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Heritage, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 25 articles

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Open AccessReview
Influence of Environment on Microbial Colonization of Historic Stone Buildings with Emphasis on Cyanobacteria
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1469-1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040081 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Microbial cells that produce biofilms, or patinas, on historic buildings are affected by climatic changes, mainly temperature, rainfall and air pollution, all of which will alter over future decades. This review considers the colonization of stone buildings by microorganisms and the effects that [...] Read more.
Microbial cells that produce biofilms, or patinas, on historic buildings are affected by climatic changes, mainly temperature, rainfall and air pollution, all of which will alter over future decades. This review considers the colonization of stone buildings by microorganisms and the effects that the resultant biofilms have on the degradation of the structure. Conservation scientists require a knowledge of the potential effects of microorganisms, and the subsequent growth of higher organisms such as vascular plants, in order to formulate effective control strategies. The vulnerability of various structural materials (“bioreceptivity”) and the ways in which the environmental factors of temperature, precipitation, wind-driven rain and air pollution influence microbial colonization are discussed. The photosynthetic microorganisms, algae and cyanobacteria, are acknowledged to be the primary colonizers of stone surfaces and many cyanobacterial species are able to survive climate extremes; hence special attention is paid to this group of organisms. Since cyanobacteria require only light and water to grow, can live endolithically and are able to survive most types of stress, they may become even more important as agents of stone cultural property degradation in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Built Heritage Conservation and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
A Multilevel Procedure at Urban Scale to Assess the Vulnerability and the Exposure of Residential Masonry Buildings: The Case Study of Pordenone, Northeast Italy
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1433-1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040080 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
More than the 60% of the Italian residential building stock had already been built by 1974, when seismic codes were enforced on a minimal part of the country. Unreinforced masonry buildings represent most of that share, but they are typical for each region, [...] Read more.
More than the 60% of the Italian residential building stock had already been built by 1974, when seismic codes were enforced on a minimal part of the country. Unreinforced masonry buildings represent most of that share, but they are typical for each region, in terms of both materials and structural configurations. The definition of ‘regional’, i.e., more specific, vulnerability and exposure models are required to improve existing forecast models. The research presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based multilevel procedure for earthquake disaster prevention planning at urban scale; it includes multicriteria analysis, such as architectural types, structural vulnerability analysis, microzonation studies, and socio-economic aspects. The procedure has been applied to the municipality of Pordenone (PN), a district town of the Friuli–Venezia–Giulia region, in Northeast Italy. To assess the urban seismic risk, more than 5000 masonry residential buildings were investigated and common types within sub-municipal areas and exposure data were collected. Simplified mechanical analysis provided a ‘regional’ vulnerability model through typological fragility curves. The integration of results into GIS tool permitted the definition of cross-mapping among vulnerability, damage scenarios (conditional and unconditional) and exposure (seismic losses, casualties, impact), with respect to various earthquake intensities expected in the town. These results are presented at different scales: from the single building, to submunicipal area and to the entire town. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Protection of Cultural Heritage Masonry Structures)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Radiocarbon Dating of Anthropogenic Carbonates: What Is the Benchmark for Sample Selection?
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1416-1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040079 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Anthropogenic carbonates are pyrotechnological products composed of calcium carbonate, and include wood ash, lime plaster/mortar, and hydraulic mortar. These synthetic materials are among the first produced by humans, and greatly influenced their biological and cultural evolution. Therefore, they are an important component of [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic carbonates are pyrotechnological products composed of calcium carbonate, and include wood ash, lime plaster/mortar, and hydraulic mortar. These synthetic materials are among the first produced by humans, and greatly influenced their biological and cultural evolution. Therefore, they are an important component of the archeological record that can provide invaluable information about past lifeways. One major aspect that has been long investigated is the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates from the pyrogenic calcium carbonate that makes up most of these materials. This is based on the fact that anthropogenic carbonates incorporate atmospheric carbon dioxide upon the carbonation of hydrated lime, and thus bear the radiocarbon signature of the atmosphere at a given point in time. Since plaster, mortar, and ash are highly heterogeneous materials comprising several carbon contaminants, and considering that calcium carbonate is prone to dissolution and recrystallization, accurate dating depends on the effectiveness of protocols aimed at removing contaminants and on the ability to correctly identify a mineral fraction that survived unaltered through time. This article reviews the formation and dissolution processes of pyrogenic calcium carbonate, and mineralogical approaches to the definition of a ‘dateable fraction’ based on its structural properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Interdisciplinary Relationships, Influence, and Aspirations for Smart Heritage in Local Government
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1402-1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040078 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Local governments are responding to rising complexities in service delivery, governance, and civic stewardship with novel interdisciplinary discourses that converge previously separate disciplines. Smart Heritage, the novel convergence of smart city and heritage disciplines, is one interdisciplinary discourse that local governments utilise to [...] Read more.
Local governments are responding to rising complexities in service delivery, governance, and civic stewardship with novel interdisciplinary discourses that converge previously separate disciplines. Smart Heritage, the novel convergence of smart city and heritage disciplines, is one interdisciplinary discourse that local governments utilise to address these demands. To successfully deliver Smart Heritage, local governments must understand how the interdisciplinary relationships, influence, and aspirations function within their organisation. However, due to the novelty of Smart Heritage, no academic research exists on these matters, particularly within local government contexts. Therefore, this article reports how relationships, influence, and strategic aspirations between the smart city and heritage discipline intersect as Smart Heritage. It draws on interviews with smart city and heritage advisors from three local governments in Australia. It finds a case-by-case working relationship between the disciplines, which indicates an emergent-yet-tenuous Smart Heritage discourse. Moreover, the interdisciplinary relationships influence broader considerations from the advisors than their single discipline. These considerations produce innovative aspirations for local governments on heritage and smart city matters. This finding establishes the first foundational understanding of Smart Heritage within local government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle
Towards an Online Database for Archaeological Landscapes. Using the Web Based, Open Source Software OpenAtlas for the Acquisition, Analysis and Dissemination of Archaeological and Historical Data on a Landscape Basis
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1385-1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040077 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 274
Abstract
In this paper, we present the web-based, open source software OpenAtlas, which uses the International Council of Museums’ Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM), and its possible future potential for the acquisition, analysis and dissemination of a wide range of archaeological and historical data [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the web-based, open source software OpenAtlas, which uses the International Council of Museums’ Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM), and its possible future potential for the acquisition, analysis and dissemination of a wide range of archaeological and historical data on a landscape basis. To this end, we will first introduce the ongoing research project The Anthropological and Archaeological Database of Sepultures (THANADOS), built upon OpenAtlas, as well as its data model and interactive web interface/presentation frontend. Subsequently, the article will then discuss the possible extension of this database of early medieval cemeteries with regard to the integration of further archaeological structures (e.g., medieval settlements, fortifications, field systems and traffic routes) and other data, such as historical maps, aerial photographs and airborne laser scanning data. Finally, the paper will conclude with the general added value for future research projects by such a collaborative and web-based approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers)
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Open AccessReview
Virtual Restoration and Visualization Changes through Light: A Review
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1373-1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040076 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The virtual modification of the appearance of an object using lighting technologies has become very important in recent years, since the projection of light on an object allows us to alter its appearance in a virtual and reversible way. Considering the limitation of [...] Read more.
The virtual modification of the appearance of an object using lighting technologies has become very important in recent years, since the projection of light on an object allows us to alter its appearance in a virtual and reversible way. Considering the limitation of non-contact when analysing a work of art, these optical techniques have been used in fields of restoration of cultural heritage, allowing us to visualize the work as it was conceived by its author, after a process of acquisition and treatment of the image. Furthermore, the technique of altering the appearance of objects through the projection of light has been used in projects with artistic or even educational purposes. This review has treated the main studies of light projection as a technique to alter the appearance of objects, emphasizing the calibration methods used in each study, taking into account the importance of a correct calibration between devices to carry out this technology. In addition, since the described technique consists of projecting light, and one of the applications is related to cultural heritage, those studies that carry out the design and optimization of lighting systems will be described for a correct appreciation of the works of art, without altering its state of conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
By the Hand of Angelos? Analytical Investigation of a Remarkable 15th Century Cretan Icon
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1360-1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040075 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 467
Abstract
A 15th century St Theodoros icon of outstanding quality is on display at the Zakynthos Ecclesiastical Art Museum. On the basis of certain stylistic characteristics, this icon has been attributed to the legendary Cretan painter Angelos Akotantos. In order to explore the latter [...] Read more.
A 15th century St Theodoros icon of outstanding quality is on display at the Zakynthos Ecclesiastical Art Museum. On the basis of certain stylistic characteristics, this icon has been attributed to the legendary Cretan painter Angelos Akotantos. In order to explore the latter attribution, the icon was subjected to examination via multispectral imaging, while microsamples were investigated through an optical microscope (OM), a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive analyzer (SEM-EDX), μ-Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The data were evaluated in the light of the findings of recent analytical studies conducted on several genuine Angelos icons. Identified materials include gypsum, gold leaf, bole, natural ultramarine, lead white, charcoal, green earth, red lake, minium, cinnabar, and red and yellow ochres. The identified materials resemble those employed by Angelos, while the identification of ultramarine is of particular significance, as this extremely expensive and rather rare pigment was very often used by the particular painter. Moreover, multispectral imaging reveals notable painting technique similarities between the icon in consideration and known Angelos icons, while cross sections of corresponding samples exhibit almost identical structures. Overall, the present work considerably strengthens the suggestion that the St Theodoros icon in consideration was painted by Angelos and also widens our knowledge regarding the late Byzantine painting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Ag-Nanostars for the Sensitive SERS Detection of Dyes in Artistic Cross-Sections—Madonna della Misericordia of the National Gallery of Parma: A Case Study
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1344-1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040074 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
In historical paintings, the detection of low amounts of pigments and dyes by Raman spectroscopy can sometimes be challenging, in particular for fluorescent dyes. This issue can be overcome by using SERS (surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy) which takes advantage of the properties of nanostructured [...] Read more.
In historical paintings, the detection of low amounts of pigments and dyes by Raman spectroscopy can sometimes be challenging, in particular for fluorescent dyes. This issue can be overcome by using SERS (surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy) which takes advantage of the properties of nanostructured metal surfaces to quench fluorescence and enhance Raman signals. In this work, silver nanostars (AgNSs) are applied for the first time to real art samples, in particular to painting cross-sections, exploiting their effective SERS properties for pigment identification. The case study is the Madonna della Misericordia of the National Gallery of Parma (Italy). Cross-sections were analyzed at first by optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Unfortunately, in some cross-sections, the application of conventional Raman spectroscopy was hindered by an intense background fluorescence. Therefore, AgNSs were deposited and used as SERS-active agent. The experimentation was successful, allowing us to identify a modern dye, namely copper phthalocyanine. This result, together with the detection of other modern pigments (titanium white) and expert visual examination, allowed to reconstruct the painting history, postdating its realization from the 15th century (according to the Gallery inventory) to 19th century with a heavy role of recent (middle 20th century) restoration interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast and In-Situ Identification of Archaeometallurgical Collections in the Museum of Malaga Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and a New Mathematical Algorithm
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1330-1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040073 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 271
Abstract
This paper reports the use of an advanced statistical algorithm for the recognition and classification of a set of 30 archaeological metallic objects from the Museum of Malaga. In-situ laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) analysis was performed using a portable analyzer. The coordinate-obtaining method [...] Read more.
This paper reports the use of an advanced statistical algorithm for the recognition and classification of a set of 30 archaeological metallic objects from the Museum of Malaga. In-situ laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) analysis was performed using a portable analyzer. The coordinate-obtaining method provided the statistical weights of each element in the sample. A comparative study between the coordinate-obtaining method and the linear correlation method is also discussed in order to corroborate the applicability of the proposed approach to the field of cultural heritage. The possibility of fast identification based on the simultaneous comparison of all the spectra in the reference LIBS library while allowing the analysis of heterogeneous materials is the main advantage of the method. In addition, statistical analysis (Euclidean distance analysis and binary diagrams) suggested that differentiating between archaeological sites is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopic Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Portable X-ray Fluorescence (p-XRF) Uncertainty Estimation for Glazed Ceramic Analysis: Case of Iznik Tiles
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1302-1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040072 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The aim of this study is to estimate the uncertainty of a portable X-ray fluorescence (p-XRF) instrument for the (semi-quantitative) analyses of tiles with underglaze decoration. Before starting the campaign of on-site measurements, the optimum acquisition time and the most accurate calibration mode [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to estimate the uncertainty of a portable X-ray fluorescence (p-XRF) instrument for the (semi-quantitative) analyses of tiles with underglaze decoration. Before starting the campaign of on-site measurements, the optimum acquisition time and the most accurate calibration mode were selected. For this purpose, the elemental composition of two glass standards of NIST (SRM610 and SRM612) and a Corning A standard were measured with varied times (5–360 s) and in different calibration modes (Mining, Mining Light Elements, Soil, and Rare Earth Elements). Afterwards, a set of blue-and-white tiles that was unearthed at Iznik Tile Kilns Excavation between the dig seasons of 2015 and 2019 was examined with p-XRF by selecting ten points of measure from each layer (body, transparent glaze, and blue coloured areas). The elemental composition of different layers was evaluated by means of the intragroup and intergroup data. They were also compared to the previous studies and found that the corrosion-free, homogeneous, and non-porous surfaces decrease the relative standard deviation (RSD) by increasing the consistency of the compositional data. The major elements found in the matrix of each layer (Al and Si for the body, Pb and Sn for the glaze) have the lowest value of RSD, as expected. However, the comparison of the data with the analysis of the reference materials showed that the content of Mg and also Si, which belong to the low-Z elements group, is shifted relatively towards the higher compositional values. The impossibility of measuring the elemental composition of sodium does not hinder the classification of the samples. Although the transition metals have very low concentrations, p-XRF measurements appear rather consistent and the intrinsic scattering of the data observed for a single artefact is largely smaller than those observed for the tiles of different historical buildings. Thus, it allows the classification to be made related to the different techniques used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopic Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Evaluation of Sandstone Decay Adopting Non-Destructive Techniques: On-Site Application on Building Stones
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1287-1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040071 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
This paper focuses on the characterization approach to evaluate the decay state of Pietra Serena of historic buildings in Florence (Italy). Pietra Serena is a Florentine sandstone largely used in the city especially during the Renaissance; it is a symbol of cultural heritage [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the characterization approach to evaluate the decay state of Pietra Serena of historic buildings in Florence (Italy). Pietra Serena is a Florentine sandstone largely used in the city especially during the Renaissance; it is a symbol of cultural heritage of Florence and constitutes a large part of the city center, which was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. Unfortunately, many environmental factors negatively affect the stone, increasing damage and the danger of falling material. Any detachment of stone fragments, in addition to constitute a loss in cultural heritage, can be dangerous for citizens and the many tourists that visit the city. The use of non-destructive techniques (NDTs) as ultrasonic and Schmidt hammer tests can quantitatively define some mechanical properties and help to monitor the decay degree of building stone. In this study, the NDTs were combined with mineralogical, petrographical, chemical and physical analyses to investigate the stone materials, in order to correlate their features with the characteristics of the different artefacts in Pietra Serena. Correlations between the NDTs results and the compositional characteristics of the on-site stone were carried out; such discussion allows to identify zones of weakness and dangerous unstable elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geosciences for Cultural Heritage and Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Reflectance Transformation Imaging to Experimental Archaeology Studies
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1279-1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040070 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 531
Abstract
In this work, we present a study on experimental archaeology replicas of 170,000-year-old digging sticks excavated in 2012 in the archaeological site of Poggetti Vecchi (Grosseto, Italy). One of the techniques used for documenting and studying the sticks was the reflectance transformation imaging [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a study on experimental archaeology replicas of 170,000-year-old digging sticks excavated in 2012 in the archaeological site of Poggetti Vecchi (Grosseto, Italy). One of the techniques used for documenting and studying the sticks was the reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) technique, which allows the creation of an interactive image by varying the angle of illumination. A reconstruction of the 3D profile of the surface was also made by applying the technique of photometric stereo imaging to the RTI images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Image Processing for Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Invasive Study on the Sinope Gospels
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1269-1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040069 - 28 Oct 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
The 6th century Codex Sinopensis or Sinope Gospels (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France) is one of the most precious purple codices that survive from the Late Antique period. Together with the Vienna Genesis (Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) and the Rossano Gospels (Rossano Calabro, Museo [...] Read more.
The 6th century Codex Sinopensis or Sinope Gospels (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France) is one of the most precious purple codices that survive from the Late Antique period. Together with the Vienna Genesis (Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) and the Rossano Gospels (Rossano Calabro, Museo Diocesano), it has an unusually rich decorative apparatus with scenes representing biblical episodes. It can be, therefore, considered one of the most important preserved artistic productions of the early medieval era. The manuscript has been subjected to a non-invasive diagnostic campaign to evaluate the quality of the colourants used in its decoration, to understand how the parchment was coloured, and to carry out a comparison with the Vienna Genesis and the Rossano Gospels. The techniques used were UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optical fibres (FORS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), spectrofluorimetry, and optical microscopy. Analyses highlighted the presence of ultramarine blue, which, besides the use of pure gold for the ink and paint, certifies the high value of the manuscript. In addition, this must be seen as one of the earliest examples of its use in paintings. The purple colour of the parchment was identified as orchil, a dye extracted from lichens, similar to the results of analytical investigations carried out on other purple codices, and not the expected Tyrian purple dye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopic Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Earthen Architecture in Greece: Traditional Techniques and Revaluation
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1237-1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040068 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
A big part of traditional architecture both in rural and urban areas in the Greek territory has been built with raw earth. The aim of this paper is to present earthen buildings’ constructions in Greece and show their important contribution to our heritage. [...] Read more.
A big part of traditional architecture both in rural and urban areas in the Greek territory has been built with raw earth. The aim of this paper is to present earthen buildings’ constructions in Greece and show their important contribution to our heritage. The use of earth as a basic constructing material has given different earthen building cultures and techniques. Earthen construction encloses many varied uses and applications, as walls or as plasters. In different periods of time and historical contexts, from the indigenous inhabitants to the neighborhoods of the refugees of Asia Minor Catastrophe, the earth constructions had a primary role. The existence of earthen architecture was investigated in urban and rural sites in Greece. Building information, documentation, and records of buildings’ design, construction techniques, elements, and systems are presented. Today, there is still a rich architectural heritage throughout the country, which has lasted through the years and withstood seismic activities and poor conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Protection of Cultural Heritage Masonry Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Atlas of Shipwrecks in Inner Ionian Sea (Greece): A Remote Sensing Approach
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1210-1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040067 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Underwater cultural heritage (UCH) sites constitute an important part of the overall cultural heritage both nationally and globally as they carry cultural, environmental, scientific, technological, political, economic and social viewpoints. UCH includes not only submerged sites and buildings, but also vessels and aircrafts. [...] Read more.
Underwater cultural heritage (UCH) sites constitute an important part of the overall cultural heritage both nationally and globally as they carry cultural, environmental, scientific, technological, political, economic and social viewpoints. UCH includes not only submerged sites and buildings, but also vessels and aircrafts. The Inner Ionian Sea in Greece is a place rich in a significant number of shipwrecks with a timespan ranging from ancient times right through to the 20th century. The results herein present the study of ancient, World War I (WWI), World War II (WWII) and more recent shipwrecks in the inner Ionian Sea. A total of 11 out of 36 known shipwrecks in the area have been systematically studied using marine remote sensing and ground truthing techniques. The marine remote sensing sensors include: side scan sonars, sub-bottom profilers and multi-beam echo-sounders. At each wreck site, the condition of the wreck, the debris field and man-made activities were determined based mainly on acoustic data. The history of each wreck is also briefly documented. The conclusion of the current research work is that there is an immediate need for a shipwreck protection framework in the Inner Ionian Sea; wrecks included in this work are a highly important part of UCH and man-made activities (e.g., fishing) threaten their integrity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reconstructing a Submerged Villa Maritima: The Case of the Villa dei Pisoni in Baiae
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1199-1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040066 - 25 Oct 2020
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Among the activities planned for the MUSAS Project, the digital reconstruction of the underwater sites constitutes a particular challenge, requiring strong cooperation between archaeologists and technicians. The case of the Villa dei Pisoni in Baiae, one of the richest in the Phlaegrean territory, [...] Read more.
Among the activities planned for the MUSAS Project, the digital reconstruction of the underwater sites constitutes a particular challenge, requiring strong cooperation between archaeologists and technicians. The case of the Villa dei Pisoni in Baiae, one of the richest in the Phlaegrean territory, is particularly interesting: the architectural remains, already documented in the 1980s and now inserted in one of the diving spots of the Underwater Park of Baiae, are disseminated on a huge surface, including quays, thermal complexes, a fishpond, and a large, luxurious viridarium. The effort required for the digital reconstruction of the ancient villa improved the previous knowledge and the lack of documentation even in a well-known site. In this paper, we will retrace the long path from the 3D reconstruction of the archaeological remains to the virtual architectural model of the villa, the numerous challenges, doubts, and uncertainties in the creation of the original spaces, and the support offered by the ancient sources, both literary and iconographic, in solving archaeological problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Failure of Masonry Walls by Disaggregation and the Masonry Quality Index
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1162-1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040065 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The visual method for assessment of the structural behaviour of historic masonry walls, known by the acronym MQI (Masonry Quality Index) was introduced in 2002 by a team of researchers from the University of Perugia, Italy. This is based on a visual survey [...] Read more.
The visual method for assessment of the structural behaviour of historic masonry walls, known by the acronym MQI (Masonry Quality Index) was introduced in 2002 by a team of researchers from the University of Perugia, Italy. This is based on a visual survey of the faces and the cross section of a wall panel, and it aims at verifying if a wall complies with the “rules of the art”. Based on this analysis, it is possible to calculate a numerical index: numerous tests, carried out on site by the authors to validate the method, have demonstrated that the index is able to provide useful information about the mechanical characteristics and structural response, in general, of the analysed wall panel. The failure mode of a wall panel under the action of an earthquake is a critical aspect. In general, the failure modes can be categorized in two classes: masonry disaggregation and the development of a local or global mechanism of wall elements (macroelements). Several theoretical models and numerical simulations only consider the latter. In this paper, application of the MQI method is further investigated, with particular emphasis to those masonry typologies which are more prone to collapse by disaggregation during a seismic event. Under the action of an earthquake, some types of masonry are typically unable to deform and to split in macroelements, and another type of failure occurs: this is the so-called “masonry disaggregation” or “masonry crumbling”. This type of failure anticipates the ones resulting from macroelement methods or stress analysis. As a conclusion, these latter methods become completely inappropriate and potentially hazardous, as they overestimate the seismic capacity of the building under investigation. The MQI method has been adapted to assess the structural response of different types of masonry under the action of an earthquake. In detail, the aim was to verify when the phenomenon of masonry disaggregation is likely to occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Heritage Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of an Early 20th Century English Painted Organ Case by Temple Moore
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1148-1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040064 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
An organ case from Lincoln, England, designed by the architect Temple Moore in 1907 was examined during conservation work using Raman spectroscopy in order to analyze the decorative paint composition. Samples from the six principal colours were extracted and examined using a Bruker [...] Read more.
An organ case from Lincoln, England, designed by the architect Temple Moore in 1907 was examined during conservation work using Raman spectroscopy in order to analyze the decorative paint composition. Samples from the six principal colours were extracted and examined using a Bruker Senterra R200-L spectrometer. The results are the first known formal analysis of a painted scheme by this architect, and they reveal a mixture of commonly used pigments for the period and the unexpected use of simpler, earth pigments, along with an unusual admixture in the red, along with an organic additive. The findings are of importance to both the conservation of Temple Moore’s artwork, in understanding the experimentation used in early twentieth-century England, and in furthering our knowledge of ecclesiastical decorative artwork of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopic Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Leonardo da Vinci’s Architecture through Parametric Modeling: A Method for the Digital Reconstruction of the Centrally Planned Churches Depicted in Ms. B
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1124-1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040063 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Among many other themes, Leonardo da Vinci’s Manuscript B contains several drawings of centrally planned churches, some of which are represented using a plan view paired with a bird’s-eye view. The use of a bird’s-eye instead of an elevation represents an innovative depiction [...] Read more.
Among many other themes, Leonardo da Vinci’s Manuscript B contains several drawings of centrally planned churches, some of which are represented using a plan view paired with a bird’s-eye view. The use of a bird’s-eye instead of an elevation represents an innovative depiction technique, which allows combining the immediacy of the perspective view with the measurability of the façades, and therefore to describe the three-dimensionality of the buildings. To understand the reasons behind the use of this original technique, the edifices’ shape and classify them, we decided to use 3D digital reconstruction techniques, for their ability to avoid misunderstandings in the reconstruction process and in the results. This article describes the method to create the digital models of sixteen churches. A Visual Programming Language (VPL) script was used as the 3D base for modelling the churches achieved from a classification code expressing the aggregative rules of the churches. Then, the geometric process for the construction of the plan and its relationship with the elevation measures were studied for each church. Finally, this information was used for the completion of the 3D models, distinguishing more output variants each time there was an inconsistency between plan and perspective view, a variability of one architectural element or an uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Natural Stones Used in the Orsi-Marconi Palace Façade (Bologna): A Petro-Mineralogical Characterization
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1109-1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040062 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Ancient buildings are important components of the Italian Cultural Heritage and, since the Etruscan Period, Bologna (north-eastern Italy) has always been one of the most flourishing cities both culturally and economically in the Italian and European panorama. The Orsi-Marconi Palace in Bologna presents [...] Read more.
Ancient buildings are important components of the Italian Cultural Heritage and, since the Etruscan Period, Bologna (north-eastern Italy) has always been one of the most flourishing cities both culturally and economically in the Italian and European panorama. The Orsi-Marconi Palace in Bologna presents a monumental façade decorated with many sandstone ornaments of the 16th century. Different samples from different parts of the façade of the building were collected and firstly characterised by macroscopic observations to determine the structural aspect. A petro-mineralogical study on the surfaces of the samples was conducted using a stereomicroscope and Optical Transmitted Light Polarized Microscopy. In addition, X-Ray Fluorescence and X-Ray Powder Diffractometer analyses were carried out to better understand the mineralogical composition of the sandstone materials used and the degradation products from the façades of this historical building. The aim of this work was to better understand how to revalue the sandstone decorations severely affected by deterioration phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geosciences for Cultural Heritage and Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
In the Realm of Rain Gods: A Contextual Survey of Rock Art across the Northern Maya Lowlands
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1094-1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040061 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Regional rock art studies have provided insight into the role of caves in Maya ideology and worldview. In addition to the content of the imagery itself, the placement or siting of rock art with respect to natural and cultural features within the cave [...] Read more.
Regional rock art studies have provided insight into the role of caves in Maya ideology and worldview. In addition to the content of the imagery itself, the placement or siting of rock art with respect to natural and cultural features within the cave environment can reveal much about the function and meaning of cave use practices. This comparative analysis of rock art emphasizes contextual considerations with a discussion on the spatial and symbolic relationships between images in individual caves. Rock art in the northern Maya lowlands is commonly associated with watery areas and pathways leading to pools in caves. Across the northern Yucatan Peninsula, watery caves witnessed the rites and rituals of religious practitioners who appealed to the rain gods. Rock art scenes throughout this region were often devised and positioned in ways that reveal or are consistent with this unique and pervasive emphasis on rain and agricultural fertility in religious practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Archaeological European White Elm (Ulmus laevis) for Identifying and Characterizing the Kind of Biological Degradation
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1083-1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040060 - 26 Sep 2020
Viewed by 362
Abstract
The current work aims at the study of the biological degradation of archaeological European white elm via microscopy and chemical analysis in order to identify the kind of biological degradation and characterize the state of preservation of this type of wood. Profound knowledge [...] Read more.
The current work aims at the study of the biological degradation of archaeological European white elm via microscopy and chemical analysis in order to identify the kind of biological degradation and characterize the state of preservation of this type of wood. Profound knowledge of the chemical constituents and biological degradation in fresh-cut and archaeological elm wood will simplify the process of restoration and conservation of the investigated artifacts. Therefore, fresh-cut and archaeological elm were compared in terms of extractive, chlorite holocellulose, α-cellulose, lignin, and ash contents. In the fresh-cut elm wood, the contents of Kürschner–Hoffer cellulose, chlorite holocellulose, α-cellulose, and hemicellulose were significantly higher than that of the archaeological elm, confirmed by the degradation of native wood hemicelluloses by erosion bacteria during soil contact. Naturally, the mass percentage of lignin increases as the amount of chlorite holocellulose in the wood decreases. These wet chemistry results were also confirmed by FTIR analysis, where bands mainly attributed to hemicellulose and cellulose decreased significantly and bands belonging to lignin display higher intensity for the archaeological specimens. Ash and cyclohexane–ethanol extract contents of archaeological elm wood were significantly higher due to the movement of mineral components arising out of the soil into the wood specimens. Based on the microscopic investigation and given the fact that wood decay fungi need oxygen to degrade wood and the investigated archaeological elm specimens were buried to a 10 m depth in the soil, we might conclude that the wood degradation was caused by erosion bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopic Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Multidrum Stone Columns at the Pompeii Archaeological Site: Analysis of Geometrical Properties and State of Preservation
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1069-1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040059 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 308
Abstract
The seismic vulnerability of ancient free-standing multidrum stone columns is an important issue for the preservation of Greek and Roman archaeological sites. Such elements show a complex and highly non-linear dynamic behavior, requiring specific and sophisticated structural analysis. Different numerical studies on the [...] Read more.
The seismic vulnerability of ancient free-standing multidrum stone columns is an important issue for the preservation of Greek and Roman archaeological sites. Such elements show a complex and highly non-linear dynamic behavior, requiring specific and sophisticated structural analysis. Different numerical studies on the dynamic behavior of ancient multidrum stone columns found that their seismic response is sensitive to their geometrical parameters, as well as to the material elastic properties, the kinetic coefficient of friction and the amplitude and frequency of the seismic action. Therefore, in the present research, a detailed survey of free-standing multidrum stone columns representative of a wide range of elements at the Pompeii Archaeological site was developed to provide a primary evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of such elements based on their geometrical properties. The study focuses on 103 multidrum grey-tuff columns, from four areas at the site: tetrastyle atrium of Casa del Fauno at Regio VI and Quadriportico dei Teatri, Foro Triangolare and Palestra Sannitica at Regio VIII. Grey tuff was a typically locally sourced natural stone, used as a building material in ancient Pompeii. The research areas included both private (Casa del Fauno) and public buildings (Quadriportico dei Teatri, Foro Triangolare and Palestra Sannitica). The mean overall geometrical properties affecting the seismic behavior of the columns in each research area and the discussion of the collected results are herein presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Protection of Cultural Heritage Masonry Structures)
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Open AccessOpinion
The Implication of Vision and Colour in Cultural Heritage
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1063-1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040058 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Colour is important in art, particularly in pictures. The eyes receive images with a particular condition after traversing the cornea, other surfaces and interior liquid of orbit. It is possible for changes in colour to be perceived when pictures are viewed by one [...] Read more.
Colour is important in art, particularly in pictures. The eyes receive images with a particular condition after traversing the cornea, other surfaces and interior liquid of orbit. It is possible for changes in colour to be perceived when pictures are viewed by one eye that has defects in any surface. Cone defects are directly related to colour failure. Can the original colour be recovered by modifying the visual function? There are multiple colour tests, but there is no consensus on which colour test is best. After detecting a problem with colour, we found several techniques to enhance colour contrast for dichromats. Treatments considered were reversible and innocuous and combined with melanopsin-based blue light sensitivity for melatonin suppression, allowing visual acceptance and luminous perception. A light source of 4000 K with a Duv value of zero, a good observer and adequate illumination were necessary. Subjective assessment may be affected by visual functions such as accommodation, binocular vision and quality of the eye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
Open AccessArticle
Small Multispectral UAV Sensor and Its Image Fusion Capability in Cultural Heritage Applications
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1046-1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040057 - 24 Sep 2020
Viewed by 452
Abstract
For many decades the multispectral images of the earth’s surface and its objects were taken from multispectral sensors placed on satellites. In recent years, the technological evolution produced similar sensors (much smaller in size and weight) which can be placed on Unmanned Aerial [...] Read more.
For many decades the multispectral images of the earth’s surface and its objects were taken from multispectral sensors placed on satellites. In recent years, the technological evolution produced similar sensors (much smaller in size and weight) which can be placed on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), thereby allowing the collection of higher spatial resolution multispectral images. In this paper, Parrot’s small Multispectral (MS) camera Sequoia+ is used, and its images are evaluated at two archaeological sites, on the Byzantine wall (ground application) of Thessaloniki city (Greece) and on a mosaic floor (aerial application) at the archaeological site of Dion (Greece). The camera receives RGB and MS images simultaneously, a fact which does not allow image fusion to be performed, as in the standard utilization procedure of Panchromatic (PAN) and MS image of satellite passive systems. In this direction, that is, utilizing the image fusion processes of satellite PAN and MS images, this paper demonstrates that with proper digital processing the images (RGB and MS) of small MS cameras can lead to a fused image with a high spatial resolution, which retains a large percentage of the spectral information of the original MS image. The high percentage of spectral fidelity of the fused images makes it possible to perform high-precision digital measurements in archaeological sites such as the accurate digital separation of the objects, area measurements and retrieval of information not so visible with common RGB sensors via the MS and RGB data of small MS sensors. Full article
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