils. During EVOO production, the major secoiridoids of EVOO, oleacein, oleocanthal, ligstroside, and oleuropein [...] Read more.
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), one of the key foods of the Mediterranean diet, is distinguished by its high content of nutritional and antioxidant compounds compared to other vegetable oils. During EVOO production, the major secoiridoids of EVOO, oleacein, oleocanthal, ligstroside, and oleuropein aglycones, undergo a series of transformations to open- and closed-structure forms. The resulting mixture of compounds can become more complex during the analytical procedure, due to the keto-enol tautomerism of the open forms and their interaction with polar solvents, and therefore more challenging to analyze. Employing the same extraction method used to analyze the other EVOO phenolic compounds, we report here a simple UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedure for the quantification of those secoiridoids that is able to co-elute the different isomers of each compound. The method was validated following AOAC guidelines, and the matrix effect and recoveries were within satisfactory limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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Article
Comprehensive Phenolic and Free Amino Acid Analysis of Rosemary Infusions: Influence on the Antioxidant Potential
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030500 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
The phenolics profile, free amino acids composition, and antioxidant potential of rosemary infusions were studied. Forty-four compounds belonging to nine different groups (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, phenolic diterpenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes, coumarins, and pyranochromanones) were identified by UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. Of these, seven were [...] Read more.
The phenolics profile, free amino acids composition, and antioxidant potential of rosemary infusions were studied. Forty-four compounds belonging to nine different groups (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, phenolic diterpenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes, coumarins, and pyranochromanones) were identified by UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. Of these, seven were firstly described in rosemary infusions: a rosmanol derivative, two dihydroxycoumarin hexosides, a hydroxybenzaldehyde, a dihydroxybenzoic acid hexoside, coumaric acid hexoside, and isocalolongic acid. The free amino acid profile of the beverages was also reported by the first time with seven amino acids found (asparagine, threonine, alanine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and proline). Furthermore, DPPH scavenging ability, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, as well as total phenolics and flavonoids contents, were assessed. Overall, rosemary infusions showed to be a very good source of antioxidants. A 200 mL cup of this infusion contributes to the ingestion of ~30 mg of phenolic compounds and about 0.5–1.1 μg of free amino acids. This type of beverages may present a positive impact on the maintenance of the body antioxidant status and contribute to the prevention of oxidative stress related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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Article
High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030473 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent [...] Read more.
Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 μmol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), p-value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (−2.69 μmol/L (−5.54; 0.16), p-value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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Article
From Green Technology to Functional Olive Oils: Assessing the Best Combination of Olive Tree-Related Extracts with Complementary Bioactivities
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020202 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Our aim was to assess the combination of olive tree-related extracts with the most favorable profile of in vitro bioactive properties. We tested the antioxidant (increment of low-density lipoprotein resistance against oxidation), vasoactive (promotion of nitric oxide release and decrease of endothelin-1 production [...] Read more.
Our aim was to assess the combination of olive tree-related extracts with the most favorable profile of in vitro bioactive properties. We tested the antioxidant (increment of low-density lipoprotein resistance against oxidation), vasoactive (promotion of nitric oxide release and decrease of endothelin-1 production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells), anti-inflammatory (decrease of the endothelial production of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), and antithrombotic (reduction of the endothelial release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) capacities of six phenolic extracts and three triterpenic acid solutions (Ps and Ts, respectively). We tested extracts alone and in combination, at nutritional (Ps: 0.05–0.5 μmol/L; Ts: 0.001–0.1 μmol/L) and nutraceutical doses (Ps: 1–10 μmol/L; Ts: 0.25–10 μmol/L). The combination of Ps rich in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (76%, P2), hydroxytyrosol (95%, P3), and oleuropein (70%, P4) (final nutritional concentration: 0.15 μmol/L; final nutraceutical concentration: 3 μmol/L) was the best in order to prepare functional products and nutraceuticals with cardioprotective properties, despite the fact that the isolated extract with the greatest in vitro properties was P5 (75% oleocanthal), suggesting a potential synergistic effect among different olive components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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Article
Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity of Extracts from Thymus mastichina: A Thymus with a Distinct Salvianolic Acid Composition
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010034 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Thymus mastichina, also called mastic thyme or Spanish marjoram, is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, where it is widely used in folk medicine especially for treating digestive and respiratory systems disorders, and as a condiment to season olives. This work describes for [...] Read more.
Thymus mastichina, also called mastic thyme or Spanish marjoram, is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, where it is widely used in folk medicine especially for treating digestive and respiratory systems disorders, and as a condiment to season olives. This work describes for the first time the detailed phenolic composition of exhaustive hydroethanolic extracts and aqueous decoctions of Thymus mastichina. Unlike other species of the Thymus genera, Thymus mastichina extracts contain high amounts of salvianolic acid derivatives, with salvianolic acid A isomer being the main derivative. This isomer was identified in extracts from Thymus mastichina for the first time. Also, an undescribed salvianolic acid derivative in Thymus mastichina was identified and its structure was tentatively described. Extracts from Thymus mastichina showed significant scavenging activity of 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals. The anti-proliferative effect of both T. mastichina extracts were tested against Caco-2 and HepG2 cells; the hydroethanolic extract showed a high anti-proliferative activity against Caco-2 cells compared to HepG2 cells (at 24 h exposure, the concentration that inhibits 50% of proliferation, IC50, was 71.18 ± 1.05 µg/mL and 264.60 ± 11.78 µg/mL for Caco-2 and HepG2, respectively). Thus, these results make this species a promising candidate for further investigation of its anti-tumoral potential. Therefore, Thymus mastichina can be potentially used as a functional food (used as a decoction or herbal tea) or as a source of bioactive ingredients with antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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Article
Use of Sieving as a Valuable Technology to Produce Enriched Buckwheat Flours: A Preliminary Study
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120583 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Fractionation processes based on physical separation are a good strategy to produce enriched cereal flours. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the suitability of sieving of buckwheat flours to produce protein and phenolic (especially rutin) enriched fractions. Because of that, [...] Read more.
Fractionation processes based on physical separation are a good strategy to produce enriched cereal flours. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the suitability of sieving of buckwheat flours to produce protein and phenolic (especially rutin) enriched fractions. Because of that, dehulled whole buckwheat flour (GSTQ) was sieved obtaining fractions with a particle size of 215 µm, 160 µm, 85 µm, and 45 µm (GS215, GS160, GS85, and GS45). For that purpose, the determination of protein, ash, and total starch content and free and bound phenolic compounds was carried out. The highest content of total phenolic compounds was obtained in GS215 (3118.84 mg kg−1 d.w.), followed by GS160 (2499.11 mg kg−1 d.w.), GS85 (989.46 mg kg−1 d.w.), GSTQ (983.15 mg kg−1 d.w.), and GS45 (481.31 mg kg−1 d.w.). Therefore, the phenolic content decreased with the particle size decrease from 215 µm to 45 µm. Besides, there were no significant differences between the total phenolic content in GS85 and GSTQ. The fraction with 215 µm reported the highest protein and mineral salt content and presented rutin amounts four times higher than GSTQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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Review

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Review
Implication of Dietary Iron-Chelating Bioactive Compounds in Molecular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Ageing
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030491 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
One of the prevailing perceptions regarding the ageing of cells and organisms is the intracellular gradual accumulation of oxidatively damaged macromolecules, leading to the decline of cell and organ function (free radical theory of ageing). This chemically undefined material known as “lipofuscin,” “ceroid,” [...] Read more.
One of the prevailing perceptions regarding the ageing of cells and organisms is the intracellular gradual accumulation of oxidatively damaged macromolecules, leading to the decline of cell and organ function (free radical theory of ageing). This chemically undefined material known as “lipofuscin,” “ceroid,” or “age pigment” is mainly formed through unregulated and nonspecific oxidative modifications of cellular macromolecules that are induced by highly reactive free radicals. A necessary precondition for reactive free radical generation and lipofuscin formation is the intracellular availability of ferrous iron (Fe2+) (“labile iron”), catalyzing the conversion of weak oxidants such as peroxides, to extremely reactive ones like hydroxyl (HO) or alcoxyl (RO) radicals. If the oxidized materials remain unrepaired for extended periods of time, they can be further oxidized to generate ultimate over-oxidized products that are unable to be repaired, degraded, or exocytosed by the relevant cellular systems. Additionally, over-oxidized materials might inactivate cellular protection and repair mechanisms, thus allowing for futile cycles of increasingly rapid lipofuscin accumulation. In this review paper, we present evidence that the modulation of the labile iron pool distribution by nutritional or pharmacological means represents a hitherto unappreciated target for hampering lipofuscin accumulation and cellular ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Mediterranean Diet)
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