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Colloids Interfaces, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 24 articles

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16 pages, 13614 KiB  
Article
Alginate-Chitosan Microgel Particles, Water–Oil Interfacial Layers, and Emulsion Stabilization
by Aggelos Charisis and Eleni P. Kalogianni
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020048 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
In this work, alginate-chitosan microgel particles were formed at different pH levels with the aim of using them as viscoelastic interfacial layers, which confer emulsion stability to food systems. The particles’ size and structural characteristics were determined using laser diffraction, confocal laser microscopy [...] Read more.
In this work, alginate-chitosan microgel particles were formed at different pH levels with the aim of using them as viscoelastic interfacial layers, which confer emulsion stability to food systems. The particles’ size and structural characteristics were determined using laser diffraction, confocal laser microscopy (CLSM), and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR). The pH affected the microgel characteristics, with larger particles formed at lower pH levels. T2 relaxation measurements with TD-NMR did not reveal differences in the mobility within the particles for the different pH levels, which could have been related to the more or less swollen structure. The rate of adsorption of the particles at the sunflower oil–water interface differed between particles formed at different pH levels, but the equilibrium interfacial tension of all systems was similar. Higher interfacial dilatational viscoelasticity was obtained for the systems at lower pH (3, 4, 5), with G’ reaching 13.6 mN/m (0.1 Hz) at pH 3. The interfacial rheological regime transitioned from a linear elastic regime at lower pH to a linear but more viscoelastic one at higher pH. The thicker, highly elastic interfacial layer at low pH, in combination with the higher charges expected at lower pH, was related to its performance during emulsification and the performance of the emulsion during storage. As revealed by laser diffraction and CLSM, the droplet sizes of emulsions formed at pH 6 and 7 were significantly larger and increased in size during 1 week of storage. CLSM examination of the emulsions revealed bridging flocculation with the higher pH. Nevertheless, all emulsions formed with microgel systems presented macroscopic volumetric stability for periods exceeding 1 week at 25 °C. A potential application of the present systems could be in the formation of stable, low-fat dressings without the addition of any emulsifier, allowing, at the same time, the release of the bioactive compounds for which such particles are known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Colloids II)
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14 pages, 2339 KiB  
Article
Examination of a Theoretical Model for Drainage of Foams Prepared from Licorice Root Extract Solution
by Hashem Ahmadi Tighchi, Mohammad Hasan Kayhani, Ali Faezian, Samira Yeganehzad and Reinhard Miller
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020047 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
The root of the licorice plant (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is rich in natural surfactants, called saponins. The beneficial properties of this plant have led to different applications, including its use as a foaming agent. In this research, a theoretical model and its validity are [...] Read more.
The root of the licorice plant (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is rich in natural surfactants, called saponins. The beneficial properties of this plant have led to different applications, including its use as a foaming agent. In this research, a theoretical model and its validity are discussed for the liquid drainage of foams made from licorice root extract solutions. After stating the important characteristics in the free drainage of foam, a relationship of the drained liquid volume based on effective parameters was obtained via a simplification of the governing equation. The theoretical model is applied to experimental foam drainage data measured at different concentrations of licorice root extract solutions. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows good agreement for the volume of drained liquid as a function of time. The characteristics obtained from the combination of effective parameters allows for a quantification of the drainage rate. In addition, the drainage rate at the beginning of the foam decay process, as a measure of stability, can be estimated using measurable properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Colloids II)
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22 pages, 5903 KiB  
Article
In Situ Dilatometry Measurements of Deformation of Microporous Carbon Induced by Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption under High Pressures
by Andrey Shkolin, Il’ya Men’shchikov, Elena Khozina and Anatolii Fomkin
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020046 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Adsorption-based carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage technologies aim to mitigate the accumulation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases that cause climate change. It is assumed that porous carbons as adsorbents are able to demonstrate the effectiveness of these technologies over a wide range of [...] Read more.
Adsorption-based carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage technologies aim to mitigate the accumulation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases that cause climate change. It is assumed that porous carbons as adsorbents are able to demonstrate the effectiveness of these technologies over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The present study aimed to investigate the temperature-induced changes in the dimensions of the microporous carbon adsorbent Sorbonorit 4, as well as the carbon dioxide adsorption, by using in situ dilatometry. The nonmonotonic changes in the dimensions of Sorbonorit 4 under vacuum were found with increasing temperature from 213 to 573 K. At T > 300 K, the thermal linear expansion coefficient of Sorbonorit 4 exceeded that of a graphite crystal, reaching 5 × 10−5 K at 573 K. The CO2 adsorption onto Sorbonorit 4 gave rise to its contraction at low temperatures and pressures or to its expansion at high temperatures over the entire pressure range. An inversion of the temperature dependence of the adsorption-induced deformation (AID) of Sorbonorit-4 was observed. The AID of Sorbonorit-4 and differential isosteric heat of CO2 adsorption plotted as a function of carbon dioxide uptake varied within the same intervals of adsorption values, reflecting the changes in the state of adsorbed molecules caused by contributions from adsorbate–adsorbent and adsorbate–adsorbate interactions. A simple model of nanoporous carbon adsorbents as randomly oriented nanocrystallites interconnected by a disordered carbon phase is proposed to represent the adsorption- and temperature-induced deformation of nanocrystallites with the macroscopic deformation of the adsorbent granules. Full article
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23 pages, 6343 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cooling Rate and Emulsifier Combination on the Colloidal Stability of Crystalline Dispersions Stabilized by Phospholipids and β-Lactoglobulin
by Jasmin Reiner, Charlotte Schüler, Volker Gaukel and Heike Petra Karbstein
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020045 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
A lot of applications for (semi-)crystalline triacylglycerol (TAG)-in-water dispersions exist in the life science and pharmaceutical industries. Unfortunately, during storage, these dispersions are often prone to changes in particle size due to unforeseen crystallization and recrystallization events. This results in the alterations of [...] Read more.
A lot of applications for (semi-)crystalline triacylglycerol (TAG)-in-water dispersions exist in the life science and pharmaceutical industries. Unfortunately, during storage, these dispersions are often prone to changes in particle size due to unforeseen crystallization and recrystallization events. This results in the alterations of important product properties, such as viscosity and mouthfeel, or the premature release of encapsulated material. In this study, we investigated the effects and interplay of formulation, i.e., emulsifier combination, and processing parameters, i.e., cooling rate, on the colloidal stability of dispersed TAGs and aimed to improve their colloidal stability. We chose phospholipids (PLs) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) as the emulsifiers for our model systems, which are commonly applied in many food systems. When dispersions were characterized directly after cooling, we obtained smaller particles and narrower size distributions after fast cooling. Over the course of eleven weeks, the creaming behavior, particle size, melting behavior and polymorphism were characterized. The dispersions stabilized with solely β-lg exhibited a slight increase in particle size, whereas a decrease in size was found when PLs were added. Our results indicate that mass transport phenomena between TAG droplets and particles took place during storage. This migration of TAG molecules changed the composition and size distribution of the dispersed phase, especially at higher PL concentration (0.1 wt%). In our case, this could be prevented by using a lower concentration of PLs, i.e., 0.05 wt%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Colloids II)
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13 pages, 3021 KiB  
Article
Continuous Electrophoretic Separation of Charged Dyes in Liquid Foam
by Matthieu Fauvel, Anna Trybala, Dmitri Tseluiko, Victor Mikhilovich Starov and Himiyage Chaminda Hemaka Bandulasena
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020044 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
A novel electrophoretic separation technique is presented, where continuous electrophoretic separation is demonstrated using free flowing liquid foams. Continuous foam electrophoresis combines the principle of capillary electrophoresis and interactions between analytes and the electrical double layer, with the ability of Free Flow Electrophoresis [...] Read more.
A novel electrophoretic separation technique is presented, where continuous electrophoretic separation is demonstrated using free flowing liquid foams. Continuous foam electrophoresis combines the principle of capillary electrophoresis and interactions between analytes and the electrical double layer, with the ability of Free Flow Electrophoresis to continuously separate and recover analytes automatically. A liquid foam is used to provide a network of deformable micro and nano channels with a high surface area, presenting a novel platform for electrophoresis, where interfacial phenomena could be exploited to modify analyte migration. The main purpose of this paper is to present a proof-of-concept study and provide fundamental understanding of a complex foam system in continuous separation mode, i.e., flowing liquid foam under an external electric field with electrophoresis and chemical reactions at the electrodes continuously changing the system. Liquid foam is generated using a mixture of anionic and non-ionic surfactants and pumped through a microfluidic separation chamber between two electrodes. The effectiveness of the device is demonstrated using a dye mixture containing a neutral dye and an anionic dye. At the outlet, the foam is separated and collected into five fractions which are individually probed for the concentration of the two dyes used. The anionic dye was concentrated up to 1.75 (±0.05) times the initial concentration in a select outlet, while the neutral dye concentration remained unchanged in all outlets, demonstrating the potential for electrophoretic foam separations. Full article
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16 pages, 4744 KiB  
Article
Influence of Wet Film Thickness on the Functional Applications of Biopolymers in Paper Conservation
by Gabriela Aleksić, Tomislav Cigula, Marina Vukoje and Katarina Itrić Ivanda
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020043 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1370
Abstract
In heritage conservation, paper deterioration can be slowed down by controlling the environmental conditions surrounding heritage objects and stabilizing the materials these objects are made of. As conservation materials can also cause optical, chemical, and physical changes in the object, their application should [...] Read more.
In heritage conservation, paper deterioration can be slowed down by controlling the environmental conditions surrounding heritage objects and stabilizing the materials these objects are made of. As conservation materials can also cause optical, chemical, and physical changes in the object, their application should be safe, minimalistic, and purposeful. This paper aimed to observe the functional applications of three biopolymers used in paper conservation. For that purpose, a model paper was coated with methylcellulose (MC), cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), and wheat starch (WSP) using different wet film deposits. The prepared samples were characterized by determining their physical, optical, and surface properties. The results show that changes in the wet film deposit thickness influenced paper properties. With CNCs, the increase has caused a drastic change of colour properties, with MC hydrophobicity increased and with WSP grammage and thickness increased. All coatings (except CNC24) have contributed to the preservation of the colour properties of the paper from the damage caused by thermal ageing. Full article
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13 pages, 2146 KiB  
Article
Amplification of SERS Signal of Methotrexate Using Beta-Cyclodextrin Modified Silver Nanoparticles
by Natalia E. Markina, Irina Yu. Goryacheva and Alexey V. Markin
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020042 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
The paper describes the use of native β-cyclodextrin (CD) for the modification of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in order to improve the determination of the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A control experiment with unmodified AgNPs showed that the strong [...] Read more.
The paper describes the use of native β-cyclodextrin (CD) for the modification of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in order to improve the determination of the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A control experiment with unmodified AgNPs showed that the strong SERS signal of MTX can only be achieved in alkaline media. However, competitive interactions and the strong background signal of human body fluid components significantly challenge MTX determination in real samples. While previous reports propose the use of thorough sample pretreatment (e.g., solid phase extraction), the application of CD-modified AgNPs increases the SERS signal of MTX in neutral media by seven times which enables simplifying the analysis and improving its accuracy by reducing the influence of endogenous components of body fluids. A detailed study of the synthesis conditions (CD concentration and reaction time) and SERS registration conditions (pH, NaCl concentration, dilution of urine samples) was performed to maximize the analytical signal and signal-to-noise ratio. The final assay was tested for MTX determination in artificially spiked samples of real human urine. The results demonstrated that MTX can be determined within the concentration range suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring (20–300 μg mL−1) with satisfactory precision (6–15% RSD), accuracy (95–111% apparent recovery), and limit of detection (0.3 μg mL−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocolloids and Biointerfaces)
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23 pages, 8063 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Machine Learning Studies on Chitosan-Polyacrylamide Copolymers for Selective Separation of Metal Sulfides in the Froth Flotation Process
by Keitumetse Monyake, Taihao Han, Danish Ali, Lana Alagha and Aditya Kumar
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020041 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
The froth flotation process is extensively used for the selective separation of valuable base metal sulfides from uneconomic associated minerals. However, in this complex multiphase process, various parameters need to be optimized to ensure separation selectivity and peak performance. In this study, two [...] Read more.
The froth flotation process is extensively used for the selective separation of valuable base metal sulfides from uneconomic associated minerals. However, in this complex multiphase process, various parameters need to be optimized to ensure separation selectivity and peak performance. In this study, two machine learning (ML) models, artificial neural network (ANN) and random forests (RF), were used to predict the efficiency of in-house synthesized chitosan-polyacrylamide copolymers (C-PAMs) in the depression of iron sulfide minerals (i.e., pyrite) while valuable base metal sulfides (i.e., galena and chalcopyrite) were floated using nine flotation variables as inputs to the models. The prediction performance of the models was rigorously evaluated based on the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE). The results showed that the RF model was able to produce high-fidelity predictions of the depression of pyrite once thoroughly trained as compared to ANN. With the RF model, the overall R2 and RMSE values were 0.88 and 4.38 for the training phase, respectively, and R2 of 0.90 and RMSE of 3.78 for the testing phase. As for the ANN, during the training phase, the overall R2 and RMSE were 0.76 and 4.75, respectively, and during the testing phase, the R2 and RMSE were 0.65 and 5.42, respectively. Additionally, fundamental investigations on the surface chemistry of C-PAMs at the mineral–water interface were conducted to give fundamental insights into the behavior of different metal sulfides during the flotation process. C-PAM was found to strongly adsorb on pyrite as compared to galena and chalcopyrite through zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and adsorption density measurements. XPS tests suggested that the adsorption mechanism of C-PAM on pyrite was through chemisorption of the amine and amide groups of the polymer. Full article
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22 pages, 7519 KiB  
Article
Morphological Diversity in Diblock Copolymer Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Study
by Senyuan Liu and Radhakrishna Sureshkumar
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020040 - 9 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations that incorporate explicit water-mediated hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions are employed to track spatiotemporal evolution of diblock copolymer aggregation in initially homogeneous solutions. A phase portrait of the observed morphologies and their quantitative geometric features such as aggregation numbers, packing parameters, and [...] Read more.
Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations that incorporate explicit water-mediated hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions are employed to track spatiotemporal evolution of diblock copolymer aggregation in initially homogeneous solutions. A phase portrait of the observed morphologies and their quantitative geometric features such as aggregation numbers, packing parameters, and radial distribution functions of solvent/monomers are presented. Energetic and entropic measures relevant to self-assembly such as specific solvent accessible surface area (SASA) and probability distribution functions (pdfs) of segmental stretch of copolymer chains are analyzed. The simulations qualitatively capture experimentally observed morphological diversity in diblock copolymer solutions. Topologically simpler structures predicted include spherical micelles, vesicles (polymersomes), lamellae (bilayers), linear wormlike micelles, and tori. More complex morphologies observed for larger chain lengths and nearly symmetric copolymer compositions include branched wormlike micelles with Y-shaped junctions and cylindrical micelle networks. For larger concentrations, vesicle strands, held together by hydrogen bonds, and “giant” composite aggregates that consist of lamellar, mixed hydrophobic/hydrophilic regions and percolating water cores are predicted. All structures are dynamic and exhibit diffuse domain boundaries. Morphology transitions across topologically simpler structures can be rationalized based on specific SASA measurements. PDFs of segmental stretch within vesicular assemblies appear to follow a log-normal distribution conducive for maximizing configuration entropy. Full article
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14 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Viscosity and Capillarity on Nonequilibrium Distribution of Gas Bubbles in Swelling Liquid–Gas Solution
by Alexander K. Shchekin, Anatoly E. Kuchma and Elena V. Aksenova
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020039 - 5 May 2023
Viewed by 1768
Abstract
A detailed statistical description of the evolution of supersaturated-by-gas solution at degassing has been presented on the basis of finding the time-dependent distribution in radii of overcritical gas bubbles. The influence of solution viscosity and capillarity via internal pressure in the bubbles on [...] Read more.
A detailed statistical description of the evolution of supersaturated-by-gas solution at degassing has been presented on the basis of finding the time-dependent distribution in radii of overcritical gas bubbles. The influence of solution viscosity and capillarity via internal pressure in the bubbles on this distribution has been considered until the moment when the gas supersaturation drops due to depletion and stops nucleation of new overcritical gas bubbles. This study is based on our previous results for the nonstationary growth rates of overcritical bubbles depending on gas supersaturation, diffusivity and solubility in solution, solution viscosity, and surface tension on bubble surface. Other important factors are linked with the initial rate of homogeneous gas bubble nucleation and coupling between diffusivity and viscosity in the solution. Here, we numerically studied how all these factors affect the time-dependent distribution function of overcritical bubbles in their radii, maximal and mean bubble radii, and the time-dependent swelling ratio of a supersaturated-by-gas solution in a wide range of solution viscosities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Themed Issue in Honor of Prof. Boris Noskov)
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8 pages, 1742 KiB  
Communication
Superspreading Surfactant on Hydrophobic Porous Substrates
by Wellington Tafireyi, Max Littlewood, Himiyage Chaminda Hemaka Bandulasena, Anna Trybala and Victor Mikhilovich Starov
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020038 - 4 May 2023
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The wetting behavior of droplets of aqueous surfactant solutions over hydrophobic thin PVDF porous membrane and non-porous hydrophobic PVDF film is investigated for small (~10 μL) droplets of aqueous trisiloxane surfactant solutions: superspreader S 240. The time dependencies of contact angle, droplet radius, [...] Read more.
The wetting behavior of droplets of aqueous surfactant solutions over hydrophobic thin PVDF porous membrane and non-porous hydrophobic PVDF film is investigated for small (~10 μL) droplets of aqueous trisiloxane surfactant solutions: superspreader S 240. The time dependencies of contact angle, droplet radius, wetted area and volume were monitored as well as penetration into the porous substrate. It is shown that the fast spreading of droplets of trisiloxane solutions takes place both in the case of porous and non-porous substrates at a concentration above some critical concentration. It was found that the trisiloxane droplets penetrate into the hydrophobic porous substrates and disappear much faster than on a corresponding hydrophobic non-porous substrate, which was not observed before. This phenomenon is referred to as “superpenetration”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Nanofluids)
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13 pages, 5495 KiB  
Article
Effect of Surfactants/Gels on the Stability of Boron Particle Dispersion in Liquid Fuel
by P. Dilipkumar, Shirish H. Sonawane and S. Srinath
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020037 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Metal-based nanofillers are used as disperssants to enhance thermal conductivity for a minimal fuel requirement to extract maximum energy. To achieve this, metal-based nanofillers must be suspended uniformly into jet fuel so that desired propulsive characteristics can be achieved. However, the dispersion of [...] Read more.
Metal-based nanofillers are used as disperssants to enhance thermal conductivity for a minimal fuel requirement to extract maximum energy. To achieve this, metal-based nanofillers must be suspended uniformly into jet fuel so that desired propulsive characteristics can be achieved. However, the dispersion of the metal-based nanofillers into the jet fuel is a critical challenge due to the density and viscosity that are independent parameters with a scattered relation. Hence, in the current work, we intended to investigate the propulsive characteristics of the JP-10 (Exo-Tetra Hydro Dicyclopentadiene) jet fuel dispersed with boron particles (BP) at various concentrations. The challenge involved in the current work was to make dispersion stable for a longer period due to the absence of functional groups entailed to BPs. Alongside JP-10, is a single-component, high-density hydrocarbon that can that can exhibit thixotropic characteristic in nature and hence combining with BP makes it difficult; hence, there is a need for oligomerization or the addition of surfactants that are derived from oligomers. Hence, in the current work, the BPs were dispersed in jet fuel by the ultrasound probe with various surfactants, namely Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), Triton X-100, Span 80, Oleic acid, and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), followed by an investigation of their stability. The experimental studies reported that the stability of the boron was longest, for 54 h, with 0.5 wt.% boron and 0.3 wt.% HTPB at a micron size of the boron particles (325 ± 25 nm). The uniform dispersion of the particles was achieved by the effect of the ultrasound probe. From the thermal analysis, a total weight loss of 25% was observed within a short range of temperatures, i.e., 50 to 200 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Surfactants with Low Environmental Impact)
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19 pages, 8653 KiB  
Article
Rheology of Pickering Emulsions Stabilized and Thickened by Cellulose Nanocrystals over Broad Ranges of Oil and Nanocrystal Concentrations
by Saumay Kinra and Rajinder Pal
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020036 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
The rheology of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, stabilized and thickened by cellulose nanocrystals, also referred to as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), was investigated over broad ranges of NCC and oil concentrations. The NCC concentration was varied from 1.03 to 7.41 wt% based on the aqueous [...] Read more.
The rheology of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, stabilized and thickened by cellulose nanocrystals, also referred to as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), was investigated over broad ranges of NCC and oil concentrations. The NCC concentration was varied from 1.03 to 7.41 wt% based on the aqueous phase. The oil concentration of the emulsion was varied from approximately 10 to 70 wt%. The emulsions produced were highly stable with respect to creaming and coalescence. The emulsions were non-Newtonian in that they exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior. The rheological data were described adequately by a power-law model. The consistency index (K) and the flow behavior index (n) of the emulsions were strongly dependent on the NCC and oil concentrations. At a fixed oil concentration, the consistency index increased whereas the flow behavior index decreased with the increase in NCC concentration. A similar behavior was observed when the NCC concentration was fixed and the oil concentration was increased; that is, the consistency index increased whereas the flow behavior index decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rheology of Complex Fluids and Interfaces)
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15 pages, 2490 KiB  
Article
Matrices of Native and Oxidized Pectin and Ferrous Bisglycinate and Their In Vitro Behavior through Gastrointestinal Conditions
by Martin Jimenez, Daniela Viteri, Daniela Oña, Marco Leon, Valeria Ochoa-Herrera, Natalia Carpintero, Francesc Sepulcre and Jose F. Alvarez-Barreto
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020035 - 23 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Colloidal matrices of native and oxidized pectin were developed to improve iron bioavailability through the digestive tract. Ferrous bisglycinate (Gly-Fe), obtained by precipitation of glycine chelation to Fe2+, was mixed with native and peroxide-oxidized citrus pectin, and subsequently lyophilized. Controls included [...] Read more.
Colloidal matrices of native and oxidized pectin were developed to improve iron bioavailability through the digestive tract. Ferrous bisglycinate (Gly-Fe), obtained by precipitation of glycine chelation to Fe2+, was mixed with native and peroxide-oxidized citrus pectin, and subsequently lyophilized. Controls included matrices with iron and glycine without chelation. The resulting samples were characterized through FTIR, SEM, and TGA/DSC before and after in vitro digestion, which was performed in simulated salivary, gastric, and intestinal fluids. During these digestions, swelling capacity and iron release were assessed. All matrix formulations were porous, and while pectin oxidation did not alter architecture, it changed their properties, increasing thermal stability, likely due to greater number of interaction possibilities through carbonyl groups generated during oxidation. This also resulted in lower swelling capacity, with greater stability observed when using the chelated complex. Higher swelling was found in gastric and intestinal fluids. Pectin oxidation also increased retention of the chelated form, contrary to what was observed with unchelated iron. Thus, there is an important effect of pectin oxidation combined with iron in the form of ferrous biglyscinate on matrix stability and iron release through the digestive tract. These matrices could potentially improve iron bioavailability, diminishing organoleptic changes in fortified iron foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Colloids II)
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16 pages, 26177 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Structural Stability of Oil-Shell Microbubbles via Incorporation of a Gold Nanoparticle Protective Shell for Theranostic Applications
by Marzieh Ataei, Hsiu-Ping Yi, Aida Zahra Taravatfard, Ken Young Lin and Abraham Phillip Lee
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020034 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Phospholipid-stabilized microbubbles are utilized as contrast agents in medical ultrasound imaging, and researchers are currently investigating their potential as theranostic agents. Due to the inadequate water solubility and poor stability of numerous new therapeutics, the development of stable microbubbles with the capacity to [...] Read more.
Phospholipid-stabilized microbubbles are utilized as contrast agents in medical ultrasound imaging, and researchers are currently investigating their potential as theranostic agents. Due to the inadequate water solubility and poor stability of numerous new therapeutics, the development of stable microbubbles with the capacity to encapsulate hydrophobic therapeutics is necessary. Herein, we proposed a flow-focusing microfluidic device to generate highly monodispersed, phospholipid-stabilized dual-layer microbubbles for theranostic applications. The stability and microstructural evolution of these microbubbles were investigated by microscopy and machine-learning-assisted segmentation techniques at different phospholipid and gold nanoparticle concentrations. The double-emulsion microbubbles, formed with the combination of phospholipids and gold nanoparticles, developed a protective gold nanoparticle shell that not only acted as a steric barrier against gas diffusion and microbubble coalescence but also alleviated the progressive dewetting instability and the subsequent cascade of coalescence events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocolloids and Biointerfaces)
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13 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
How Dimensionality Affects the Structural Anomaly in a Core-Softened Colloid
by Leandro B. Krott and José Rafael Bordin
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020033 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The interaction between hard core–soft shell colloids are characterized by having two characteristic distances: one associated with the penetrable, soft corona and another one corresponding to the impenetrable core. Isotropic core-softened potentials with two characteristic length scales have long been applied to understand [...] Read more.
The interaction between hard core–soft shell colloids are characterized by having two characteristic distances: one associated with the penetrable, soft corona and another one corresponding to the impenetrable core. Isotropic core-softened potentials with two characteristic length scales have long been applied to understand the properties of such colloids. Those potentials usually show water-like anomalies, and recent findings have indicated the existence of multiple anomalous regions in the 2D limit under compression, while in 3D, only one anomalous region is observed. In this direction, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to unveil the details about the structural behavior in the quasi-2D limit of a core-softened colloid. The fluid was confined between highly repulsive solvophobic walls, and the behavior at distinct wall separations and colloid densities was analyzed. Our results indicated a straight relation between the 2D- or 3D-like behavior and layer separation. We can relate that if the system behaves as independent 2D-layers, it will have a 2D-like behavior. However, for some separations, the layers are connected, with colloids hopping from one layer to another, thus having a 3D-like structural behavior. These findings fill the gap in the depiction of the anomalous behavior from 2D to 3D. Full article
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10 pages, 1515 KiB  
Article
First Observation of Protomicelles in the System with a Non-Colloidal Surfactant
by Anatoly I. Rusanov, Tamara G. Movchan and Elena V. Plotnikova
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020032 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
A spectrophotometric study of the system heptanol—Nile red (NR)—water was carried out, where, for the first time for such studies, a non-colloidal surfactant that does not form micelles was taken as a surfactant. The dependence of the solubility of NR on the concentration [...] Read more.
A spectrophotometric study of the system heptanol—Nile red (NR)—water was carried out, where, for the first time for such studies, a non-colloidal surfactant that does not form micelles was taken as a surfactant. The dependence of the solubility of NR on the concentration of heptanol in an aqueous solution was studied. The experiments were carried out at a given chemical potential of NR, which was provided by an excess of the solid phase of NR. The existence of a solubilization effect has been theoretically and experimentally established: An increase in the solubility of NR with an increase in the concentration of heptanol in solution. It was found that heptanol protomicelles with a solubilization core as an NR molecule are formed in such a system, so that in the absence of micelles, the protomicelles take on the entire solubilization load. From the experimental data, the concentration of protomicelle formation was calculated, which can also be taken as the concentration of NR monomerization in an aqueous solution, since the formation of protomicelles prevents the dye aggregation. Based on the results obtained, the following generalizations were made: (1) non-colloidal surfactants, although they do not give micelles, are capable of forming protomicelles; and (2) non-colloidal surfactants can serve as a practical means of dye monomerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Themed Issue in Honor of Prof. Boris Noskov)
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13 pages, 3401 KiB  
Article
Adsorption and Desorption of Bile Salts at Air–Water and Oil–Water Interfaces
by Teresa del Castillo-Santaella and Julia Maldonado-Valderrama
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020031 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Bile Salts (BS) adsorb onto emulsified oil droplets to promote lipolysis and then desorb, solubilizing lipolytic products, a process which plays a crucial role in lipid digestion. Hence, investigating the mechanism of adsorption and desorption of BS onto the oil–water interface is of [...] Read more.
Bile Salts (BS) adsorb onto emulsified oil droplets to promote lipolysis and then desorb, solubilizing lipolytic products, a process which plays a crucial role in lipid digestion. Hence, investigating the mechanism of adsorption and desorption of BS onto the oil–water interface is of major importance to understand and control BS functionality. This can have implications in the rational design of products with tailored digestibility. This study shows the adsorption and desorption curves of BS at air–water and oil–water interfaces obtained by pendant drop tensiometry. Three BS have been chosen with different conjugation and hydroxyl groups: Sodium Taurocholate (NaTC), Glycodeoxycholate (NaGDC) and Sodium Glycochenodeoxycholate (NaGCDC). Experimental results show important differences between the type of BS and the nature of the interface (air/oil–water). At the air–water interface, Glycine conjugates (NaGDC and NaGCDC) are more surface active than Taurine (NaTC), and they also display lower surface tension of saturated films. The position of hydroxyl groups in Glycine conjugates, possibly favors a more vertical orientation of BS at the surface and an improved lateral packing. These differences diminish at the oil–water interface owing to hydrophobic interactions of BS with the oil, preventing intermolecular associations. Desorption studies reveal the presence of irreversibly adsorbed layers at the oil–water interface in all cases, while at the air–water interface, the reversibility of adsorption depends strongly on the type of BS. Finally, dilatational rheology shows that the dilatational response of BS is again influenced by hydrophobic interactions of BS with the oil; thus, adsorbed films of different BS at the oil–water interface are very similar, while larger differences arise between BS adsorbed at the air–water interface. Results presented here highlight new features of the characteristics of adsorption layers of BS on the oil–water interface, which are more relevant to lipid digestion than characteristics of BS adsorbed at air–water interfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Colloids II)
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18 pages, 2532 KiB  
Article
Pea and Soy Protein Stabilized Emulsions: Formulation, Structure, and Stability Studies
by Eleni Galani, Isabelle Ly, Eric Laurichesse, Veronique Schmitt, Aristotelis Xenakis and Maria D. Chatzidaki
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020030 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
During the last decades, there has been a huge consumer concern about animal proteins that has led to their replacement with plant proteins. Most of those proteins exhibit emulsifying properties; thus, the food industry begins their extensive use in various food matrices. In [...] Read more.
During the last decades, there has been a huge consumer concern about animal proteins that has led to their replacement with plant proteins. Most of those proteins exhibit emulsifying properties; thus, the food industry begins their extensive use in various food matrices. In the present study, pea and soy protein isolates (PPI and SPI) were tested as potential candidates for stabilizing food emulsions to encapsulate α-tocopherol and squalene. More specifically, PPI and SPI particles were formulated using the pH modification method. Following, emulsions were prepared using high-shear homogenization and were observed at both a microscopic and macroscopic level. Furthermore, the adsorption of the proteins was measured using the bicinchoninic acid protein assay. The emulsions’ droplet size as well as their antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. It was found that the droplet diameter of the SPI-based emulsions was 60.0 μm, while the PPI ones had a relatively smaller diameter of approximately 57.9 μm. In the presence of the bioactives, both emulsions showed scavenging activity of the 2,20-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical cation (ABTS·+) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, with the ones loaded with α-tocopherol having the greatest antioxidant capacity. Overall, the proposed systems are very good candidates in different food matrices, with applications ranging from vegan milks and soups to meat alternative products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Colloids II)
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11 pages, 4153 KiB  
Article
Ballpoint/Rollerball Pens: Writing Performance and Evaluation
by Jongju Lee, Sohail Murad and Alex Nikolov
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020029 - 4 Apr 2023
Viewed by 5325
Abstract
Here, a brief history of the development of the ballpoint/rollerball pen and the fountain pen is presented. Their principle of operation is analogous that of multipart microfluidics-type devices, where capillarity–gravity drives the ink, a complex fluid, to flow in the confinement of a [...] Read more.
Here, a brief history of the development of the ballpoint/rollerball pen and the fountain pen is presented. Their principle of operation is analogous that of multipart microfluidics-type devices, where capillarity–gravity drives the ink, a complex fluid, to flow in the confinement of a micrometer-sized canal or to lubricate a ball rotating in a socket. The differences in the operational writing principles of the fountain pen versus the ballpoint/rollerball pen are discussed. The ballpoint/rollerball pen’s manner of writing was monitored using lens end fiber optics and was digitally recorded. The ball rotation rate per unit length was monitored using a piezoelectric disk oscilloscope technique. The role of ink (a complex fluid) chemistry in the wetting phenomenon is elucidated. We also discuss methods for studying and evaluating ink–film–ball–paper surface wetting. The goal of the proposed research is to optimize and improve the writing performance of the ballpoint/rollerball pen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Nanofluids)
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15 pages, 4099 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Micelle Formation by the Single Amino Acid-Based Surfactants Undecanoic L-Isoleucine and Undecanoic L-Norleucine in the Presence of Diamine Counterions with Varying Chain Lengths
by Amber Maynard-Benson, Mariya Alekisch, Alyssa Wall, Eugene J. Billiot, Fereshteh H. Billiot and Kevin F. Morris
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020028 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
The binding of linear diamine counterions with different methylene chain lengths to the amino-acid-based surfactants undecanoic L-isoleucine (und-IL) and undecanoic L-norleucine (und-NL) was investigated with NMR spectroscopy. The counterions studied were 1,2-ethylenediamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,4-diaminobutane, 1,5-diaminopentane, and 1,6-diaminohexane. These counterions were all linear diamines [...] Read more.
The binding of linear diamine counterions with different methylene chain lengths to the amino-acid-based surfactants undecanoic L-isoleucine (und-IL) and undecanoic L-norleucine (und-NL) was investigated with NMR spectroscopy. The counterions studied were 1,2-ethylenediamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,4-diaminobutane, 1,5-diaminopentane, and 1,6-diaminohexane. These counterions were all linear diamines with varying spacer chain lengths between the two amine functional groups. The sodium counterion was studied as well. Results showed that when the length of the counterion methylene chain was increased, the surfactants’ critical micelle concentrations (CMC) decreased. This decrease was attributed to diamines with longer methylene chains binding to multiple surfactant monomers below the CMC and thus acting as templating agents for the formation of micelles. The entropic hydrophobic effect and differences in diamine counterion charge also contributed to the size of the micelles and the surfactants’ CMCs in the solution. NMR diffusion measurements showed that the micelles formed by both surfactants were largest when 1,4-diaminobutane counterions were present in the solution. This amine also had the largest mole fraction of micelle-bound counterions. Finally, the und-NL micelles were larger than the und-IL micelles when 1,4-diaminobutane counterions were bound to the micelle surface. A model was proposed in which this surfactant formed non-spherical aggregates with both the surfactant molecules’ hydrocarbon chains and n-butyl amino acid side chains pointing toward the micelle core. The und-IL micelles, in contrast, were smaller and likely spherically shaped. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Surfactants with Low Environmental Impact)
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19 pages, 4325 KiB  
Review
Food-Grade Oil-in-Water (O/W) Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Agri-Food Byproduct Particles
by César Burgos-Díaz, Karla A. Garrido-Miranda, Daniel A. Palacio, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Mauricio Opazo-Navarrete and Mariela Bustamante
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020027 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4217
Abstract
In recent years, emulsions stabilized by solid particles (known as Pickering emulsions) have gained considerable attention due to their excellent stability and for being environmentally friendly compared to the emulsions stabilized by synthetic surfactants. In this context, edible Pickering stabilizers from agri-food byproducts [...] Read more.
In recent years, emulsions stabilized by solid particles (known as Pickering emulsions) have gained considerable attention due to their excellent stability and for being environmentally friendly compared to the emulsions stabilized by synthetic surfactants. In this context, edible Pickering stabilizers from agri-food byproducts have attracted much interest because of their noteworthy benefits, such as easy preparation, excellent biocompatibility, and unique interfacial properties. Consequently, different food-grade particles have been reported in recent publications with distinct raw materials and preparation methods. Moreover, emulsions stabilized by solid particles can be applied in a wide range of industrial fields, such as food, biomedicine, cosmetics, and fine chemical synthesis. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of Pickering emulsions stabilized by a diverse range of edible solid particles, specifically agri-food byproducts, including legumes, oil seeds, and fruit byproducts. Moreover, this review summarizes some aspects related to the factors that influence the stabilization and physicochemical properties of Pickering emulsions. In addition, the current research trends in applications of edible Pickering emulsions are documented. Consequently, this review will detail the latest progress and new trends in the field of edible Pickering emulsions for readers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Emulsions and Applications)
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18 pages, 2916 KiB  
Article
Impact of Hydrophobic and Electrostatic Forces on the Adsorption of Acacia Gum on Oxide Surfaces Revealed by QCM-D
by Athénaïs Davantès, Michaël Nigen, Christian Sanchez and Denis Renard
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020026 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
The adsorption of Acacia gum from two plant exudates, A. senegal and A. seyal, at the solid-liquid interface on oxide surfaces was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The impact of the hydrophobic and electrostatic forces on the adsorption capacity [...] Read more.
The adsorption of Acacia gum from two plant exudates, A. senegal and A. seyal, at the solid-liquid interface on oxide surfaces was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The impact of the hydrophobic and electrostatic forces on the adsorption capacity was investigated by different surface, hydrophobicity, and charge properties, and by varying the ionic strength or the pH. The results highlight that hydrophobic forces have higher impacts than electrostatic forces on the Acacia gum adsorption on the oxide surface. The Acacia gum adsorption capacity is higher on hydrophobic surfaces compared to hydrophilic ones and presents a higher stability with negatively charged surfaces. The structural configuration and charge of Acacia gum in the first part of the adsorption process are important parameters. Acacia gum displays an extraordinary ability to adapt to surface properties through rearrangements, conformational changes, and/or dehydration processes in order to reach the steadiest state on the solid surface. Rheological analysis from QCM-D data shows that the A. senegal layers present a viscous behavior on the hydrophilic surface and a viscoelastic behavior on more hydrophobic ones. On the contrary, A. seyal layers show elastic behavior on all surfaces according to the Voigt model or a viscous behavior on the hydrophobic surface when considering the power-law model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Themed Issue in Honor of Prof. Boris Noskov)
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21 pages, 1572 KiB  
Review
Release of Encapsulated Bioactive Compounds from Active Packaging/Coating Materials and Its Modeling: A Systematic Review
by Shahida Anusha Siddiqui, Shubhra Singh, Nur Alim Bahmid, Taha Mehany, Douglas J. H. Shyu, Elham Assadpour, Narjes Malekjani, Roberto Castro-Muñoz and Seid Mahdi Jafari
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7020025 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
The issue of achieving controlled or targeted release of bioactive compounds with specific functional properties is a complex task that requires addressing several factors, including the type of bioactive, the nature of the delivery system, and the environmental conditions during transportation and storage. [...] Read more.
The issue of achieving controlled or targeted release of bioactive compounds with specific functional properties is a complex task that requires addressing several factors, including the type of bioactive, the nature of the delivery system, and the environmental conditions during transportation and storage. This paper deals with extensive reporting for the identification of original articles using Scopus and Google Scholar based on active packaging as a novel packaging technology that controls the release of antimicrobial agents encapsulated into carriers in the food packaging systems. For evidence-based search, the studies were extracted from 2015 to 2020 and screened using the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Following the review and screening of publications, 32 peer-reviewed articles were subjected to systematic analysis. The preliminary search indicated that the encapsulation of bioactives enhances their bioavailability and stability. From a theoretical viewpoint, mathematical models play an important role in understanding and predicting the release behavior of bioactives during transportation and storage, thus facilitating the development of new packaging material by a systematic approach. However, only a few studies could formulate parameters for mathematical models in order to achieve the specific release mechanism regulated for the quality and safety of foods. Therefore, this paper will cover all encapsulation approaches, active packaging, and mathematical modeling in the food industry into structural form and analyze the challenges faced by the complex nature of active packaging in real food systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Colloids II)
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